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Vol.  I,  Part  2.— PHILLIP. 


^u   Jlutlioritg. 




A  -1 

I  DO 
V.I   . 


"a'      3  ■  5.7 


The  "Historical  Eecords"  of  New  South  Wales  are  published 
with  the  object  of  affording  the  fullest  information  obtainable 
concerning  the  foundation^  progress,  and  government  of  the 
mother  colony  of  Australia.  It  was  with  a  similar  purpose  that 
the  publication  was  commenced,  more  than  two  years  ago,  of  the 
"  History  of  New  South  Wales,  from  the  Records."  All  the 
material  that  the  Government  could  command  was  placed  at 
tte  disposal  of  the  writer,  and  in  the  volume  issued  from  the 
Government  Printing  Office  in  June,  1889,  this  reservoir  of 
information  was  largely  drawn  upon.  But  when  Vol.  II  of  the 
History  was  in  preparation  it  was  considered  desirable  to  make 
a  change  in  the  plan.  It  was  determined  that  while  the  publica- 
tion of  the  History  should  go  on,  the  records  themselves,  with  the 
exception  of  those  that  are  trivial  or  formal,  should  be  printed 
in  full,  in  separate  volumes,  so  that  the  public  might  have,  on  the 
one  hand,  a  historical  work  founded  on  official  documents,  and  on 
the  other,  the  material  upon  which  the  narrative  is  based. 

The  adoption  of  this  course  serves  a  double  purpose.  In  the 
first  place,  it  enhances  the  value  of  the  History,  for  it  euablei-^ 
the  reader  to  turn  at  any  point  from  the  narrative  of  the  writer 
to  the  fuller  information  which  the  reports  and  despatches  supply. 
The  advantage  gained  by  this  treatment  of  the  official  papers  is 
obvious.  No  matter  how  faithfully  a  writer  of  history  may 
perform  his  task,  he  cannot  cover  all   the  ground ;  no  matter 


liow  acutely  lie  may  criticise  tlie  actors  wlio  take  part  in  tlie 
scenes  lie  describes,  lie  cannot  exliibit  tliem  in  so  clear  a  light 
as  they  are  shown  in  their  own  writings.  Thus  the  publication 
of  the  Records  may  be  regarded  as  desirable  from  the  historical 
point  of  view. 

In  the  second  place,  the  printing  of  the  Records  gives  immediate 
and  lasting  public  value  to  State  papers  which  would  otherwise 
be  of  service  to  the  few — only  those,  in  fact,  who  have  leisure 
to  search  the  bulky  manuscripts  which  have  been  collected  by  the 
Government.  In  the  absence  of  printed  records,  the  inquirer 
who  endeavours  to  learn  in  what  manner  New  South  Wales  was 
founded — how  the  settlement  was  governed  in  the  early  days — by 
what  steps  it  grew — ^how  difficulties  were  encountered  and  over- 
'Come — what  mistakes  were  made,  and  how  they  were  corrected — 
by  whom  injustice  was  perpetrated,  and  in  what  way  retribution 
fell  upon  the  oppressor — can  command  no  better  sources  of 
information  than  tradition,  and  the  accounts  of  writers  who  had 
to  make  history  from  insufficient  material.  He  is  in  the  position 
that  a  jury  would  occupy  if  it  were  required  to  give  a  verdict  upon 
hearsay  evidence.  The  publication  of  the  Records  will  change 
all  that.  With  the  printed  Records  in  the  public  libraries  and 
on  the  book-shelves  of  all  who  care  to  purchase  them,  the  student 
■of  history  will  have  the  best  possible  material  at  his  disposal. 
He  will  be  able  to  read  for  himself^  and  draw  his  own  conclusions 
from  direct  testimony. 

It  is  not  entirely  a  new  departure  that  has  been  taken.  The 
importance  of  preserving  and  reproducing  national  records  is 
recognised  in  most  civilised  countries,  and  especially  so  in  Great 
Britain.  In  earlier  times,  when  Ministers  of  the  Crown  treated 
official  despatches  as  their  private  property,  and  on  quitting  office 
tarried  to  their  own  houses  manuscripts  which  belonged  to  the 
nation,  little  care  was  taken  of  the  records,  and  such  a  thing  as 
giving  information  to  the  public  concerning  them  does  not  appear 
to  have  had  any  place  in  the  minds  of  those  in  authority.  This 
indifference  no  longer  exists.  All  public  documents  are  carefully 
preserved  ;  inventories  of  them  are  taken,  and  they  are  accurately 
described  in  printed  calendars.     With  a  few  exceptions,  the  State 

PREFACE.  vii 

papers  are  gathered  together  iu  one  place,  the  Public  Record 
Office,  London,  and  are  kept  in  the  custody  of  the  Master  of  the 
Rolls,  Avho  by  the  Public  Records  Act  (1  and  2  Vict.,  c.  94)  is 
constituted  Keeper  of  the  Archives.*  These  stores  of  information 
are  not  simply  hoarded  up — they  are  treated  in  such  a  way  as  to 
be  of  use  to  the  people,  and  to  bring  within  easy  reach  of  the 
historian  the  documentary  evidence  that  he  requires.  Large 
volumes,  entitled  "  Calendars  of  State  Papers,"  consisting  of 
condensations  of  the  documents  in  the  Public  Record  Office 
and  elsewhere  from  the  days  of  Henry  VIII  to  the  Eighteenth 
Century,  are  in  course  of  publication,  while  some  of  the  earlier 
records  are  printed  in  full. 

Under  the  direction  of  the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  by  the 
authoi'ity  of  Her  Majesty's  Treasury,  the  publication  was  com- 
menced thirty-four  years  ago  of  "^  The  Chronicles  and  Memorials  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  during  the  Middle  Ages."  The  first 
volume  (published December,  1857)  contained  an  official  statement, 
which  has  been  repeated  in  subsequent  volumes,  to  the  effect  that 
on  the  26th  January  of  that  year  the  Master  of  the  Rolls  submitted 
to  the  Treasury  a  proposal  for  the  publication  of  materials  for  the 
history  of  Great  Britain,  from  the  invasion  of  the  Romans  to  the 
reign  of  Henry  VIII.  The  Lords  of  the  Treasury  adopted  the- 
suggestion,  and  the  work,  conducted  by  a  staff  of  editors,  has 
gone  on  without  interruption  to  the  present  time.  Up  to  1891 
over  200  volumes  had  been  published.  The  care  and  elaboration 
with  which  the  work  is  done  may  be  seen  from  the  copies  of  the 
books  in  the  Free  Public  Library,  Sydney. 

More  than  half  a  century  before  the  publication  of  the 
"  Chronicles  and  Memorials  "  was  commenced,  that  is  to  say  in 
the  year  1800,  a  Select  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  had 
recommended  that  the  public  records  should  be  printed.  This 
recommendation  is  referred  to  by  the  Honorable  Board  of  Com- 
missioners on  the  Public  Records  in  its  report  to  the  King-in- 
Council    of   7th  February,   1837.      The   Commissioners  express 

*  With  tlic  exception  of  certain  iiiunuscripts  in  tlie  Britit^h  MuseuiM  and  a  few 
public  libraries,  most  of  the  public  uiiininicnts  of  the  realm  are  now  placed  in  one 
repository,  and  under  the  supervision  of  the  Master  of  the  Kolls. — Kncyclopcedia 
Britaimiea,  ninth  edition,  vol.  xx,  p.  313. 

viii  PREFACE. 

their  approval  of  fhe  proposition  in  tlie  following  words  : — "  In 
this  opinion  [the  opinion  of  the  Select  Committee  that  the  Eecords 
should  be  printed]  we  have  entirely  coincided.  We  regard  the 
press  as  at  once  the  only  perfectly  secure  preservative  of  the 
information  which  the  National  Archives  contain,  and  the  only 
means  by  which  that  information  can  be  diffused  beyond  a  very 
narrow  circle  of  inquirers."  The  publication  of  the  "  Chronicles 
and  Memorials  "  is  the  outcome  of  these  recommendations. 

In  Canada  the  Records  are  scrupulously  kept,  and  their  contents 
disclosed  for  the  information  of  the  public.  In  1872  the  Dominion 
Government  appointed  an  Archivist,  and  founded  an  Archives 
Office  at  Ottawa,  where  all  the  public  records,  with  the  exception 
of  those  retained  by  the  provincial  authorities,  are  stored.  The 
papers  consist  partly  of  original  documents,  and  partly  of  copies 
of  old  despatches  and  other  manuscripts  transcribed  by  a  staff  of 
writers  from  originals  discovered  by  the  Archivist  in  the  London 
Record  Office  and  Departments  of  State,  and  in  the  archives  of 
Paris  and  other  European  cities.  From  time  to  time  reports  are 
issued  in  which  the  Records  are  described,  and  when  considered 
necessary,  printed  in  full.  In  this  manner  the  public  is  placed 
in  possession  of  information  of  the  highest  interest  and  import- 
ance relating  to  the  early  history  of  Canada  which  had  never 
before  seen  the  light. 

In  New  South  Wales,  owing  to  the  shorter  period  of  time, 
and  the  smaller  quantity  of  material  to  be  dealt  with,  it  is  possible 
to  do  what  would  be  impracticable  under  other  circumstances, 
that  is  to  say,  to  publish  in  full  the  Records  of  the  Colony  from 
its  foundation.  It  has  also  been  decided  to  publish  all  available 
correspondence  concerning  Captain  Cook  and  his  connection 
with  Australian  discovery.  The  Cook  Papers  form  Part  I  of 
Vol.  I.  Part  II  of  Vol.  I  contains  the  records  relating  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Colony  and  its  progress  under  Governor  Phillip. 

When  the  settlement  at  Port  Jackson  was  established  the  chief 
authority  was  vested  in  the  Governor,  who  not  only  governed  the 
Colony,  but  administered  its  affairs.  The  Civil  business  was 
conducted  nominally  by  a  staff,  but  much  of  the  work  fell  upon  the 
Governor,  who  was  troubled  with  matters  of  a  kind  which  would 


be  settled  in  the  present  day  by  an  ordinary  clerk.  He  was  also 
at  tlie  head  of  the  naval  and  military  forces,  and  was  the  principal, 
it  may  almost  be  said  the  only,  channel  of  communication  between 
the  Colonial  Government  and  the  English  authorities.  The 
reasons  which  led  the  English  Government  to  plant  a  convict 
settlement  in  New  South  Wales  are  only  briefly  indicated  in  the 
scanty  papers  discovered  in  the  State  Departments ;  but  when 
the  Colony  had  been  established  its  affairs  formed  the  subject 
of  periodical  letters  from  the  Governors,  who  wrote  fully  about 
the  concerns  of  the  settlement,  receiving  in  reply  despatches 
for  their  guidance  and  instruction.  Most  of  this  correspond- 
ence has  been  preserved  in  the  English  Departments  of  State 
either  in  the  original  or  in  official  copies.  Its  value  is  inestimable. 
The  despatches  are  full  of  information.  The  Governors  were 
required  by  their  instructions  to  keep  the  Home  authorities  well 
informed  about  matters  great  and  small,  and  in  the  despatches 
sent  to  London  almost  every  transaction  that  took  place  is  minutely 
described.  More  than  this,  copies  of  all  the  proclamations  and 
orders  issued  by  the  Governor  and  the  military  commander  were 
forwarded  for  the  information  of  the  English  authorities.  These 
<locuments  are  recorded  with  the  other  State  papers. 

The  early  history  of  New  South  Wales  is  founded  mainly 
upon  the  despatches  sent  by  the  Governors  to  the  authorities 
in  England,  and  the  despatches  received  by  them  in  reply.  The 
Records  are  comprised  within  measurable  bounds,  and  as  they 
fire  the  chief  material  out  of  which  history  must  be  made,  it  has 
been  decided  to  print  them  as  they  stand. 

This  course  has  been  adopted  on  the  recommendation  of  a 
Board,  consisting  of  the  late  Hon.  Geoffrey  Eagar,  Under  Sec- 
retary for  Finance  and  Trade  from  1872  to  1891 ;  Alexander 
Oliver, M. A,,  Barrister-at-Law ;  Professor  G.  Arnold  Wood,  B.A., 
Cballis  Professor  of  History  at  the  Sydney  University ;  and  R. 
■C.  Walker,  Principal  Librarian,  Public  Library.  U'ho  Board 
having  ascertained  the  nature  of  the  documents  at  the  disposal 
of  the  Government,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  design  with 
which  the  publication  of  the  Official  History  was  commenced 
could  not  be  fully  carried  out  unless  the  State  papei's  and  other 


oflEicial  documents  upou  wliicli  the  work  was  based  were  made 
as  accessible  to  the  public  as  the  History  itself.  They  decided, 
therefore,,  that  the  printing  of  the  Records  was  not  only  desirable 
but  necessary,  and  in  the  month  of  March,  1891,  a  recom- 
mendation to  that  effect  was  made  to  the  then  Colonial  Treasurer, 
the  Hon.  William  McMillan.  The  proposal  received  the  cordial 
approval  of  the  Minister,  who  gave  the  necessary  authority  to 
carry  out  th.Q  work  on  the  lines  recommended  by  the  Board. 
Arrangements  were  made  accordingly  for  printing  and  publish- 
ing the  despatches,  reports,  letters,  and  other  papers  which  had 
been  collected. 

While  the  best  use  has  been  made  of  the  material  at  command, 
the  Records  of  the  early  days  of  the  Colony  cannot  be  presented 
in  an  absolutely  complete  form.  Every  paper  of  consequence  that 
has  been  discovered,  or  may  be  discovered  hereafter,  will  be 
published ;  but  unfortunately  manuscripts  of  great  interest  and 
importance,  which  are  known  to  have  existed,  cannot  now  be 
found.  The  most  valuable  of  the  early  Records  are  the  despatches 
sent  to  England  by  the  Governors,  and  the  despatches  received 
by  the  Governors  from  the  authorities  in  London.  At  Govern- 
ment House,  Sydney,  there  are  a  number  of  letter-books  contain- 
ing copies  of  the  despatches  sent  to  England,  and  the  original 
despatches  received  from  the  Home  authorities;  but  these  Records, 
instead  of  going  back  to  1788,  the  year  in  which  New  South  Wales 
was  founded,  begin  with  1800.  Of  the  despatches  received  and 
sent  before  that  date,  during  the  Governorships  of  Phillip  and 
Hunter,  and  the  Lieutenant- Governorships  of  Grose  and  Paterson, 
there  is  no  trace.  What  has  become  of  them  it  is  impossible  to 
say.  A  hundred  years  ago  State  papers  were  not  so  carefully 
guarded  as  they  are  now ;  the  English  system  was  loose,  and  it 
would  have  been  surprising  if  greater  care  had  been  taken  in 
Sydney  than  in  London.  Some  of  the  early  Australian  Governors 
may  have  taken  their  papers  with  them  when  they  left  office.  On 
that  supposition  the  disappearance  of  the  despatches  from  1788 
to  1800  is  readily  explained  ;  but  even  then  the  whole  case  is  not 
met,  for  public  Records  of  which  the  Governors  were  not  the 
custodians  are  also  missing. 


Tliere  are  ch'cumstances,  however,  wlaicli  discourage  tlie  view 
that  Governors'  despatches  in  the  early  days  were  treated  as 
the  property  of  those  to  whom  they  were  sent.  It  is  certain  that 
they  were  not  so  treated  by  Governor  King,  and  there  seems  to 
be  no  reason  why  Phillip  and  Hunter,  Grose  and  Paterson,  should 
have  followed  a  different  practice.  We  have  the  means  of  know- 
ing exactly  the  course  pursued  by  Hunter's  immediate  successor. 
The  Hon.  Philip  Gidley  King,  M.L.C.,  has  placed  at  the  disposal 
of  the  Government  the  books  and  papers  left  by  his  grandfather, 
Governor  King  ;  but,  while  these  manuscripts  include  copies  of 
most,  if  not  all,  of  the  despatches  received  by  King  from  the 
English  Ministers  and  Under  Secretaries  of  State,  no  originals 
are  to  be  found.  The  despatches  have  been  copied  into  letter- 
books,  some  by  King  himself,  some  by  his  secretary ;  but,  while 
many  unofl&cial  letters  to  King  are  among  the  papers,  the  originals 
of  the  Home  despatches  are  vv^anting.  The  inference  is  plain. 
If  King  had  at  any  time  regarded  the  English  despatches  as  his 
own  property,  he  would  not  have  gone  to  the  trouble  of  copying 
them,  and  the  originals  would  have  been  found  among  his 
papers.  He  was  exceedingly  careful  about  his  correspondence, 
preserving  communications  of  all  kinds,  Avhether  trivial  or  im- 
portant, but  duplicating  nothing.  When  an  original  document  is 
met  with  there  is  no  copy.  And  the  manuscripts  at  Government 
House  show  that  when  King  relinquished  the  govei'nment  he  left 
the  originals  of  the  English  despatches  in  the  office.  If  in  doing 
so  he  acted  in  accordance  with  the  recognised  practice,  the  pre- 
sumption is  that  his  predecessors — Governors  Phillip  and  Hunter, 
and  Lieutenant-Governors  Grose  and  Paterson — treated  in  the 
same  way  the  despatches  received  by  them. 

AVhat  then  has  become  of  these  manuscripts  ?  Most  probably 
they  have  been  destroyed  ;  but  by  whom  or  with  what  object 
can  only  be  conjectured.  That  the  missing  despatches  met  with 
this  fate  is  the  more  likely  from  the  fact  previously  stated, 
that  public  records  of  corresponding  dates,  for  which  the  Gover- 
nors were  not  responsible,  have  also  disappeared.  A  strong- 
room in  the  Colonial  Secretary's  Office,  Sydney,  contains  all  the 
original  records  of  New  South  AVales  that  can  be  found.     These 

xii  PREFACE. 

papers  liave  been  examined  and  scliednled,  and  it  may  be  seen 
at  a  glance  of  wliat  tliey  consist.  Tliej  begin  witli  a  General 
Order,  dated  7tli  August,  1789,  "Instructions  to  tbe  Night 
Watcb..'^  Two  otber  orders  of  no  particular  importance  follow, 
and  these  are  all  out  of  the  many  hundreds  issued  during  Phillip's 
•Governorship  that  appear  to  have  been  preserved.  There  are  no 
official  papers  whatever  belonging  to  the  administration  of  Lieut.- 
Oovernor  Paterson — December,  1794,  to  September,  1795;  and 
only  one  of  the  time  in  which  Lieut  -Governor  Grose  ruled — • 
December,  1792^  to  December,  1794.  Hunter's  Governorshij:), 
^vhich  covered  more  than  five  years — 11th  September,  1795,  to 
27th  September,  1800 — is  represented  by  one  book  containing 
copies  of  the  orders  made  from  September,  1795,  to  December, 
1797,  and  five  or  six  papers  of  minor  importance.  Papers  belong- 
ing to  the  King  period,  1800  to  1806,  are  more  numerous ;  but  the 
Kecords  are  scanty  and  intermittent  until  the  term  of  Governor 
Macquarie  is  reached,  January,  1810.  There  are  no  des- 
patches to  or  from  the  Governors  during  any  period.  The  only 
manuscripts  of  this  class  in  Sydney  are  in  the  Secretary's  room 
at  Government  House. 

The  Becords,  so  far  as  Sydney  is  concerned,  are  thus  defective 
in  two  respects.  In  the  first  place,  the  despatches  from  the 
foundation  of  the  Colony  up  to  the  beginning  of  1800  are  want- 
ing; in  the  second  place,  the  orders,  proclamations,  and  other 
•official  papers  showing  how  authority  was  exercised  in  the  early 
■days  are  found  only  in  fragments — in  fact,  they  can  scarcely  be 
said  to  exist. 

But  for  the  active  search  made  in  London  by  Mr.  James 
Bonwick,  F.R.G.S.,  the  early  Recoi'ds  of  New  South  Wales 
"would  have  been  little  better  than  a  blank.  The  despatches  sent 
to  England  by  the  Governors,  as  well  as  the  despatches  and 
letters  transmitted  to  them,  have  been  preserved,  if  not  as  com- 
pletely as  could  have  been  wished,  yet  to  a  very  large  extent,  in 
the  Departments  of  State.  These  sources  of  information  have 
been  thrown  open  to  the  Government,  and  the  transcriptions  that 
tave  been  made  repair,  so  far  as  it  can  be  repaired,  the  misfortune 
the  Colony  has  sustained  in  the  loss  of  its  early  Records. 

PREFACE.  xiii 

Tlie  first  step  to  tap  these  valuable  sources  of  iuformation  was 
taken  in  April,  1887,  when  tlie  Colonial  Secretary,  Sir  Henry 
Parkes,  G.C.M.G.,  through  the  Agent-General,  authorized  Mr. 
Bonwick  to  make  copies  of  certain  despatches  which  he  had  dis- 
covered. In  the  following  year,  in  view  of  the  publication  of  the 
"  History  of  New  South  AVales  from  the  Eecords,"  authority  was 
given  for  the  transcription  of  documents  relating  to  the  period 
during  which  Governor  Phillip  was  at  the  head  of  affairs,  i.e., 
1788-1792.  The  information  obtained  in  this  way  proved  so 
interesting  and  valuable  that  Mr.  Bonwick  was  instructed  to  con- 
tinue his  researches,  and  the  work  has  since  gone  on  without 
interruption.  The  purpose  in  view  is  to  collect  from  every  avail- 
able source  all  the  authentic  iuformation  it  is  possible  to  obtain 
relating  to  the  foundation  of  the  Colony  and  its  government 
during  the  early  part  of  its  existence. 

An  awkward  gap  is  thus  filled  up.  The  information,  however, 
was  not  easily  obtained.  The  manuscripts  were  not  readily 
accessible ;  they  were  gathered  from  many  Departments.  The 
Governors  in  the  early  days  were  not  only  responsible  to  the  Home 
Office,  which  had  the  Colonies  in  its  charge,  but,  as  naval  officers, 
they  owed  allegiance  to  the  Admiralty.  They  had  to  correspond 
with  the  Home  Secretary  and  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty,  and  with  the  Under  Secretaries  of  those  departments. 
Each  department  and  sub-department  kept  two  letter-books,  one 
for  the  Minister  and  the  other  for  the  Under  Secretary,  so  that  it 
was  necessary  to  examine  four  different  sources  of  infoi'mation  for 
the  purpose  of  discovering  what  had  passed  between  the  Governors 
and  the  English  authorities. 

In  dealing  with  the  Eecords  belonging  to  a  still  eavlier  period — 
that  in  which  the  establishment  of  a  settlement  in  New  South 
Wales  was  discussed — the  ground  to  be  covered  was  wider  still, 
though  not  so  productive.  In  making  preparations  for  the  des- 
patch of  the  First  Fleet  many  departments  and  sub-departments 
were  engaged — the  Home  Office,  which  had  general  direction  of 
the  business;  the  Admiralty,  which  undertook  the  equipment  and 
officering  of  the  ships,  and  the  appointment  of  the  force  of  marines 
which  guarded  the  transports  and  formed  the  garrison  at  Port 

xiv  PREFACE. 

Jackson ;  tlie  Treasury,  whicli  made  tlie  financial  arrangements ; 
tlie  Transport  Office,  whicli  had  to  do  witli  the  convict-ships;  and 
the  Victualling  Department,  which  provisioned  the  ileet.  When 
the  marines  were  replaced  by  the  special  corps  raised  by  Major 
Grose,  known  afterwards  as  the  New  South  Wales  Corps,  another 
Department  of  State,  that  of  War,  was  brought  into  operation; 
and,  accordingly,  correspondence  between  that  department  and 
the  Home  Office,  and  between  the  officials  at  the  War  Office  and 
the  officers  of  the  corps,  takes  its  place  amongst  the  Records. 
Three  of  the  transpoi-ts  which  constituted,  with  the  warship 
Sirius  and  its  tender  the  Supply,  the  vessels  forming  the 
First  Fleet,  were  under  charter  to  the  East  India  Company  to 
take  cargoes  of  tea  from  China  to  London  after  landing  convicts 
and  stores  at  Port  Jackson  ;  and  at  a  subsequent  stage,  the 
Company,  ov/ing  to  the  obstacles  it  threw  in  the  way  of  Australian 
trade  with  the  East,  figured  largely  in  the  official  correspondence 
relating  to  New  South  Wales.  The  records  of  the  India  Office 
are  therefore  another  source  of  information. 

The  transcripts  which  have  been  despatched  to  Sydney  are 
thus  gathered  from  a  wide  field,  embracing  as  it  does  the  Public 
Record  Office,  the  British  Museum,  the  Home  Office,  the  Colonial 
Office,  the  War  Office,  the  Privy  Council  Office,  the  Admiralty, 
the  India  Office,  and  Somerset  House.  The  documents  had  to 
be  searched  for,  and  the  work  was  not  without  difficulty,  owing 
to  the  imperfect  and  unsystematic  way  in  which  official  records 
were  kept  in  the  early  days.  Some  documents,  the  earlier  Orders 
and  Proclamations,  for  example,  cannot  be  found  at  all ;  others, 
which  were  believed  to  be  missing,  such  as  the  commissions  of 
the  early  Governors,  have  been  discovered  in  the  Home  Office, 
after  a  patient  search,  in  which  valuable  assistance  was  given 
by  the  officers  of  the  Department.  A  number  of  the  despatches 
copied  by  the  transcribers  in  London  escaped  notice  in  the  first 
instance  because  they  had  been  placed  amongst  pajoers  relating 
to  the  American  colonies. 

While  the  principal  storehouse  of  facts  concerning  the  early 
days  of  the  Colony  is  the  Public  Record  Office  and  the  Depart- 
ments of  State  in  London,  information  has  been  obtained  from 


other  sources.  Six  years  ago  the  Ageut-Geiieral,  Sir  Saul 
Samuel,  acting  under  instructions  from  the  Government  at 
Sydney,  purchased  from  Lord  Brabourne  a  valuable  collection 
of  papers  relating  to  the  settlement  and  early  history  of  New 
South  Wales.  They  were  once  known  as  ''The  Brabourne 
Papers  ";  they  are  now  known  as  ''  The  Banks  Papers."  The 
grandfather  of  the  present  Lord  Brabourne  was  related  to  Sir 
Joseph  Banks,  and  in  that  way  the  papers  came  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Brabourne  family.  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  as  pointed 
out  in  Vol.  I  of  the  Official  History,  took  an  active  part  in  the 
consultations  and  negotiations  which  led  to  the  settlement  of 
New  South  Wales ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  his  represen- 
tations, founded  upon  what  he  saw  of  the  country  during  his  visit 
to  Botany  Bay  with  Captain  Cook  in  the  Endeavour,  did  a 
great  deal  towards  bringing  about  the  settlement  of  New  South 
AVales.  After  the  Colony  had  been  established  he  watched  its 
fortunes  with  a  parental  eye,  and  the  deep  interest  which  he 
took  in  its  welfare  is  shown  by  the  correspondence  that  has 
come,  through  Lord  Brabourne,  into  the  possession  of  the 
Government  of  New  South  Wales.  These  manuscripts  are 
apparently  only  a  part  of  the  papers  that  Sir  Joseph  kept 
with  regard  to  this  Colony.  The  "Banks  Papers'^  were  dis- 
covered by  accident  in  Sir  Joseph  Banks^  old  house  in  Soho 
Square,  but  these  manuscripts  are  only  a  portion  of  the  corre- 
spondence which  Sir  Joseph  had  with  English  Ministers,  and 
with  Australian  Governors,  settlers,  and  explorers.  Many  of  his 
manuscripts  relating  to  Australian  affairs  have  been  lost  or 
destroyed.  The  papers  begin  with  four  letters  from  Captain 
Cook  (originals),  and  go  up  to  1814,  six  years  before  Sir  Joseph's 
death.  The  absence  of  letters  from  or  to  Phillip,  with  whom  Sir 
Joseph  Banks  corresponded,  the  fact  that  there  are  no  manu- 
scripts of  later  date  than  1814,  and  other  considerations,  indicate 
that  the  collection,  precious  as  it  is,  is  only  the  remnant  of  a 
large  store  of  papers  relating  to  the  foundation  and  early  history 
of  New  South  Wales. 

The  manuscripts  of  Governor  King,   referred  to  at  page  xi, 
which  have  been  lent   to  the  Government  by  the  Hon.  Philip 

xvi  PEEFAGE. 

Gidley  King^  M.L.C.,  are  extensive  and  important.  They  con- 
sist of  a  Journal,  in  two  volumes,  kept  partly  on  board  tlie 
Sirius"^  on  the  voyage  from  England  to  Botany  Bay  with  the 
First  Fleet  of  Transports,  and  partly  at  Norfolk  Island,  where 
King  acted  as  Commandant  and  Superintendent  from  March, 
1788,  to  March,  1790,  under  a  Commission  issued  by  Phillip  as 
Governor  of  New  South  "Wales  and  its  Dependencies ;  a  letter- 
book,  containing  copies  of  despatches  received  and  sent  both 
during  King's  term  as  Commandant  and  during  his  subsequent 
command  as  Lieutenant-Governor,  under  commission  from  the 
Crown,  from  November,  1791,  to  October,  1796;  four  lettei'- 
books,  kept  during  his  term  as  Governor  of  New  South  Wales, 
from  September,  1800,  to  August,  1806  ;  and  original  letters  and 
despatches,  extending  from  1799  to  1811.  It  should  be  pointed 
out  with  regard  to  the  despatches  recorded  in  the  letter-books, 
that  King  during  his  first  term  at  Norfolk  Island  corresponded 
with  Governor  Phillip,  from  whom  he  derived  his  authority, 
while  during  his  Lieutenant-Governorship  at  Norfolk  Island  and 
his  Governorship  at  Sydney  he  was  in  direct  communication  with 
the  Home  Office  and  other  Departments  of  State  in  England. 
While  acting  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Norfolk  Island,  from 
November,  1791,  to  October,  1796,  King  wrote  a  Second  Journal, 
a  copy  of  which  is  amongst  the  transcripts  sent  from  England  to 
the  Government  in  Sydney. 

Discoveries  from  time  to  time  of  manuscripts  which  were 
believed  to  have  been  lost,  or  the  existence  of  which  was  unknown, 
may  interfere  to  some  extent  with  the  consecutive  printing  of  the 
Records ;  but  it  has  been  considered  better  to  begin  publishing 
at  once  than  wait  an  indefinite  time  to  make  sure  that  all 
possible  sources  of  information  have  been  exhausted.  The  plan 
of  the  work  contemplates  the  publication  of  the  Records  in 
chronological  order,  and  the  rule  will  not  be  departed  from 
except  in  cases  where  despatches  of  a  given  date  contain 
enclosures  of  earlier  dates.  Under  such  circumstances,  to  jDlace 
the  manuscripts  in  strict  chronological  order  would  cause  con- 

*  King  came  out  to  New  South  Wales  as  Second  Lieutenant  of  the  Sirius. 

PBEFACK  xvii 

fusion,  instead  of  helping  tlie  reader.  Tlie  plan  of  arranging- 
matter  according  to  subjects  lias  its  advantages,  but  it  is  con- 
sidered that  what  might  be  gained  in  this  way  would  be 
outweighed  by  the  disadvantages  of  a  system  under  which 
the  reader  would  be  obliged  to  look  through  half-a-dozen  volumes 
to  find  one  piece  of  information  relating  to  a  particular  day  in  a. 
particular  year.  It  is  believed  that  by  printing  the  Records  in 
chronological  order,  and  giving  with  each  volume  a  comprehensive 
Index,  the  Records  will  be  of  greater  value  for  purposes  of  refer- 
ence than  if  they  were  dealt  with  under  separate  heads. 

As  the  papers  given  in  these  volumes  form  the  basis  of  the 
Official  History  which  is  published  concurrently,  they  are  pre- 
sented without  comment,  and  without  any^  attempt  to  explain 
the  story  they  tell.  The  proper  place  for  description,  analysis_, 
a,nd  comment  is  the  History  itself.  The  Records  are  given  here 
as  they  were  found,  and  they  speak  for  themselves.  Where  it 
has  been  considei-ed  necessary  to  explain  the  relation  of  papers 
to  each  other,  or  to  give  information  concerning  persons  and 
places,  as  an  aid  to  the  reader  in  studying  the  Records,  the  Editor 
has  written  the  necessary  notes,  which  are  printed  at  the  foot  of 
the  page,  but  no  alteration  of  the  text  has  been  made  in  any  case. 
Errors  of  composition  and  spelling  are  allowed  to  go  without 
correction ;  in  a  word,  the  Records  as  printed  are  literal  tran- 
scripts of  the  originals.  This  is  the  plan  now  generally  adopted 
in  the  reproduction  of  manuscripts ;  indeed  no  other  course  could 
be  pursued  without  mutilating  the  originals,  and  depriving  them 
of  their  historic  value. 

It  will  be  noticed  in  examining  the  Records  from  1783  to  1789 
that  duplicates  are  given  of  some  of  the  documents  printed  in 
Yol.  I  of  the  Official  History.  It  was  impossible  to  avoid  this; 
repetition.  The  Records  stand  by  themselves,  and  they  must  be 
given  intact.  For  this  reason,  the  documents  published  in  Vol.  I 
of  the  History  have  been  reprinted;  in  future  issues,  however, 
repetitions  will  not  occur.  In  the  Historical  Records  will  be  found 
the  full  text  of  the  papers  ;  in  the  History  they  will  bo  digested 
and  explained.  The  writer  of  Vol.  I  made  such  use  of  the  manu- 
scripts as  the  space  at  his  disposal  allowed ;    the  broader  plan 

xviii  PREFACE. 

now  adopted  gives  tlie  simple  facts  in  one  set  of  volumes  and  the 
historical  narrative  in  another.  In  this  way  the  full  Records 
will  appear  in  print,  while  the  History  will  not  be  burdened  by 
long  extracts  and  quotations.  It  is  believed  that  by  the  adop- 
tion of  this  course  the  convenience  of  the  reader  will  be  consulted 
and  the  object  which  the  Government  has  in  view  carried  into 


Government  Printing  Office, 

Sydney,  February,  1892. 

VOL.  I,  PART  2. 



The  papers  wliicli  form  tlie  Second.  Part  of  tlie  First  Volume 
of  the  Historical  Eecords  begin  witli  August^  1783^  when  the 
establishment  of  a  convict  settlement  in  New  South  Wales 
became  for  the  first  time  a  matter  of  serious  consideration  with 
the  English  Government,  and  end  with  December,  1792,  when 
Phillip,  the  first  Governor  of  the  colony,  left  Sydney  on  his  return 
to  England."^  The  manuscripts  reproduced  here  represent  a 
period  of  nine  years  and  four  months.  During  the  first  three 
years  proposals  and  suggestions  were  under  consideration,  eight 
months  were  occupied  in  making  preparations  for  the  departure 
of  the  First  Fleet  of  transports,  and  the  voyage  took  up  eight 
months.  The  remainder  of  the  time,  rather  more  than  five  years, 
belongs  to  the  actual  history  of  the  Colony. 

The  papers  cover  a  great  deal  of  ground.  They  relate  to  the 
proposals  which  led  to  the  adoption  of  a  plan  under  which  New 

*  Pliillip  applied  for  a  year's  IcaTC  of  absence  in  April,  1790  (post,  pp.  329,  330). 
He  renewed  the  request  on  the  25th  Mareh,  1791,  on  the  ground  of  ill-health  (post, 
pp.  483,481).  On  the  21st  November,  1791,  ho  -n-rotc  to  Lord  Grenville,  requesting 
permission  to  resign  the  Government,  so  that  he  might  return  to  England,  "in  hopes 
of  finding  that  relief  which  this  eountrv  does  not  afford"  (post,  p.  559).  The  reply 
to  this  communication,  which  came  from  the  Right  Hon.  Henry  Dunda^,  who  had 
succeeded  Lord  Grenvillc  at  the  Home  Office,  did  not  arrive  until  the  7th  October, 
1792,  but  as  permission  to  retire  was  not  expressly  granted,  Phillip  waited  for  more 
definite  instructions,  which,  however,  do  not  seem  to  have  reached  him.  He  sailed 
for  England  on  the  11th  December,  1792,  leaving  Major  Grose,  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  in  charge.  Soon  after  returning  to  England  (July,  1793)  he  formally 
resigned  the  Governorship,  on  the  ground  that  he  suffered  from  a  comx)laint  which, 
could  not  be  proiierly  treated  in  the  Colony. 


Soutli  Wales  became  a  convict  settlement^  tlie  arrangements 
made  for  tlie  occupation  of  tlie  country,  the  equipment  and  des- 
patcli  of  tlie  vessels  wliich  formed  tlie  First  Fleet,  tlie  voyage  to 
Botany  Bay,  wliicli  was  chosen  in  the  first  instance  as  the  site  for 
the  new  colony,  the  rejection  of  Botany  Bay  by  Phillip  in  favour 
of  Port  Jackson,  the  landing  at  Sydney  Cove  and  the  establish- 
ment there  of  the  first  settlement,  the  measures  taken  for  the 
government  of  the  Colony,  the  difficulties  experienced  by  Phillip 
owing  to  the  scarcity  of  food  and  the  unfriendly  attitude  of  the 
officers  who  commanded  the  garrison  of  marines,  the  efforts  made 
to  explore  and  cultivate  the  country,  the  formation  of  settlements 
at  Parramatta  and  Toongabbe,  the  occupation  of  Norfolk  Island, 
and  other  matters  which  need  not  be  set  forth  in  detail. 

The  correspondence  includes  letters  from  Departments  of  State 
to  other  Departments,  letters  between  Phillip  and  the  Depart- 
ments while  he  was  watching  the  arrangements  for  sending  out 
the  First  Fleet,  despatches  sent  by  Phillip  to  the  Home  Office  and 
the  Admiralty  after  his  arrival  at  Sydney,  despatches  sent  from 
England  to  the  Governor,  Phillip^s  correspondence  with  Major 
Ross  and  other  officers  of  the  Marines,  arising  out  of  questions 
of  duty  and  discipline,  despatches  from  the  commandants  of 
Norfolk  Island  to  Phillip,  despatches  from  the  officer  in  command 
of  the  Marines  to  the  Admiralty,  and  correspondence  between 
Phillip  and  officers  of  the  Civil  Staff  upon  matters  affecting  the 
■welfare  of  the  Settlement.  There  are  also  letters  and  papers 
showing  what  steps  were  taken  during  Phillip's  Governorship 
to  procure  provisions  and  live  stock  from  India,  Batavia,  and  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  accounts  written  by  responsible  officers 
describing  the  loss  of  the  Sirius  and  the  Guardian  when  carrying 
supplies  for  the  Settlements,  the  former  for  Norfolk  Island,  the 
latter  for  Sydney. 

This  part  of  the  Records  contains  the  commissions  given  to 
Phillip  and  his  staff,  the  Order  of  the  King  in  Council  (Geo.  Ill) 
appointing  New  South  Wales  a  place  to  which  convicts  might  be 
sent,  the  Royal  Instructions  given  to  Phillip  before  he  sailed,  and 
the  Additional  Instructions  sent  to  him  after  his  arrival  at  Sydney, 
the  Letters  Patent  constituting  Law  Courts  and  a  Court  of  Vice- 


Admiralty  in  New  Soutli  Wales,  the  form  of  land  grant  given 
to  the  first  settler,  public  orders  promulgated  at  Sydney  and 
Norfolk  Island,  and  otlier  official  documents. 

Extracts  from  the  Banks  Papers  are  also  given  here,  but  the 
number  is  comparatively  small.  Although  Sir  Joseph  Banks  had 
a  great  deal  to  do  with  the  foundation  of  the  Colony,  his  name 
seldom  appears  in  the  official  correspondence,  and  in  the  papers 
purchased  from  Lord  Brabourne  there  is  little  trace  of  his  connec- 
tion with  the  deliberations  which  led  to  the  despatch  of  the 
First  Fleet.  But  in  papers  of  later  date  the  active  interest  he 
took  in  the  welfare  of  the  new  settlement  and  the  influence  he 
exerted  are  abundantly  shown.  That  Sir  Joseph  Banks  had 
access  to  Phillip's  despatches  may  be  inferred  from  the  extracts 
in  his  own  handwriting  which  have  been  found  amongst  his 
papers,  and  that  he  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  Ministers  may 
be  gathered  from  the  fact  that  drafts  of  their  despatches  and 
instructions  form  part  of  the  manuscripts  jDurchased  from  Lord 
Brabourne  by  the  Government  of  this  Colony. 

The  collection  does  not  contain  many  papers  relating  either  to 
the  establishment  of  the  Colony  or  the  time  of  Phillij^'s  Govern- 
ment, but  some  of  them  are  of  great  interest,  those,  for  example, 
which  relate  to  the  Mutiny  of  the  Bounty.  Captain  Bligh,  who 
commanded  that  vessel  on  its  memorable  voyage,  owed  his 
appointment  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  to  whom  he  wrote,  according  to 
his  own  statement,  a  fuller  account  of  the  affair  than  the  official 
report  which  he  sent  to  the  Admiralty.  In  one  respect  this 
is  true,  for  while  the  official  report  begins  with  the  arrival  of  the 
Bounty  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  on  the  voyage  from  England 
to  Otaheite,  the  account  sent  to  Banks  sets  forth  the  object  of 
the  expedition — the  carrying  of  the  bread-fruit  tree  from  the 
Society  Islands  to  Jamaica — and  gives  a  short  statement  concern- 
ing the  fitting  out  of  the  Bounty  and  the  instructions  given  to 
her  commander.  It  also  briefly  describes  the  voyage  from  Eng- 
land to  the  Cape.  But  as  regards  the  mutiny,  and  the  adventures 
of  Bligh  and  his  companions  after  they  had  been  cast  adrift  in 
the  Bounty's  launch,  the  official  account  is  the  fuller  of  the  two, 
and  carries  the  story  to  a  later  date.     The  account  sent  to  Banks 

sxiv  introduction: 

will  be  found  at  pp.  268-278.  Bligli's  official  despatcli,  wliicli 
was  not  received  in  time  for  insertion  in  the  body  of  the  volume, 
is  given  in  Appendix  A,  together  with  four  letters  from  Bligh  to 
the  Admiralty  reporting  the  movements  of  the  Bounty  on  tlie- 
voyage  to  the  Cape. 

There  are  also  among  the  extracts  made  from  the  Banks  Papers 
some  highly-interesting  letters  relating  to  the  expedition  of  dis- 
covery and  survey  to  the  North-west  Coast  of  America  made- 
by  Captain  Vancouver,  under  instructions  from  the  English 
Government.  Another  series  of  letters  which  passed  between 
Mr.  W.  Eichards,  junr.^  a  navy  contractor,  and  Sir  Joseph 
Banks  is  valuable^  because  of  the  light  it  throws  upon  the 
transportation  arrangements  of  the  early  days.  The  correspon- 
dence also  contains  proposals  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Richards  to  go 
out  to  ISTew  South  Wales  as  a  settler,  and  to  open  a  public  store 
in  Sydney.  About  this  time  the  emigration  question  was  under 
Sir  Joseph  Banks's  notice  in  another  shape,  as  will  be  seen  from 
a  plan  briefly  sketched  in  his  handwriting,  for  establishing  a 
number  of  families  on  an  estate  in  the  new  settlement  to  be 
allotted  by  the  Grovermnent.'^  A  memorandum  found  among  the 
papers,  occupying  only  three  lines  of  type^  is  of  peculiar  interest, 
for  it  records  the  fact  that  Sir  Joseph  Banks  could  have  held 
office  if  he  had  chosen  to  do  so^  and  that  he  refused  the  distinction 
because  he  considered  that  his  services  would  be  of  more  value 
to  the  Colony  if  he  kept  aloof  from  political  responsibilities.t  A 
few  other  papers  from  the  collection  are  also  published,  but  they 
do  not  require  special  notice. 

The  Historical  Eecords  relating  to  the  foundation  of  the 
Colony  begin  with  "  A  Proposal  for  Establishing  a  Settlement  in 
New  South  Wales,"  written,  in  August,  1783 J,  by  Mr.  James 
Maria  Matra,  of  Marston  House,  Frome,  Somersetshire,  and  No.  4 
Dake-street,  Gri'osvenor  Square,  London.  Little  is  known  of  this 
gentleman  at  the  present  day,  beyond  the  fact  that  he  was  for  a 
time  the  Consular  representative  of  Great  Britain  in  Morocco  ; 
but  he  was  undoubtedly  a  man  of  position  and  influence,  or  his 

*  Post,  p.  424.  t  Post,  p.  229.  J  Post,  pp.  1-6. 


proposal  would  not  liave  commanded  tlie  attention  it  received 
from  English  ministers.  Matra  is  a  name  well-known  in  Corsican 
history ;  and  it  is  more  than  probable  that  James  Maria  Matra, 
who  was  certainly  an  English  subject  either  by  birth  or  natural- 
izatioUj  was  of  Corsican  origin.  In  the  early  part  of  the 
Eigliteenth  Century  the  Marquis  Matra  occupied  a  position  of 
political  importance  in  Corsica.  During  the  years  1741-48, 
according  to  BoswelFs  "Account  of  Corsica/'*  one  of  the 
Matras  and  his  fellow-countryman,  Gaffori,  were  joint  Protectors 
of  the  Island,  and  led  the  Corsicans  in  their  efforts  to  drive  out 
the  Genoese.  According  to  the  Nouvelle  Biographie  Generale, 
Marius  Emmanuel  Matra  had  a  command  under  Pasquale  de  Paoli 
in  1754,  but  turned  against  his  countryman.  He  joined  the 
Genoese  in  an  attack  on  Paoli,  and  was  killed  in  the  encounter. 
Another  Matra  (Colonel  Antonio  Matra),  who  had  joined  the 
Genoese,  took  part  in  an  attack  upon  Corsica  in  1767.  The 
Marquis  Matra  had  an  hereditary  enemy  in  the  Marquis 
Hyacinthe,  or  Giacinta  de  Paoli,  whose  son,  Pasquale  de  Paoli, 
became  in  1755  Dictator  of  Corsica,  a  position  which  he  occu- 
pied for  fourteen  years,  when  he  was  dispossessed  by  the  French. i 
In  an  article  published  in  the  Nineteenth  Century,  July,  1891,  Mr. 
Walter  Frewen  Lord  sketches  the  career  of  Pasquale  de  Paoli, 
and  tells  the  fate  of  the  Matra  family.  The  Marquis  de  Paol? 
maintained  "^  a  fierce  vendetta  all  his  life  with  the  Marquis 
Matra,^''  and  when  Pasquale  de  Paoli  came  into  power  one  of 
the  jfirst  steps  he  took  was  to  "  cut  off  the  Matras  root  and 
branch.''  Mr.  Lord  puts  the  thing  in  another  way;  the  Matras,  he 
says,  were  "piously  exterminated"  by  Paoli.  It  is  not  unreason- 
able to  suppose,  however,  that  some  members  of  the  family  escaped 
from  Corsica,  and  found  their  way  to  England,  at  that  time  the  only 
safe  shelter  for  political  refugees.  The  circumstances  are  sug- 
gestive, but  it  cannot  he  assumed  that  James  Maria  Matra  was 
one  of  the  refugees  of  1755,  for  in  1783,  only  twenty-eight  years 
later,  he  appears  to  have  been  living  as  a  well-established  English 

*  "  An  Account  of  Coraiea,"  by  James  Boswell.     Tliird  edition,  London,  1709. 
t  Paoli  took  refuge  in  England^  wliere  lie  became  an  intimate  friend  of  Johnson 
and  Boswell. 


gentleman.  But  Corsica  was  an  uncomfortable  place  for  tlie  Matras 
long  before  tlie  time  of  Pasquale  de  Paoli,  and  it  is  not  unlikely 
that  some  brancli  of  the  family  made  a  liome  for  itself  in  England 
early  in  tbe  eigliteentli  century.  In  that  case,  there  is  nothing- 
improbable  in  the  supposition  that  the  author  of  the  ''  Proposal 
for  Establishing  a  Settlement  in  New  South  Wales"  was  a 
descendant  of  one  of  the  Corsican  Matras,  born  in  England. 
Nothing  positive  can  be  stated  as  to  Matrass  origin,  but  so  much 
interest  attaches  to  the  writer  of  the  Proposal,  that  his  probable 
connection  with  the  Matras  of  Corsica  cannot  be  passed  over. 

Mr.  Matra's  proposal  was  laid  before  the  Coalition  Government 
of  Fox  and  Lord  North,  but  the  Ministry  went  out  of  office  in 
December,  1783,  and  no  action  was  taken.  Mr.  Matra's  sugges- 
tions, however,  were  made  use  of  by  the  Pitt  Ministry,  which 
succeeded  that  of  Fox  and  North,  in  preparing  the  scheme  which 
was  ultimately  carried  out.  In  the  proposal  as  originally  submitted 
no  allusion  was  made  to  sending  out  convicts,  but  after  conversing 
with  Lord  Sydney,  who  had  taken  Lord  North's  place  at  the  Home 
Office — the  department  which  had  the  control  of  Colonial  affairs 
— Mr.  Matra  wrote  an  addendum  to  his  paper,  in  which  he 
adopted  the  suggestion  made  by  the  Minister  that  New  South 
Wales  was  a  proper  place  for  the  reception  of  convicts  condemned 
to  transportation.  The  scheme  thus  amended  seems  to  have 
formed  the  basis  of  the  proposal  of  Admiral  Sir  Greorge  Young, 
forwarded  to  Lord  Sydney  in  January,  1785,  through  the 
Attorney- G-eneral,  Pepper  Arden."^  The  same  ideas  appear  in 
another  form  in  a  paper  without  name  or  date  entitled  "  Heads 
of  a  Plan  for  effectually  disposing  of  convicts  by  the  establish- 
ment of  a  colony  in  New  South  Wales. "f  This  paper  is  official, 
as  shown  by  Lord  Sydney's  letter  to  the  Lords  Commissioners  of 
the  Treasury,  18th  August,  1786,  J  and  his  letter  to  the  Lords  of  the 
Admiralty,  31st  August,  1786§,  and  the  settlement  was  established 
practically  on  the  lines  laid  down  in  the  "  Heads  of  a  Plan." 

Preparations   for  the    despatch  of    the  First  Fleet  were  im- 
mediately begun,  and  the  vessels  sailed  in  May,  1787.      In  the 

*  Post,  pp.  10-13.  +  Post,  pp.  17-20. 

X  Post,  pp.  14-16.  §  Post,  pp.  20-22. 


interval  correspondence  took  place  between  department  and 
department  and  between  Grovernor  Phillip  and  tlie  departments. 
Pliillip^  who  was  first  captain  of  the  Sirius,  Hunter  being  second 
in  command,  had  two  important  matters  to  look  to — the  general 
outfit  of  the  expedition  and  the  equipment  of  his  own  vessel — 
and  during  the  time  of  preparation  he  wrote  many  letters  to 
Ministers,  Under  Secretaries,  and  other  officials.  Most  of  these 
were  sent  from  London,  where  he  was  detained,  as  stated  in 
King's  Journal,  awaiting  the  decision  of  the  Ministry  on  matters 
of  importance  relating  to  the  expedition.  He  did  not  go  on 
board  the  Sirius  at  the  Motherbank  until  the  11th  May,  the  day 
before  the  fleet  got  under  weigh.  From  the  Motherbank  Phillip 
sent  one  letter,  and  three  others  were  despatched  by  the  Hyjena, 
which  accompanied  the  Sirius  a  hundred  leagues  from  the 
entrance  of  the  English  Channel.  The  papers  next  in  order 
consist  of  a  series  of  letters  from  Phillip  written  at  Santa  Ci-uz, 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  at  which  ports  the 
fleet  put  in  for  water  and  fresh  provisions. 

On  the  18th  January,  1788,  the  Supply,  having  on  board 
Governor  Phillip,  who  had  left  the  Sirius  eighty  leagues  to  the 
east  of  the  Cape,  entered  Botany  Bay,  and  on  the  26th  the  whole 
fleet  was  at  anchor  in  Sydney  Cove. 

Phillip  was  not  in  a  position  to  send  any  communication  to 
England  until  one  of  the  transports  sailed  on  the  return  voyage, 
and  his  first  despatch  to  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home 
Department  bears  date  15th  May,  1788.  After  this  he  sent 
despatches  as  opportunities  arose.  These  despatches  deal  very 
fully  with  the  condition  and  progress  of  the  settlement ;  they 
constitute,  in  fact,  a  history  of  the  Colony  from  its  establishment 
to  the  close  of  Phillip's  Governorship.  Phillip's  first  despatch, 
addressed  to  Lord  Sydney,  was  replied  to  on  the  20th  June,  1789, 
by  the  Eight  Hon.  W.  W.  Grenville,  afterwards  Lord  Grenville, 
who  had  succeeded  Lord  Sydney,  and  the  correspondence  was 
continued  with  regularity.  At  this  time  Ministerial  changes 
and  promotions  were  frequent,  and  as  the  passage  to  Australia 
was  not  usually  made  under  six  or  eight  months,  Phillip 
sent  despatches  to  England  in  ignorance  of  the  actual  state  of 


affairs.  He  wrote  to  Lord  Sydney  after  tliat  Minister's  place 
liad  been  taken  by  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Grrenville,  and  to  G-renville 
■wlien  lie  in  turn  bad  been  superseded  by  the  Rigbt  Hon.  Henry 
Dundas.  Eight  months  after  Grenville  had  been  raised  to  the 
Peerage,  Phillip  addressed  his  despatches  to  "  the  Right  Hon. 
W.  W.  Grenville."  These  things  are  not  of  great  importance 
in  themselves ;  they  are  simply  pointed  out  for  the  purpose  of 
explaining  apparent  discrepancies. 

The  despatches  from  Sydney  to  London  are  more  numerous 
and  more  voluminous  than  the  despatches  from  London  to  Sydney. 
This  is  what  might  have  been  expected.     Phillip  was  required 
to  transmit  to  the  Home  Office  a  full  account  of  his  proceedings 
and  the  affairs  of  the  settlement,  and  he  faithfully  obeyed  his 
instructions.    His  despatches,  though  not  wordy,  were  frequently 
of  considerable  length.    He  had  to  deal  with  matters  of  detail  as 
well  as  questions  of  importance,  and  it  was  sometimes  necessary 
to  treat  special  subjects  in  separate  despatches.    A  large  portion 
of  this  volume  is  taken  up  by  Phillip's  communications  to  the 
English    Departments    of    State,  while    the    replies,    which   in 
many  instances  contain  little  more  than  an  acknowledgment  of 
the  intelligence  received  from  Phillip  and  a  brief  intimation  of 
opinion  regarding  his  proceedings,  occupy  a  comparatively  small 

Although  the  English  Government  depended  chiefly  upon 
Phillip's  reports  it  was  not  without  information  from  other 
sources.  Major  Ross,  who  acted  as  Lieutenant-Governor  until 
the  detachment  of  Marines,  which  he  commanded,  was  replaced 
by  the  New  South  Wales  Corps,  wrote  official  despatches  to  the 
Admiralty,  as  well  as  private  letters  to  Evan  Nepean,  Under 
Secretary  for  the  Home  Department,  and  Phillip  Stephens, 
Secretary  to  the  Admiralty.  Ross's  private  letters  are  of  greater 
interest  than  his  public  ones,  for  they  are  written  without  reserve, 
and  give  his  independent  views  of  the  condition  and  prospects  of 
the  Colony  at  the  time. 

It  may  be  as  well  to  state  here  that  other  private  letters  will  be 
found  in  the  correspondence  now  published,  but,  although  private, 
they  are  of    such  a  nature  that  their  right  to  a  place  in  the 


Records  cannot  be  disputed.  Apart  from  tlie  Banks  Papers,  few 
of  whicli  are  official,  althougli  they  relate  to  matters  historically- 
important,  the  Records  contain  a  number  of  private  and  quasi- 
private  letters  which  are  as  much  a  part  of  history  as  the  formal 
despatches.  The  correspondence  of  this  class  includes  letters 
between  Phillip  and  the  English  Ministers,  and  between  Phillip 
and  the  Under  Secretaries.  With  only  a  few  exceptions  these 
letters  refer  to  matters  of  public  concern,  and  some  of  them  are 
of  peculiar  interest  and  importance.  They  are  written  with  a 
freedom  which  is  foreign  to  official  communications,  and  they 
throw  light  upon  points  which  without  them  would  be  obscure. 
Correspondence  of  this  nature,  written  in  confidence,  need  not 
be  treated  as  confidential  now.  An  examination  of  the  Records 
will  show  that  private  letters,  when  they  bore  upon  matters  of 
public  importance,  were  considered  by  the  English  Grovernment 
and  frequently  acted  upon.  The  manner  in  which  they  were 
treated  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that  private  letters  have  been  found 
among  the  papers  preserved  in  the  Departments  of  State. 

Other  letters,  private  in  form,  but  of  public  importance  by 
reason  of  the  information  contained  in  them,  are  printed  witht 
the  Records.  They  include  an  unofficial  letter  from  Captain 
William  Hill,  who  commanded  a  detachment  of  the  New  South 
Wales  Corps  on  board  the  Surprize,  one  of  the  vessels  belonging- 
to  the  Second  Fleet,  which  gives  fuller  information  regarding 
the  sufferings  of  the  convicts  on  the  voyage  than  can  be  found 
in  the  official  despatches.  There  is  also  an  unofficial  letter  from 
the  Rev.  R.  Johnson,  the  first  chaplain  of  the  Settlement,  des- 
cribing the  sad  condition  of  the  convicts  brought  by  the  Neptune^ 
Surprize,  and  Scarborough — the  Second  Fleet — on  their  arrival 
at  Sydney,  which  is  valuable  for  a  similar  reason.  Among  other 
private  letters  of  historical  value  is  one  from  Captain  Edward 
Manning,  commander  of  the  Pitt,  in  which  an  account  is  given 
of  a  severe  outbreak  of  fever  amongst  the  soldiers  and  seamen 
during  the  voyage.  Major  Grose,  the  Commandant  of  the  New 
South  Wales  Corps,  who  was  on  board  the  vessel  with  a  detach- 
ment of  soldiers,  wrote  an  official  letter  on  the  subject  to  Nepean, 
but  Captain  Manning's  account,  written  without  any  restraint,  is 


mucli  fuller  and  far  more  interesting.  In  tlie  same  category  may- 
be placed  a  letter  from  Lieutenant  Fowell,  of  tlie  Sirius,  in  wliicli 
lie  sends  to  liis  fatlier  in  England  a  full  account  of  the  loss  of 
that  vessel  at  Norfolk  Island  and  King-'s  voyage  to  Batavia  in 
the  Supply.^  A  letter  f I'om  Mr.  William  Wilberforce,  the  philan- 
thropist^ to  the  Right  Hon.  Henry  Dundas,  as  to  the  appointment 
of  a  second  chaplain  for  New  South  Wales^  enclosing  a  note 
from  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  has  been  found  among  the 
Home  Office  Papers,  and  is  reproduced.  Though  the  latter  was 
written  in  confidence,  it  is  of  great  public  interest.  That  it 
was  considered  and  acted  upon  can  scarcely  be  doubted,  for  a 
second  chaplain,  the  Rev.  Samuel  Marsden,  was  soon  afterwards 

The  despatches  written  by  Phillip  at  Sydney  begin  by  announc- 
ing the  arrival  of  the  First  Fleet  in  Botany  Bay  in  January, 
1788,  and  carry  the  record  of  transactions  to  the  16th  October, 
1792,  two  months  before  he  took  his  departure  for  England.  In 
the  interval  several  fresh  batches  of  convicts  had  been  sent  out, 
and  notwithstanding  the  great  loss  of  life  on  board  some  of  the- 
transports,  and  the  heavy  mortality  that  took  place  after  the  con- 
victs were  landed,  the  population  of  the  settlements  had  increased 
to  upwards  of  4,000,  of  which  number  about  one-fourth  belonged 
to  Norfolk  Island.  In  the  face  of  serious  difficulties  a  good  deal 
of  work  had  been  done.  Buildings  had  been  erected  at  Sydney, 
branch  settlements  had  been  established  at  Parramatta  and 
Toongabbe,  and  1,500  acres  of  land  had  been  brought  under  culti- 
vation. Exploration  had  not  been  neglected.  A  knowledge  of  the 
country  between  Parramatta  and  the  Nepean  had  been  acquired, 
while  the  Hawkesbury  had  been  explored  from  its  mouth  to 
Windsor,  where  a  settlement  was  afterwards  formed.  The 
progress  that  was  made  may  be  traced  step  by  step  in  the 
despatches,  which  also  reveal  the  disadvantages  under  which  the 
3"0ung  community  laboured,  the  privations  and  sufferings  which 
all  classes  of  the  people  endured,  and  the  obstacles  which  were 

*  King,  who  Wcas  on  his  way  to  England  with  despatches  from  Phillip,  parted 
company  with  Fowell  at  Batavia.  The  latter  had  instructions  to  hire  a  vessel  at 
that  place  to  take  provisions  to  Sydney.  While  engaged  in  this  service  he  caught 
a  fever  and  died. 


placed  in  Pliillip's  way  by  tlie  perverse  temper  of  some  of  the 
marine  officers.  To  what  extent  the  situation  was  realised  in 
England,  and  what  steps  were  taken  to  afford  relief,  may  be 
discovered  by  examining  the  despatches  sent  to  Phillip,  beginning 
with  Lord  Grenville's  communication  of  20th  June,  1789  (the 
first  despatch  from  England),  and  ending  with  the  despatch  of  his 
successor,  the  Eight  Hon.  Henry  Dundas,  14th  July,  1792.  Other 
correspondence  took  place  between  the  Home  Office  in  London  and 
the  Governor  in  Sydney.  There  was  a  regular  interchange  of 
letters  between  Phillip  and  his  friend,  Under  Secretary  Nepean, 
who  discussed  at  length  matters  which  were  briefly  dealt  with  in 
the  communications  between  Minister  and  Governor.  The  two 
sets  of  correspondence  must  be  read  together ;  the  one  is  the 
complement  of  the  other. 

Although  the  official  despatches  from  the  Home  Office  to  Phillip 
and  fx'om  Phillip  to  the  Home  Office,  constitute  the  most  import- 
ant part  of  the  records,  other  papers  of  great  interest  connected 
with  the  affairs  of  the  settlement  are  printed.  There  are,  for 
example,  the  letters  sent  by  Captain  Hunter  to  the  Admiralty 
about  the  voyage  of  the  Sirius  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  where 
she  was  sent  for  supplies  in  October,  1788,  and  her  loss  at  Norfolk 
Island  in  March,  1790,  while  taking  provisions  to  that  settlement ; 
and  the  letters  of  Lieutenant  Riou,  who  describes  the  accident  to 
the  Guardian,  which  struck  an  iceberg  while  on  her  way  to  Sydney 
under  his  command  with  supplies  for  the  settlement,  and  was  taken 
with  difficulty  to  Table  Bay,  where  she  was  abandoned. 

The  steps  taken  to  send  out  a  special  force  (the  New  South 
Wales  Corps)  for  service  in  the  Colony,  to  replace  the  detachment 
of  marines,  which  constituted  the  first  garrison,  and  the  conditions 
under  which  the  corps  was  raised  by  Major  Grose,  are  set  forth 
in  the  coi-respondence  which  passed  between  that  officer  and  the 
War  Office,  and  between  the  War  Office  and  the  other  Depart- 
ments of  State.  King,  who  went  out  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Norfolk  Island  in  1791,  purchased  live  stock  at  the  Cape  for  the 
benefit  of  the  settlement  at  Sydney,  and  a  full  account  of  these 
transactions  is  given  in  the  letters  which  were  sent  by  him  to 
the  Home  Office.     As  previously  stated,  it  became  necessary  very 


sliortly  after  tlie  establisliment  of  the  Colony  to  send  to  tlie  Cape 
of  Grood  Hope,  Batavia,  and  India  for  provisions,  and  amongst 
tlie  papers  will  be  found  letters  from  the  Home  Office  to  the 
Governor-General  of  India,  as  well  as  correspondence  between 
the  Home  Office  and  the  contractors.  Correspondence  also  passed 
between  Phillip  and  the  Indian  authorities  on  the  subject,  and 
between  Phillip  and  the  contractors. 

Towards  the  close  of  1791  and  in  the  early  part  of  1792  the 
Home  Office  was  in  communication  with  John  Sutton,  a  Quaker, 
who  made  proposals  for  sending  fifteen  Qviaker  families  to  Sydney. 
The  correspondence  shows  that  the  proposals  were  accepted  with 
modifications,  but  owing  to  delays  and  other  circumstances  not 
clearly  stated  in  the  despatches,  the  persons  who  had  been  nomi- 
nated did  not  embark,  and  the  first  effort  to  place  emigrants 
from  England  as  free  settlers  on  the  soil  of  New  South  Wales 
came  to  nothing.*  Accordiiig  to  Judge-Advocate  Collins,  the 
Quakers  had  "engaged  to  take  their  passages  in  the  Bellona,'' 
which  arrived  at  Sydney  16th  January,  1793,  "but  it  was  said 
they  had  been  diverted  from  their  purpose  by  some  misrepresen- 
tations which  had  been  made  to  them  respecting  this  country." 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  correspondence  relates  to  Norfolk 
Island  and  its  affairs.  A  few  weeks  after  the  landinof  of  the 
expedition  at  Sydney  Cove,  Phillip  despatched  Lieutenant  King  to 
the  island  v/ith  a  batch  of  convicts ;  and  for  a  number  of  years 
intimate  relations  existed  between  the  two  settlements.  Durino* 
Phillip's  term  of  office  the  Government  at  Norfolk  Island  under- 
went several  changes.  King  was  replaced  by  Major  Ross  as  Com- 
mandant in  March,  1790,  and  in  November,  1791,  Ross  was  super- 
seded by  King,  who  had  been  sent  to  England  with  despatches, 
and  returned  as  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  island.  During 
King's  first  command  he  corresponded  Avith  Phillip,  from  whom 
his  authority  was  derived,  and  from  whom  he  received  his  com- 
mission and  instructions.  Ross  held  office  under  similar  conditions, 
and  he  also  corresponded  with  Phillip.  King  as  Lieutenant- 
Governor  sent  despatches  both  to  PhilHp  and  the  Home  Office, 

*  Sec  note,  post,  p.  58  i. 

introduction:  xxxiH 

but  so  far  as  tliis  collectioii  of  papers  goes  tlie  despatclics  are  to 
Phillip  only.  Tlie  information  received  at  Sydney  from  Norfolk 
Island  was  forwarded  to  tlie  Home  Office  as  opportunity  arose. 
Sometimes  Phillip  contented  himself  with  giving  in  his  own 
despatches  summaries  of  the  reports  he  had  received  from  the 
Commandant  or  Lieutenant-Governor;  at  other  times  he  sent 
extracts  from  the  Norfolk  Island  despatches,  or  the  despatches 
themselves.  The  more  important  of  the  public  orders  and  procla- 
mations made  at  Norfolk  Island  were  sent  to  England  as  enclosures, 
and  are  printed  with  Phillip's  despatches.  Both  Ross  and  King 
wrote  descriptions  of  the  place  they  had  been  called  upon  to 
govern,  in  which  they  offered  their  opinion  of  its  capabilities  as  a 
settlement,  and  gave  information  regarding  its  climate,  soil,  and 
products.     These  reports  form  part  of  the  reeords  now  published. 

As  indicated  in  the  Preface,  the  Records  contained  in  these 
pages  are  not  to  be  regarded  as  absolutely  complete.  There  are 
blanks  in  the  correspondence,  and  some  of  the  enclosures  which 
accompanied  the  despatches  are  absent.  The  omissions  may 
perhaps  be  made  good  when  the  manuscripts  in  the  Record  Office 
and  the  Departments  of  State  in  London  have  been  thoroughly 
exhausted,  but  all  the  papers  that  were  procurable  when  this 
collection  was  prepared  for  the  press  been  printed.  Un- 
expected discoveries  were  made  while  the  transcriptions  were  in 
progress,  and  early  manuscripts,  not  now  in  the  possession  of  the 
Government,  may  yet  be  brought  to  light.  In  the  meantime,  the 
best  use  has  been  made  of  the  material  at  command. 

To  prevent  any  misconception,  it  should  be  stated  that  the 
marginal  notes  do  not  form  part  of  the  manuscripts,  but  have 
been  written  as  a  guide  to  their  contents.  The  object  of  the 
foot  notes  is  to  explain  points  not  made  clear  in  the  text,  and 
to  assist  the  reader  in  finding  papers  having  relation  to  the  same 
subject  but  printed  in  chronological  order  in  different  parts  of 
the  volume. 

The  Index  contains  lists  of  the  despatches,  together  with  full 
information  on  the  subjects  to  which  they  relate. 





A  Proposal  for  Establishing  a  Settlement  in  New  South 

Wales.  ^sau?. 

I  am  going  to  offer  an  object  to  the  consideration  of  our  Govern- 
ment what  rthatl  may  in  time  atone  for  the  loss  of  our  Amexican  ^^'^^^  °^ 

,       .  L  J  ./  Amenca. 


By  the  discoveries  and  enterprise   of  our  officers,   many  new 
countries  have  been  found  which  know  no  sovereign,   and  that  New  fields  of 
hold  out  the  most  enticing  allurements  to  Eui'opean  adventurers.    "^  "'"^'^ '°" 
None  are  more  inviting  than  New  South  Wales. 

Capt.  Cook  first  coasted  and  surveyed  the  eastern  side  of  that 
line  country,  from  the  38th  degree  of  south  latitude  'down  to  the  Cook's 
10th,  where  he  found  everything  to  induce  him  to  give  the  most  New  South 
favourable  account  of  it.     In  this  immense  tract  of  more   than  ^^'^'^s- 
2,000  miles  there  was  eveiy  variety  of  soil,  and  great  parts  of  it 
were  extremely  fertile,  peopled  only  by  a  few   lilack   inhabitants, 
who,  in  the  rudest  state  of  society,  knew  no  other  arts  than  such 
as  were  necessary  to  their  mere  animal  existence,  and  which  was 
almost  entirely  sustained  by  catching  fish. 

The  climate  and  soil  are  so  happily  adapted  to  produce  every 
various  and  valuable  production  of  Europe,  and  of  both  the  Indies,  Climate 
that  with  good  management,  and  a  few  settlers,  in  twenty  or 
thirty  years  they  might  cause  a  revolution  in  the  whole  system  of 
European  commerce,  and  secure  to  England  a  monopoly  of  some 
part  of  it,  and  a  very  large  share  in  the  whole. 

*  Mr.  Matra  and  his  proposal  are  noticed  in  the  Introduction,  ante  pp.  xxi\■-.\.\^  i. 



23  Aug. 



Its  capabili- 
ties for 




Send  a 
ship  to 

Or  two  ships 

luariiios  and 

Part  of  it  lies  in  a  climate  parallel  to  the  Spice  Islands,  and  is 
fitted  for  the  production  of  that  valuable  commodity,  as  well  as 
the  sugar-cane,  tea,  coffee,  silk,  cotton,  indigo,  tobacoo,  and  the 
other  articles  of  commerce  that  have  been  so  advantageous  to  the 
maritime  powers  of  Europe. 

I  must  not  omit  the  mention  of  a  very  important  article,  which 
may  be  obtained  in  any  quantity,  if  this  settlement  be  made  the 
proper  use  of,  which  would  be  of  very  con>siderable  consequence, 
both  amonfj  the  necessaries  and  conveniences  of  life.  I  mean  the 
New  Zealand  hemp  or  flax-plant,  an  object  equally  of  curiosity 
and  utility.  By  proper  operations  it  would  serve  the  vai'ious  pur- 
poses of  hemp,  flax,  and  silk,  and  it  is  more  easily  manufactured 
than  any  one  of  them.  In  naval  equipments  it  would  be  of  the 
greatest  importance ;  a  cable  of  the  circumference  of  ten  inches 
would  be  equal  in  strength  to  one  of  eighteen  inches  made  of 
European  hemp.  Our  manufacturers  are  of  opinion  that  canvas 
made  of  it  would  be  superior  in  strength  and  beauty  to  any  canvas 
of  our  own  country.  The  threads  or  filaments  of  this  plant  are 
formed  by  nature  with  the  most  exquisite  delicacy,  and  they  may 
be  so  minutely  divided  as  to  be  small  enough  to  make  the  finest 
cambrick ;  in  color  and  gloss  it  resembles  silk.  After  my  true, 
though  imperfect  description  of  this  plant,  I  need  not  enlarge  on 
it,  as  a  very  singular  acquisition,  both  to  the  arts  of  convenience 
and  luxury. 

This  country  may  afford  an  asylum  to  those  unfortunate 
American  loyalists  to  whom  Great  Britain  is  bound  by  every  tie 
of  honour  and  gratitude  to  protect  and  support,  where .  they 
may  repair  their  broken  fortunes,  and  again  enjoy  their  former 
domestic  felicity. 

That  the  Government  may  run  no  risque  nor  be  left  to  act  in 
a  business  of  this  kind  without  sufiicient  information,  it  is  pro- 
posed that  one  ship  of  the  peace  establishment  (to  incur  the 
least  possible  expence)  be  directly  sent  to  that  country,  for  the 
discovery  and  allotment  of  a  proper  district,  for  the  intended 
settlement ;  that  one  or  two  gentlemen  of  capacity  and  knowledge, 
as  well  in  soil  and  situation,  as  in  every  other  requisite,  be  sent 
in  her,  that  there  may  be  no  imposition  on  the  Government,  nor 
upon  the  Americans,  who,  with  their  families,  shall  adventure 

If  the  Government  be  disposed  to  extend  this  plan,  two  vessels 
may  be  sent  with  two  companies  of  marines,  selected  from  among 
such  of  that  corps  as  Ijest  understand  husbandry,  or  manu- 
facturies,  and  about  twenty  artificers,  who  are  all  the  emigration 
required  from  the  parent  State ;  these  last  to  be  chiefly  such  as 
are  taken  on  board  ships  of  war  for  carpenters'  and  armourers' 
crews,  with  a  few  potters  and  gardeners. 

J.  M.  matea's  Proposal.  3 

These  twenty  men  and  the  marines,  under  a  proper  person,  to       1783 
be  left  at  the  new  settlement,  with  materials  and  provisions,  to     23  Aug. 
prepare  for  the  reception  of  the  intended  settlers,  that  their  wants 
may  be  as  few  as  possible  on  their  arrival. 

As  the  ship,  or  ships,  stop  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  a  sufficient 
stock  to  begin  with  of  cows,  sheep,  goats,  hogs,  poultry,  and  seeds 
may  be  obtained  there.     A  supply  of  the  like  articles,  as  Avell  as  Live  stock 
cotton  seeds,  plantains,  grapes,  grain,  etc.,  &c..  may  be  had  in  any  a"'ip-a"ts. 
quantity  at  Savu  or  any  of  the  Moluccas,  which  are  very  near 
Kew  South  Wales. 

When  the  landing  is  effected  the  smaller  vessel  may  be  dis-  One  ship  to 
patched  home  with  the  intelligence  ;  and  while  the  party  designed  ^^^^™- 
to  be  left  are  superintending  the  gardens  and  increase  of  live  stock, 
the  other  ship  may,   if  thought  proper,  be  despatched  to  New  The  other 
Caledonia,  Otahite,  and  the  neighbouring  islands  to  procure  a  few  ^^  \^^^^^^ 
families  there,  and  as  many  women  as  may  serve  for  the  men  left  islands, 
behind.     There  is  every  reason  to  believe  they  may  be  obtained 
without  diffictilty.     If  but  one  vessel  goes,  the  party  with  their 
stock    may    be   left  without    apprehension  of   danger  from   the 

Sir  Joseph  Banks  is  of  opinion  that  we  may  draw. any  number  Banks 
of   useful  inhabitants   from   China,    agreeal^ly    to  an   invariable  chhiese^"'"^ 
custom   of   the    Dutch   in  forming  or  recruiting  their  Eastern 

As  it  is  intended  not  to  involve  the  Government  in  either  a 
great  or  a  useless  expense  (for  the  settlement  is  designed  to  increase 
the  wealth  of  the  parent  country,  as  well  as  for  the  emolument  of 
the  adventurers),  a  sum  not  exceeding  £3,000  will  be  more  than  rrobaWe 
adequate  to  the  whole  expense  of  Government.  Most  of  the  tools, 
saws,  axes,  (fee,  &c.,  for  the  use  of  the  party  left  may  be  drawn 
from  the  ordnance  and  other  public  stores,  where  at  present  they 
are  useless ;  and  the  vessels  also,  being  part  of  the  peace  estab- 
lishment, neither  can,  nor  ought  to  be,  fairly  reckoned  in  the 

That  the  Ministry  may  be  convinced  that  this  is  not  a  vain.  Scheme 
idle  scheme,  taken  up  without  due  attention  and  consideration,  ^v^'the "'  ^ 
they  may  be  assured  that  the  matter  has  been  seriously  considered  Americans, 
by  some  of  the  most  intelligent  and  candid  Americans,  who  all 
agree  that,  under  the  j)atronage  and  protection  of  Government, 
it  offers  the  most  favorable  prospects  that  have  yet  occurred  to 
better  the  fortunes  and  to  promote  the  happiness  of  their  fellow- 
sufferers  and  countrymen. 

Sir  Joseph  Banks  highly  approves  of  the  settlement,  and  is  very  and  by 
ready  to  give  his  opinion  of  it,  either  to  his  Majesty's  Ministry 
or  others,  whenever  they  may  please  to  require  it. 

Should  this  settlement  be  made,  we  may  enter  into  a  commerce  Trade  with 
that  would  render  our  trade  to  China,  hitherto  extremely  against  ^^"^'*- 



23  Aug. 

Trade  with 
China  and 
the  islands. 

trade  with 

and  Korea. 

Nevi  Zealand 
tiniher  for 

Th"  trade 
in  spices. 

US,  very  favourable.  The  Aleutian  and  Foxes  islands,  situated 
between  Asia  and  America,  which  abound  with  the  choicest  furs, 
lie  nearly  north  of  New  South  Wales.  It  is  from  these  islands 
the  Russians  get  the  most  and  best  of  their  furs,  with  which  they 
carry  on  a  very  lucrative  trade  by  land  with  the  Chinese.  Our 
ships  that  sailed  under  the  command  of  Captain  Cook  and  Clerke 
stopped  at  some  of  them,  and  the  skins  which  they  procured  then 
sold  in  China  at  400  hard  dollars  each,  though  for  the  few  they 
brought  home,  of  the  same  quality,  they  only  received  about  ten 
pounds  each.  As  our  situation  in  ISTew  South  Wales  would  enable 
us  to  carry  on  this  trade  with  the  utmost  facility,  we  should  be 
no  longer  under  the  necessity  of  sending  such  immense  quantities 
of  silver  for  the  different  articles  we  import  from  the  Chinese 

There  is  also  a  prospect  of  considerably  extending  our  woollen 
trade.  We  know  that  large  quantities  of  woollen  cloth  are 
smuggled  to  Japan  by  the  Russians,  which,  as  it  is  taken  by  land 
carriage  from  St.  Petersburg  to  Kamschatka,  and  then  to  the 
islands  by  a  very  precarious  navigation  in  boats,  must  be  extremely 
dear.  The  Japanese,  however,  go  in  their  junks  to  the  islands 
and  purchase  great  quantities  of  it. 

The  peninsula  of  Korea,  a  kingdom  tributary  to  the  Chinese, 
and  unvisited  by  Europeans,  has  its  supply  at  second-hand  chiefly 
from  the  Japanese.  No  ship  has  ever  attempted  this  commerce, 
excepting  once  or  twice  that  the  Spaniards  ventured  thither  from 
their  American  dominions ;  but  as  the  inhabitants  of  New  Spain 
are  but  indifferent  navigators  for  the  high,  cold  latitudes,  they 
could  not  oftener  repeat  the  enterprise. 

It  may  be  seen  by  Captain  Cook's  voyage  that  New  Zealand  is 
covered  with  timber  of  size  and  every  quality  that  indicates  long- 
duration  ;  it  grows  close  to  the  water's  edge,  and  may  be  easily 
obtained.  Would  it  not  be  worth  while  for  such  as  may  be  dis- 
patched to  New  South  Wales  to  take  in  some  of  this  timber  on 
their  return,  for  the  use  of  the  King's  yards  ?  As  the  two  countries 
are  within  a  fortnight's  run  of  each  other,  and  as  we  might  be  of 
the  utmost  service  to  the  New  Zealanders,  I  think  it  highly  pro- 
bable that  this  plan  might  become  eminently  useful  to  us  as  a 
naval  power,  especially  as  we  might  thus  procure  masts,  a  single 
ti-ce  of  which  would  he  large  enough  for  a  first-rate  ship,  and 
planks  superior  to  any  that  Euroi:ie  possesses. 

By  the  preliminary  articles  of  peace  with  Holland  we  are 
entitled  to  a  free  navigation  in  the  Molucca  Seas.  A¥ithout  a 
settlement  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  concession  is  useless  ;  for  the 
Dutch  have  an  agent  almost  on  every  island  in  those  seas.  If  we 
have  a  settlement,  it  is  unnecessary ;  for  as  spices  are  the  only 
articles  we  could  expect  by  it,  it  is  probable  we  should  stand  in  no 
need  of  their  indulgence,  for  as  part  of  New  South  Wales  lies  in 

J.  M.  matea's  peoposal.  5 

the  same  latitude  with  the  Mohiccas,  and  is  even  very  close  to       1783 
them,  there  is  every  reason  to  suppose  that  what  nature  has  so     23  Aug. 
bountifully  bestowed  on  the  small  islands  may  also  be  found  on  gpjg^T" 
the  lai-ger.     But  if,  contrary  to  analo<j;y,  it  should  not  be  so,  the  may  be 

c?t/'  1.1  ciiltiva.t6a 

defect  is  easily  supplyecl,  for,  as  the  seeds  are  procured  without 
diihculty,  any  quantity  may  speedily  be  cultivated. 

To  those  who  are  alarmed  at  the  idea  of  weakening  the  mother  Emigration 
countiy  by  opening  a  channel  for  emigration,  I  must  answer  that  P°  ^'^'' 
it  is  more  profitable  that  a  part  of  our  countrymen  should  go  to  a 
new  abode,  where  they  may  be  useful  to  us,  than  to  the  American 
States.  If  we  cannot  keep  our  subjects  at  home,  it  is  sound  policy 
to  point  out  a  road  by  following  of  Avhich  they  may  add  to  the 
national  strength. 

The  place  which  New  South  Wales  holds  on  our  globe  might  ^^^l^^  "^  ^ 
give  it  a  very  commanding  influence  in  the  policy  of  Europe.  If  station. 
a  colony  from  Britain  was  established  in  that  large  tract  of 
country,  and  if  Ave  were  at  war  with  Holland  or  Spain,  we  might 
very  powerfully  annoy  either  State  from  our  new  settlement.  AVe 
might,  with  a  safe  and  expeditious  voyage,  make  naval  incursions 
on  Java  and  the  other  Dutch  settlements ;  and  we  might  with 
equal  facility  invade  the  coast  of  Spanish  America,  and  intercept 
the  Manilla  ships,  laden  with  the  treasures  of  the  west.  This 
check  which  New  South  Wales  would  be  in  time  of  war  on  both 
those  powers  makes  it  a  very  important  object  wdien  we  view  it 
in  the  chart  of  the  world  with  a  political  eye. 

Sir  Joseph  Banks'  high  approbation  of  the  scheme  which  I  have  Banks's 
here  proposed  deserves  the  most  respectful  attention  of    every  entitled  to 
sensible,  liberal,  and  spirited  individual  amongst  his  countrymen,  attention. 
The  language  of  encomium,  applied  to  this  gentleman,  would  surely 
be  inequitably  censured  as  the  language  of  adulation.      To  spurn 
the  alluring  pleasures  which  fortune  procures  in  a  frivolous  and 
luxurious  age,  and  to  encounter  extreme  difiiculties  and  dangers 
in  pursuit  of  discoveries,  which  are  of  great  benefit  to  mankind,  is 
a  complicated  and  illustrious  event,  as  useful  as  it  is  rare,  and 
which  calls  for  the  warmest  publick  gratitude  and  esteem. 

I  shall  take  this  opportunity  to  make  a  remark  on  colonization  Colonis.v 
wliich  has  not  occurred  to  me  in  any  author,  and  which  I  flatter 
myself  will  contain  some  important  civil  and  political  truth. 

Too  gi'eat  a  diminution  of  inhabitants  of  the  mother  country  nepoimia- 
is  commonly  apprehended  from  voluntary  emigration — an  aj^pre- *''°"     *^°'-^" 
hension   wliich   seems    to   me    not    to    be    the  result  of  mature 
reflexion.     That  we  almost  universally  have  a  strong  affection  for 
our  native  soil  is  an  observation  as  true  as  it  is  old.    It  is  founded 
on  the  affections  of  human  nature.     Not  only  a  Swiss,  but  even 
an  Icelander,  when  he  is  abroad,  sickens  and  languishes  in  his  Love  of 
alxsence  from  his  native  country ;  therefore,  few  of  any  country  country, 
will  ever  think  of  settling  in  any  foreign  part  of  the  world,  from 




23  Au^. 

Poverty  the 
source  of 

and  crime. 

a  restless  mind  and  from  romantic  views.  A  man's  affairs  are 
generally  in  a  very  distressed,  in  a  desperate  situation  when  he 
resolves  to  take  a  long  adieu  of  his  native  soil,  and  of  connections 
which  must  be  always  dear  to  him.  Hence  a  body  of  emigrants,, 
nay  a  numerous  body  of  emigrants,  may  in  a  commercial  view  he 
of  great  and  permanent  service  to  their  parent  community  in 
some  remote  part  of  the  world,  who,  if  they  continue  at  home, 
will  probably  live  to  see  their  own  ruin,  and  will  be  very  prejudicirJ 
to  society.  The  politician  of  an  expanded  mind  reasons  from 
the  almost  invariable  actions  of  human  nature.  The  doctrine  of 
the  petty  statesman  is  hardly  applicable  to  a  larger  extent  than 
that  of  his  own  closet.  When  our  circumstances  are  adverse  in 
the  extreme  they  very  often  produce  illegal  and  rapacious  con- 
duct. If  a  poor  man  of  broken  fortunes  and  of  any  pretensions  be 
timid  in  his  natui^e,  he  most  probably  becomes  a  useless,  if  he 
has  an  ardent  spirit,  he  becomes  a  bad  and  a  criminal,  citizen. 
There  are  indeed  some  epochs  in  a  State  when  emigrations  from 
it  may  be  too  numerous ;  but  when  from  some  calamitous  and 
urgent  publick  cause  it  must  be  unworthy  of  inhabitants. 

Ja3ies  M.  Matra. 
August  23rd,  1783.  '        


l{e)>ort  on 




shotild  be 
sent  out  to 

tion to 

When  I  conversed  w^ith  Lord  Sydney  on  this  svibject  it  was 
observed  that  New  South  Wales  would  be  a  very  proper  region 
for  the  reception  of  criminals  condemned  to  transportation.  I 
l)elieve  that  it  will  be  found  that  in  this'  idea  good  policy  and 
humanity  are  united. 

It  will  here  be  very  pertinent  to  my  purpose  to  give  an  extract 
from  the  report  of  the  committee  appointed  to  consider  the 
several  returns  relative  to  goals  [gaols].* 

1st  Resolution: — "That  the  plan  of  establishing  a  colony  or 
colonies  in  some  distant  part  of  the  globe,  and  in  new  discovered 
countries,  where  the  climate  is  healthy,  and  where  the  means  of 
support  are  attainable,  is  equally  agreeable  to  the  dictates  of 
humanity  and  sound  policy,  and  might  prove  in  the  result  advan- 
tageous to  navigation  and  commerce." 

2d.  Resolution. — "  That  it  is  the  opinion  of  this  committee  that 
it  might  be  of  publick  utility  if  the  laws  which  now  direct  and 
authorize  the  transportation  of  certain  convicts  to  his  Majesty's 
colonies  and  plantations  in  N.  America  were  made  to  authorize 
the  same  to  any  part  of  the  globe  that  may  be  found  expedient." 

The  following  facts  will  particularly  corroborate  the  second 
resolution : — 

Seven  hundred  and  forty-six  convicts  wei'e  sent  to  Africa  from 
the  year  1775  to  1776.  The  concise  account  of  them  given  into 
the  committee  exhibits  an  alarming  expenditure  of  human  life. 

*  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  appointed  in  1T77. 

J.  M.  matea's  phoposal.  7 

33-i  died,    271    deserted  to  no   one   knows  where,   and  of   the       1783 
remainder  no  account  could  be  given.     Governor  O'Hara,  who     23  Aug. 
had  resided  in  Afilca  many  years,  was  o£  opinion  that  British 
convicts  could  not  for  any  time  exist  in  that  cHiiiate. 

The  estimate  of  the  expence,  given  in  by  Mr.  Roberts,  necessary  Expense  of 
to  estabHsh  a  settlement  there,  to  receive  them,  amounted  to  i,f  Af^^ica?*^ 
£9,865.  Afterwards  the  annual  charge  to  the  publick  for  each 
convict  would  be  about  £15  14s.  Government  pays  annually  to 
the  contractor  for  each  con"\'ict  who  is  employed  in  the  hulks 
£26  15s.  lOd.  The  annual  work  of  each  man  is  valued  at  a  third 
of  the  expense. 

I  am  informed  that  in  some  years  more  than  1,000  felons  are  Cost  of 
convicted,  many  of  whom  are  under  18  years  of  age.     The  charge  i^,°"^e?  *  ^ 
to  the  publick  for  these  convicts  has  been  increasing  for  the  last 
seven  or  eight  years  ;  and,  I  believe,  now  amounts  to  more  than 
£20,000  per  annum. 

When  the  convicts  were  sent  to  America  they  were  sold  for  a 
servitude  of  seven  years.  A  proposal  has  been  made  for  the 
alteration  of  this  mode,  respecting  those  sent  to  Africa,  by  con-  Two  plans 
demning  them  to  some  publick  work  there.  They  were  to  be  [.°^j|'f(!|g*"'^ 
released  from  servitude,  and  some  ground  was  to  be  given  them 
to  cultivate  in  proportion  as  a  reformation  was  observed  in  their 

Neither  of  those  plans  can  I  approve. 

Give  them  a  few  acres  of  ground  as  soon  as  they  arrive  in  New  Another 
S(3uth  Wales,  in  absolute  property,  with  what  assistance  they  may  !',.ants  oF 
want  to  till  them.      Let  it  be  here  remarked  that  they  cannot  fly  lan^^. 
from  the  country,   that  they  have   no   temptation  to  theft,   and 
that  they  must  work  or  starve.     I  likewise  suppose  that  they  are 
not,  by  any  means,  to  be  reproached  for  their  former  conduct. 
If  these  premises  be  gi'anted  me,  I  may  reasonably  conclude  that 
it  is  highly  probable  they  will  be  useful ;  that  it  is  very  possible 
they  will  be  moral  subjects  of  society. 

Do  you  wish,  either  by  private  prudence,  or  by  civil  policy,  to  Rcfoi-matioa 
reclaim  offenders  ?      Show  by  your  treatment  of  them  that  you 
think  their  reformation  extremely  practicable,  and  do  not  hold  "ry^'"^*  ^'^'"" 

!•  ii'i  1  -J?-  men. 

out  every  moment  before  their  eyes  the  hideous  and  mortiiying 
deformity  of  their  own  vices  and  crimes.  A  man's  intimate  and 
hourly  acquaintance  with  his  guilt,  of  the  frowns  and  severities  of 
the  woi'ld,  tend  more  powerfully,  even  than  the  immediate  effects 
of  his  bad  habits,  to  make  him  a  determined  and  incorrigible 

By  the  plan  which  I  have  now  proposed  a  necessity  to  continue 
in  the  place  of  his  destination  and  to  be  industrious  is  imposed 
on  the  criminal.      The  expence  to  the  nation  is  a1)solutely  imper-  Kionomy 
ceptible,  comparatively,  with  what  criminals  have  hitherto  cost  humanity 


1783       Government ;  and  thus  two  objects  of  most  desirable  and  beautiful 
23  Aug.     union  will  be  permanently  blended — economy  to  the  publick,  and 
humanity  to  the  individual. 

James  M.  Matra. 


1  Oct. 

Dc  Lancey'i 
proiiosal  to 
send  out 

.South  .Sea 

The  China 

J.  M.  Matra  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.* 

Marston  House,  Frome,  Somersetshire, 
Dear  Sir,  1st  October  [November],  '84. 

Of  the  many  letters  that  I  have  long  been  pestered  with 
on  the  subject  of  New  South  "Wales,  the  enclosed  is  the  only  one 
that  I  am  now  desirous  of  answering,  foi'  which  reason  I  take  the 
liberty  of  sending  it  to  you.  I  know  that  Mr.  De  Laneey,  who 
is  very  sanguine  on  the  business,  has  been  active  in  procuring  the 
consent  of  many  people  to  go ;  and  as  a  settlement  somewhere  is 
essentially  necessary  to  them,  I  wish  to  be  authorized  to  give  him 
a  decisive  answer,  which,  whatever  my  private  opinion  may  be,  I 
think,  would  be  improper  till  I  hear  from  you.  You  will,  there- 
fore, do  me  a  particular  pleasure,  if  to  the  great  trouble  you  have 
already  taken  in  pushing  forward  this  business  for  me  you  would 
be  so  obliging  as  to  tell  me  if  the  Ministry  have  come  to  a  decided 
resolution  to  reject  the  plan,  or  if  there  be  any  chance  of  its 
being  entered  on  in  the  spring  season.  I  shall  go  next  Thursday 
for  a  few  days  to  Ld.  Craven's,  Benham  Place,  Berks.,  where  your 
letter  to  me,  under  Ld.  Cork's  cover,  will  safely  reach  me.  My 
company,  to  be  sure,  is  not  politically  orthodox,  but  when  I  assure 
you  that  I  am  not  contaminated  by  their  heresies,  you  will  excuse 
the  direction.  I  shall  always  be  extremely  cautious  of  obtruding 
on  your  time  ;  and,  were  you  to  see  but  a  list  of  the  fiftieth .  part 
of  the  letters  I  am  perplexed  with  about  the  S.  Seas,  I  know  you 
would  pardon  this  instance.  I  am,  &c., 

James  M.  Matra, 

Thursday  morning. 

The  Attorney-General,  I  believe  by  his  own  desire,  has  had  com- 
municated to  him  an  observation  on  the  passage  of  our  China 
ships  that  I  imagine  will  remove  the  only  difficulty  that  I  can 
think  of  in  the  way  of  the  South  Sea  scheme. 

It  is  a  better  rout  and  shorter  for  the  ships  bound  to  China 
to  pass  by  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales — 2row  that  it  is  so  well 
known — than  that  which  they  at  present  pursue.  Sir  George 
Young  has  spoken  to  several  of   them   on  this  subject,  and  it 

•'■  Evan  Nepean,  Under  Secretary  of  the  Home  Department,  which  was  charged  with  the 
administration  of  Colonial  affairs.  He  was  created  a  baronet  in  1802.  Mr.  Matra's  letter 
and  enclosure  refer  to  a  proposal  to  send  American  lo.yalists  as  emig-raiits  to  New  South 
Wales.  The  American  loyalists  were  the  colonists  who" remained  loyal  to  Great  Britain  in 
the  War  of  Indepcndonce,  and  were  punished  by  beinf,^  driven  from  their  homes.  Mr. 
De  Lancey's  suggestions  did  not  meet  with  the  approval  of  the  British  Government. 


appears  that  the  Goverment  may  send  out  convicts  at  about  1784 
£15  a  head,  and  as  Mr.  Pitt's  Commutation  Bill  will  considerably  i  Oct. 
increase  the  number  of  China  ships,  twenty  being  taken  out  by 
each  yearly,  will  rid  you  of  as  many  as  are  on  hand.  As  perhaps 
the  Attorney-General  may  not  receive  this  in  time,  you  will 
oblige  me  by  communicating  it  to  Ld.  Sydney  before  he  goes  to 
the  Cabinet  Council. 

As  there  are  officers  of  some  consideration  in  the  service  who 
are  willing  to  go  on  this  duty,  and  as  the  number  of  convicts  officers 
taken  out  at  the  beginning  are  few,  and  chosen,  I  think  the  im-  sery",^'  ^'^ 
propriety  of  employing  King's  ships  in  the  first  instance  suffi.- 
ciently  removed. 


James  De  Lancey  to  J.  M.  Matra.* 

Dear  Sir,  Southampton,  October  the  12th,  1784.  12  Oct. 

I  should  have  answered  yours  of  the  31st  of  August 
sooner,  but  waited  in  expectation  of  another  letter  from  you, 
which  would  have  contained  something  decisive  in  regard  to  New 
South  Wales. 

My  brother  will  deliver  this  to  you.  He  wishes  much  to  have 
this  business  determined  one  way  or  the  other,  in  order  that,  if  j-  c'ecisiou 

t/  '  '        (losircti, 

the  plan  of  making  a  settlement  in  the  Southern  Hemisphere 
should  1)6  given  up,  he  may  think  of  some  other  way  of  I'endering 
himself  usefull,  as  he  has  an  active  mind,  and  does  not  chuse  to 
remain  idle. 

The  season  for  a  voyage  to  that  country  will  soon  be  elapsed,  ^,^g 
and  unless  the  equipment  is  speedily  sett  on  foot,  another  year  Loyalists, 
will    be   lost,   and  my  prospect  of  procuring  settlers  from  the 
loyalists  in  Nova  Scotia  rendered  less  favourable,  for  by  next 
year    I    should    suppose    most    of   them    who   have   gone   thei'e 
will  have  procured  some  kind  of  habitation  for  themselves,  and 
will  not  chuse  to  quit  them  for  an  uncertain  settlement  in  N.S. 
Wales,   and   I  would  like  to  have  among  the  emigrants   some  Superior 
of  the  better  sort,   and  should  not  chuse  to   have   the   colony  etu'Ri-ants". 
composed  only  of  such  persons  who  would  not  get  their  living 
anywhere  else. 

I  find  that  the  Treasury  Board  have  met,  and  therefore  hope 
that  now  the  Ministers  have  returned  to  town  some  final  deter- 
mination will  Ije  liad  on  this  Inisiness,  and  flatter  myself  that  a 
measure  which  aj^pears  to  meet  with  general  approbation  will 
not  be  abandoned.  I  am,  itc, 

James  De  Lancev. 

*  Thi?  letter  was  addressed  to  James  Maria  Matra,  Esq.,  No.  4,  Duke-street,  Grosvenor 
Square.    No  further  correspondence  on  the  subject  has  been  found  amongst  the  Kecords. 


1784  Lord  Howe*  to  Lord  Sydney. 

^^^^°-  Admiralty,  26th  Dec,  1784. 

I  RETURN,  my  dear  Lord,  the  papersf  you  left  with  me  to-day, 

which  are  copies  oialy  of  the   former   sent  to  me  on  the  same 

subject  on  Friday  evening. 

Matra's  Should  it  be  thoua;ht  advisable  to  increase  the  number  of  our 

^  settlements  on  the  plan  Mr.  Matra  has  suggested,   I  imagine  it 

would  be  necessary  to  employ  ships  of  a  diiierent  construction. 

Frigates  are  ill  adapted  for  such  services.     I   conceive  that  ships 

of  burthen  to  contain  the  various  stores,  provisions,  implements, 

&c.,  wanted  for  the  first  colonists  meant  to  be  established  there, 

and  composing  the  chief  part  of  the  company  of  the  ship,  should 

be  provided  for  the  purpose,  tho'  an  armed  vessel  of  suitable 

dimensions  might  be  previously  appointed  to  inspect  and  fix  on  the 

preferable  station  for  fonning  the  intended  establishment.     The 

Unfavour-     length  of  the  navigation,  subject  to  all  the  retardments  of  an 

e  opinion,  jj^^^g^  voyage,  do  not,  I  must  confess,  encourage  me  to  hope  for  a 

return  of  the  many  advantages  in  commerce  or  war  which  Mr.  M. 

Matra  has  in  contemplation.  I  am,  &c., 



2785  The  Attorney-General  to  Lord  Sydney. 

13  Jan.  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

My  Lord,  Jan'ry  13th,  1785. 

Sir  George  Inclosed  you  receive  a  scheme  of  Sir  George  Young,  of  the 

pian"^'^  ^^vy,  for  settling  New  South  Wales,  which  he  has  desired  me  to 
transmit  to  your  Lordship  for  your  consideration,  to  which  I 
take  the  liberty  of  recommending  it.  Lord  Mansfield  mentioned 
the  subject  to  me,  and  desired  Sir  George  Young  would  call  upon 
me  and  explain  his  ideas.  I  profess  myself  totally  ignorant  of 
the  probability  of  the  success  of  such  a  scheme,  but  it  appears  to 
A  likely  me,  Upon  a  cursory  view  of  the  subject,  to  be  the  most  likely 
method  of  effectually  disposing  of  convicts,  the  number  of  which 
requires  the  immediate  interference  of  Government.  As  your 
Lordship  and  Sir  George  Yonge  were  desirous  that  the  Lord  Chan- 
cellor should  be  consulted  respecting  the  removal  of  the  soldiers 
from  Hastings,  and  as  I  understood  your  Lordship  was  to  see 
the  Chancellor  to-day,  I  shall  be  obliged  to  you  if  you,  as  soon  as  it 

*  Admiral  Howe,  First  Lord  of  the  Admiralty, 
t  Matra's  proposal. 

t  The  names  Young-  and  Yonge,  which  both  occur  in  the  Attorney-General's  letter,  must 
not  be  confounded.  Sir  George  Young,  who  proposed  a  plan  for  settling  convicts  on  the 
New  South  Wales  coast,  was  a  naval  officer  of  distinction  (Admiral  of  the  White).  Sir  George 
Yonge  was  Secretary  at  War. 


Sm   GEORGE   young's  PLAN.  11 

is  determiued  whether  an  application  shall  be  made  for  their  I'^'^S 
removal,  inform  me,  and  I  will  give  immediate  orders  for  the  13  Jan. 
proper  steps  to  be  taken  for  that  purpose.        I  have,  jfec, 

R.  P.  Aeden. 

The  "Plan." 

The  following  is  a  rough  outline  of  the  many  advantages  that 
may  result  to  this  nation  from  a  settlement  made  on  the  coast 
of  Kew  South  Wales  : — 
Its  great  extent   and   relative    situation    with   respect    to    the  Geograprii- 
eastern  and  southern  parts  of  the  globe  is  a  material  considera-  ^^  ^°''' '""' 
tion.     Botany  Bay,  or  its  vicinity,  the  part  that  is  proposed  to  be 
first  settled,  is  not  more  than  sixteen  hundred  leagues  from  Lima 
and  Baldivia  [Valdi^da],  with  a  fair  open  navigation,  and  there  Trade  v.ith 
is  no  doubt  but  that  a  lucrative  trade  would  soon  be  opened  with  America. 
the  Creole  Spaniards  for  English  manufactures.     Or  suppose  we 
were   again   involved  in  a  Avar  with   Spain,  here  are   ports  of 
shelter  and  refreshment  for  our  ships,  should  it  be  necessary  to 
send  any  into  the  South  Sea. 

From  the  coast  of  China  it  lies  not  more  than  about  a  thou-  Commercial 
sand  leagues,  and  nearly  the  same  distance  from  the  East  Indies,  p°s'*^'°"- 
from  the  Spice  Islands  about  seven  hundred  leagues,  and  near  a 
month's  run  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

The  variety  of  climates  included  between  the  forty -fourth  and  ^>riet.v  of 
tenth  degrees  of  latitude  gives  us  an  opportunity  of  uniting  in  one  productions. 
territory  almost  all  the  productions  of  the  known  world.  To 
explain  this  more  fully  I  will  point  out  some  of  the  countries 
which  are  situated  within  the  same  extent  of  latitude,  on  either 
side  of  the  Equator.  They  are  China,  Japan,  Siam,  India, 
Persia,  Arabia-felix,  Egypt,  Greece,  all  Turkey,  the  Mediter- 
ranean Sea,  Italy,  Spain,  South  of  France,  and  Portugal,  with 
Mexico,  Lima,  Baldivia  [Valdivia],  and  the  greatest  part  of 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  to  which  may  be  added  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope,  &c.,  &c. 

From  this  review  it  will,   I  think,   be  acknowledged  that  a  Facilities 
territory  so  happily  situated  must  be  superior  to  all  others  for  ^°^  ^^aAv.. 
establishing   a   very   extensive    commerce,    and   of   consequence 
greatly  increase  our  shipping  and  number  of  seamen.     Nor  is  it 
mere  presumption  to  say   the  country  is  everywhere  capable  of 
producing  all  kinds  of  spice,  likewise  the  fine  Oriental  cotton,  Tropical 
indigo,  coffee,  tobacco,  with  every  species  of  the  sugar-cane,  also  P^'oi'^'^^^^s. 
tea,  silk,  and  madder.     That  \evy  remarkaljle  plant  known  by  the 
name  of  the  New  Zealand  flax-plant  may  be  cultivated  in  every  riax. 
part,  and  in  any  quantity,  as  our  demands  may  require.     Its  uses 
are  more  extensive  than  any  vegetable  hithei'to  known,  for  in  its 
gross  state  it  far  exceeds  anything  of  the  kind  for  cordage  and 




Metals  of 
every  kind. 

Settlers  from 
the  islands 
and  China. 




1785  canvas,  and  may  be  obtained  at  a  much  cheaper  rate  than  those 
13  Jan.  materials  we  at  present  get  from  Russia,  who  may  perhaps  at 
some  future  period  think  it  her  interest  to  prohibit  our  trade  for 
such  articles,  and  the  difficulties  that  must  arise  in  such  a  case 
are  too  ol^vious  to  mention,  but  are  everywhere  provided  against 
in  this  proposal. 

With  but  a  trifling  expence  and  a  little  industry  we  may  in 
the  course  of  a  few  years  establish  a  commercial  mart  on  one 
island  comprehending  all  the  articles  of  trade  in  itself  and  every 
necessary  for  shipping,  not  to  mention  the  great  probability  of 
finding  in  such  an  immense  country  metals  of  every  kind. 

At  a  time  when  men  are  alarmed  at  every  idea  of  emigration  I 
wish  not  to  add  to  their  fears  by  any  attempt  to  depopulate  the 
parent  state.  The  settlers  of  New  South  Wales  are  principally  to 
be  collected  from  the  Friendly  Islands  and  China.  All  the  people 
required  from  England  are  only  a  few  that  are  possessed  of  the 
useful  arts  and  those  comprized  among  the  crews  of  the  ships  sent 
on  that  service. 

The  American  loyalists  would  here  find  a  fertile,  healthy  soil, 
far  preferable  to  their  own,  and  well  worthy  their  industry,  where, 
with  a  very  small  part  of  the  expence  the  Crown  must  necessarily 
be  at  for  their  support,  they  may  be  established  now  comfortal^ly, 
and  with  a  greater  prospect  of  success  than  in  any  other  place 
hitherto  pointed  out  for  them. 

The  very  heavy  expence  Government  is  annually  put  to  for 
transporting  and  otherwise  punishing  the  felons,  together  with 
the  facility  of  their  return,  are  evils  long  and  much  lamented. 
Here  is  an  asylum  open  that  will  considerably  reduce  the  first, 
and  for  ever  prevent  the  latter. 

Upon  the  most  liberal  calculation  the  expence  of  this  plan  can- 
not exceed  ^3,000,  for  it  must  be  allowed  that  ships  of  Avar  are  as 
cheaply  fed  and  paid  in  the  South  Seas  as  in  the  British  Channel. 
Had  I  the  command  of  this  expedition,  I  should  require  a  ship 
of  wax- — say,  the  old  Rainbow,  now  at  Woolwich,  formerly  a  ship 
of  forty  guns — as  the  best  constructed  for  the  purpose  of  any  in 
the  Navy,  with  only  half  her  lower-deck  guns  and  250  men,  one 
hundred  of  which  should  be  marines ;  a  store-ship,  likewise,  of 
about  600  tons  burthen,  with  forty  seamen  and  ten  marines,  and  a 
small  vessel  of  about  100  tons,  of  the  brig  or  schooner  kind,  with 
twenty  men,  both  fitted  as  ships  of  war  and  commanded  by  proper 
Guard-ship  The  large  ship  is  necessary  for  receiving  fifty  of  the  felons,  pro- 
visions, and  stores,  with  a  variety  of  live  stock  and  plants  from 
England  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  She  is  more  particularly 
Avanted  as  a  guard-ship,  to  i-emain  in  the  country  at  least  two 
years  after  her  arrival,  or  longer,  as  may  he  found  necessary,  to 
protect  the  settlers,  &c.     The  store-ship  is  required  for  taking  an 




SIR    GEOUGE    YOrNG's   PLAN.  13 

additional  quantity  of  provisions,  to  serve  until  wc  are  about  to       I'^'^S 
raise  some  for  ourselves.     The  brig  or   schooner  is  principally      isjan. 
wanted  to  explore  the  coast  on  our  arrival,  for  notwithstanding  a  £xpioriii''- 
convenient  place  is  already  mentioned  for  the  purpose,  nature  ship. 
and  experience  inform  me  a  navigable  river  may  be  found  on  such 
an  extensive  coast,  which,  when  discovered,  she  may  be  then  dis- 
patched to  England  with  an  acccount  of  our  proceedings.      In  the 
nieantune,  the  store-ship  may  be  sent  to  the  Fi'iendly  Islands  for 
inhabitants  and  useful  plants. 

The  settlement  being  thus  established,  any  difficulties  that  may 
arise  from  the  great  distance  of  New  South  "Wales  are  obviated 
in  the  mamier  following  : — The  China  ships  belonging  to  the  East 
India  Comjoany,  after  leaving  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  keeping 
more  to  the  southerd  than  usual,  may  land  the  felons  on  the  Route  for 
coast,  and  then  proceed  to  the  northerd,  round  New  Ireland,  ghips!'^'"^ 
ifcc,  or  through  Saint  George's  Channel,  and  so  on  to  the  island 
Formosa  for  Canton.  With  a  little  geographical  investigation, 
this  passage  will  be  found  more  short,  easy,  and  a  ^afer  navigation 
than  the  general  route  of  the  China  ships — from  Madrass  through 
the  Streitfhts  of  Malacca. 

Perhaps  the  number  of  the  felons,  after  the  present  are  disposed 
of,  may  not  require  more  than  two  shijDs  in  the  coarse  of  a  yeai\ 
The  expence  thereof  attending  the  transporting  of  them  by  this  cheap  trans- 
method  must  certainly  be  much  less  than  by  any  other  whatever,  poi't^'^'^'o"- 
without  even  the  most  distant  probability  of  their  return.     Every 
ship  may  take  any  number  of  felons  not  exceeding  seventy. 

Necessary  Implements  : —  implements. 

Iron  in  bars  Soap 

Forges  and  anvills  Hatts  and  caps 

Spades  and  shovels  Wheels  of  barrows 

Mattocks  Seeds  and  plants 

Spikes  and  nails  Articles  of  trade  with  natives 

Pitchforks  of  the  islands,  &c. 

Axes  of  sorts  Window  glass 

Iron  crows  and  wedges  Grain  of  sorts 

Saws  of  sorts  Fishing  tackle 

Large  hammers  Gardening  too 

Mills  Carpenters'  do. 

Grindstones  Smiths'  tools 

Cutlery  Shoemakers'  do. 

Cooking  utensils  Bricklayers'  do. 

Iron  pots  of  sorts  Masons'  do. 

Shoes  and  leather  Coals  as  ballast 

Linnen  and  woollen  cloth  Some  leaden  pumps,  &c. 

Tinware  Scythes 

Thread,  needles,  &c.  Pewter  and  earthenware. 






18  Aug-. 

Gaols  over- 

Lord  Sydney  to  The  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury. 

Convicts  to 



to  Rotany 

Order  for 
fii-st  fleet. 


My  Lords, 

Whitehall,  18th  August,  1786. 

in  this  kingdom 

The  several  gaols  and  places  for  the  confinement  of  felons 
being  in  so  crowded  a  state  that  the  greatest 
danger  is  to  be  apprehended,  not  only  from  their  escape,  but  from 
infectious  distempers,  which  may  hourly  be  expected  to  break  out 
amongst  them,  his  Majesty,  desirous  of  preventing  by  every 
possible  means  the  ill  consequences  which  might  happen  from 
either  of  these  causes,  has  been  pleased  to  signify  to  me  his  royal 
commands  that  measures  should  immediately  be  pursued  for 
sendino-  out  of  this  kingdom  such  of  the  convicts  as  are  under 
sentence  or  order  of  transportation. 

The  Nautilus,  sloop,  which,  upon  the  recommendation  of  a 
committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  had  been  sent  to  explore 
the  southern  ,  coast  of  Africa,  in  order  to  find  out  an  eligilile 
situation  for  the  reception  of  the  said  convicts,  where  from  their 
industry  they  might  soon  be  likely  to  obtain  means  of  subsistence, 
having  lately  returned,  and  it  appearing  by  the  report  of  her 
officers  that  the  several  parts  of  the  coast  which  they  examined 
between  the  latitudes  15°  50'  south  and  the  latitude  of  33°  00' 
are  sandy  and  barren,  and  from  other  causes  unfit  for  a  settle- 
ment of  that  description,  his  Majesty  has  thought  it  advisable 
to  fix  upon  Botany  Bay,  situated  on  the  coast  of  New  South 
Wales,  in  the  latitude  of  about  33  degi'ees  south,  which,  according 
to  the  accounts  given  by  the  late  Captain  Cook,  as  well  as  the 
representations  of  persons  who  accompanied  him  during  his  last 
voyage,  and  who  have  been  consulted  upon  the  subject,  is  looked 
upon  as  a  place  likely  to  answer  the  above  pui'poses. 

I  am,  therefore,  commanded  to  signify  to  your  Lordships  his 
Majesty's  pleasure  that  you  do  forthwith  take  such  measures  as 
may  be  necessary  for  providing  a  proper  number  of  vessels  for  the 
conveyance  of  750  convicts  to  Botany  Bay,  together  with  such 
provisions,  necessaries,  and  implements  for  agriculture  as  may  be 
necessaiy  for  their  use  after  their  arrival. 

In  order  that  a  proper  degree  of  subordination  and  regiTlarity 
may  be  preserved  in  this  new  intended  settlement,  his  Majesty 
has  been  pleased  to  give  orders  that  an  officer  and  proper  assistants 
shall  be  appointed  to  superintend  it,  and  that  three  companies  of 
the  Marine  Corps  shall  be  stationed  there  so  long  as  it  may  be 
found  necessaiy.  The  officers  and  marines  will  be  embarked  on 
board  a  ship  of  war  and  a  tender,  which  the  Lords  Commissioners 
of  the  Admiralty  have  been  directed  to  provide  for  this  service, 
the  commanders  of  which  will  be  instructed  to  take  under  their 
protection  the  ships  on  board  of  which  the  convicts  may  be  em- 
barked, and  to  regulate  their  sailing  to  the  place  of  destination. 

The  crews  of  the  ship  of  war  and  the  tender,  as  well  as  the 
Marine  Corps,  will  be  victualled  by  the  Naval  Department  during 


their  passage  ;  but  your  Lordships  will  please  to  take  notice  that       1786 
the  marines  are  to  be  provided  for  after  their  landing,  and  supplies     is  A-ag. 
of  provisions,  as  well  as  implements  for  agricnlture,  should  also  be 
procured  for  their  use.     The  number  may  amount  to  about  180, 
to  which  is  to  be  added  the  stafiF  establishment,  consisting  of 
fifteen,  and  perhaps  200  females,  which  yovir  Lordship  will  see  by  island 
a  sketch  of  the  plan  for  forming  this  new  settlement,  herewith  women, 
transmitted,''^  are  likely  to  be  procured  from  places  in  its  neighbour- 
hood, as  companions  for  the  men.f 

If  the  persons  who  may  contract  for  the  passage  of  the  convicts  Guard  for 
should  be  desirous  of  obtaining  military  assistance  for  their  greater  transports, 
security,  they  may  be  accommodated  with  a  part  of  the  marines, 
who  would  otherwise  be  conveyed  to  the  new  settlement  in  the 
ship  of  war  and  the  tender. 

According  to  the  best  opinions  that  can  be  obtained,  it  is  Two  years' 
supposed  that  a  quantity  of  provisions  equal  to  two  years'  con- 1"°^'^*^°"^- 
sumption  should  be  provided,  which  must  be  issued  from  time  to 
time,  according  to  the  discretion  of  the  superintendent,  in  the 
expenditure  of  which  he  will,  of  course,  be  guided  by  the 
proportion  of  food  which  the  country  and  the  labour  of  the  new 
settlers  may  produce. 

From    the  length  of   the  passage  to  New  South  Wales,   the 
commanding  ofhcer  will  most  likely  find  it  necessary  to  call  at 
the  Cape  de  Verd  Islands,  as  well  as  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
for  the  purpose  of  recruiting  the  water.     At  the  latter  of  these 
places  he  will,  in  all  probability,  be  enabled  to  obtain  cattle  and 
hogs,  as  well  as   seed  grain,  all  of  which  must  be  procured  for  grain  from 
the  new  settlers,  with  a  view  to  their  future  subsistence,  and  ^iie  Cape, 
as  expenses    will    thereby,    of   course,    be    incurred,    it   will    be 
necessary    that    your    Lordships     should    authorize    the    naval 
commander,   or  the  superintendent,   to  draw  upon  you  for  the  . 
amount ;  and  that,  in  addition  thereto,  a  quantity  of  merchan- 
dize should  be  put  on  board   the    ship  of  war   or   the   tender 
previous  to   their   sailing,   sufficient  to    obtain    supplies  of  live  Barter, 
stock  by  the  means  of  bai'ter  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  islands 
contiguous  to  the  new  intended  settlement,  from  whence  such 
suj)plies  may  at  all  times  be  obtained. 

A  small  quantity  of  garden  seeds    should  be   sent   out  from  Garden 
hence,  together  with  some  seed  grain,  to  prevent  inconveniences  and  grain, 
that  might  happen  should  any  difficulties  arise  in  procuring  a 
supply,  particularly  of  the  latter,  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

The  tools  for  erecting  habitations,  and  implements  for  agri- Tools  and 
culture,    which    it    is    supposed    will   be    most   useful    in    the 
.settlement,  are  specified  in  the  list  accompanying  this,  and  with 

*  Post,  p.  17. 
t  Women  from  the  Islands.    This  part  of  the  plan  was  not  carried  out. 




18  Aug. 






Tools  and 

which  it  will  be  proper  to  supply  the  marines  and  the  convicts 
after  their  landing  at  the  settlement.  It  is,  therefore,  his 
Majesty's  further  pleasure  that  these  articles  he  also  jDrovided 
and  sent  out,  together  with  l^edding  for  each  of  the  convicts, 
and  a  proportion  of  cloa thing  agreeably  to  the  estimate  enclosed. 
The  marines  will  be  supplied  with  bedding  from  the  ship  of  war. 

I  have  it  in  command  from  his  Majesty  only  further  to 
acquaint  your  Lordships  that  a  quantity  of  surgical  instruments 
and  medicines  and  necessaries  for  the  sick  Avill  likewise  be 
wanted,  and  as  soon  as  an  estimate  can  be  formed  it  shall  be 
transmitted  to  your  Lordships,  together  with  the  staff  establish- 

In  the  meantime,  I  have  only  to  recommend  it  to  your 
LoixTships  to  cause  every  possible  expedition  to  be  used  in  pre- 
I^aring  the  shipping  for  the  reception  of  the  said  convicts,  and 
for  transporting  the  supplies  of  2:)rovisions  and  necessaries  for 
their  use  to  the  place  of  their  destination.*       I  have,  &c., 



Livi  of  Tools,  Utensils,  etc.,  necessary  for  the  Convicts  and  3Iarines  intended 
to  proceed  to  Neiu  South  Wales. 

Spades,  1,  @  3s.  ;  shovels,  1,  @  3s.  ;  hoes,  3  for  each  man,  @  9d.  ;  felling 
axe,  1,  @  3s. ;  hatchet,  1,  @  Is. ;  knife,  1,  @  6d.  each ;  gimblet,  wooden  bowls, 
platters,  and  spoons,  6d.  for  each  man. 

The  articles  necessary  to  each  man  amounts  to  12s.  6d. 
which  for  700  men  will  be  . . . 

General  StocJ:. 
Crossciit  saws,  40  @  10s.  each  ... 
Hand  saws,  1  for  every  4  men,  @  5s.  each     ... 
Frame  saw.s,  40,  @  16s.  each 
Adzes,  100,  @  2s.  each   ... 
Broad  axes,  100,  @  2s.  6d.  each 
Hammers,  1  for  every  4  men,  @  Is.  each 
Augers,  140,  @  Is.  each 
Drawing  knives,  149,  at  Is. 
Chissels  and  gouges,  300,  @  7d.  each  ... 

Planes,  100,  @  2s.  6d.  each        

Iron  forges,  anvils,  and  hammers,  10,  @  £3  ... 
Grindstones,  30,  @  10s.  6d.  each 
Wheelbarrows,  40,  @  10s.  each 
Pickaxes,  50,  @  5s.  each 

Ploughs,  12,  @,  £4  each  

Iron  hand  mills,  40,  @  £2  each... 
Coopers'  tools,  10  setts,  @  £1  15s.  each 

Carried  forivard 

*  The  King's  Speech  (George  III)  read  at  the  opening  of  Parliament,  on  the  23rd  .Januarj-, 
1787,  contained  the   following-   passage :—"  A   plan    has   hfcn   formed,  b.v  no'  direction, 
for  transpoi-ting  a  number  of  con\icts  in  order  to  remove  tlie  incon\enience  which  arose 
from  the  crowded  state  of  the  gaols  in  different  parts  of  the  kingdom  ;   and  you  will, 
doubt  not,  take  such  further  measures  as  may  be  necessary  for  this  purijose." 

£  s. 


437  10 


20  0 


43  15 


32  0 


10  0 


12  10 


8  15 


7  0 


7  0 


8  15 


12  10 


30  0 


15  15 


20  0 


12  10 


48  0 


SO  0 


,  17  10 


£823  10 


£     s. 
82S  10 



100     0 


IS  Aug 

30    0 


6  13 


Tools  and 

.5     0 


170    0 


33    6 


100    0 


£1,268  10 


ne  year. 


£    s. 


0     9 


0     8 


0     2 


0    9 


0    4 


0    6 


0    6 


0  13 



Brougld  forward 
Nails  of  difft  sizes,  (a;  2s.  9d.  p'r  1,000,  ab't  10  barrels 

Spikes,  2,000,  @  £1  10s.  p'r  100  

Hinges,  200  pairs,  @  8d.  each  ... 

Locks,  100,  @  Is.  each    ... 

Bar  iron,  flat  and  square,  10  ton,  @  £17 

G hiss,  1,000  S(|uares,  (5  8d.  per  doz.     ... 

Fishing  lines,  hooks,  nets,  needles,  twine,  &c. 

Estimate  of  clothing  to  serve  a  male  convict  for  one  year 

Jackets,  2,  @  4s.  6d.       ...         

Wollen  drawers,  4,  @  2s. 

Hat,  1,  @  2s.  6d.  

Shirts,  3,  (S)  3s. 

Worsted  stockings,  4  p'r,  (a;  Is. 

Frocks,  3,  (a  2s.  3d 

Trousers,  3,  @  2s.  3d 

Shoes,  3,  @  4s.  6d. 

£2  19    6 
The  expence  of  clothing  female  convicts  may  be  computed  to  amount  to 
the  same  sum. 
A  proportion  for  two  years  to  be  provided. 

Heads  of  a  Plan.* 
Heads    of    a   plan    for    effectually    disposing   of    convicts,    and  Proposal  for 
rendering    their    transportation    reciprocally    beneficial    both    to  settlement. 
themselves  and  to  the  State,  by  the  establishment  of  a  colony  in 
New  South  "Wales,  a  country  which,  by  the  fertility  and  salubrity 
of  the  climate,   connected  with  the  remoteness  of  its  situaticm 
(from  whence  it  is  hardly  possible  for  persons  to  return  without 
permission),  seems   peculiarly  adapted   to  answer  the  views  of 
Government  with  respect  to  the  providing  a  remedy  for  the  evils 
likely  to  result  from  the  late  alarming  and  numerous  increase  of 
felons  in  this  country,  and  more  particularly  in  the  metropolis. 

It  is  proposed  that  a  ship  of  w'ar  of  a  proper  class,  with  a  part 
of  her  guns  mounted,  and  a  sufficient  number  of  men  on  board 
for  her  navigation,  and  a  tender  of  about  200  tons  burthen,  Ships. 
commanded  by  discreet  officers,  should  be  got  ready  as  soon  as 
possible  to  serve  as  an  escort  to  the  convict  ships,  and  for  other 
purposes  hereinafter  mentioned. 

That,  in  addition  to  their  crews,  they  should  take  on  board  Marines. 
two  companies  of    marines  to  form  a  military  establishment  on 
shore  (not  only  for  the  protection  of  the  settlement,  if  i-equisite, 
against  the  natives,   but   for   the   preservation  of  good    order), 
together  with  an  assortment  of  stores,  utensils,  and  implements,  stores  and 
necessary  for  erecting  habitations  and  for  agriculture,  and  such  provisions, 
quantities  of  provisions  as  may  be  proper  for  the  use  of  the  crews. 

C  *  Ante,  p.  15. 




18  Aug-. 

Live  stock 
and  seed. 


Two  years' 

Ituards  for 

.  Surgeons. 




As  many  of  the  marines  as  possible  should  be  artificers,  such  as 
carpenters,  sawyers,  smiths,  potters  (ifpossible),  and  some  husband- 
men. To  have  a  chaplain  on  board,  with  a  surgeon,  and  one  mate 
at  least ;  the  former  to  remain  at  the  settlement. 

That  these  vessels  should  touch  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  or 
any  other  places  that  may  be  convenient,  for  any  seed  that  may 
be  requisite  to  be  taken  from  thence,  and  for  such  live  stock  as 
they  can  possibly  contain,  which,  it  is  supposed,  can  be  procured 
there  without  any  sort  of  difficulty,  and  at  the  most  reasonable 
rates,  for  the  use  of  the  settlement  at  large. 

That  Govei'nment  should  immediately  provide  a  certain  number 
of  ships  of  a  proper  burthen  to  receive  on  board  at  least  seven  or 
eight  hundred  convicts,  and  that  one  of  them  should  be  properly 
fitted  for  the  accommodation  of  the  women,  to  prevent  their  inter- 
course with  the  men. 

That  these  ships  should  take  on  board  as  much  provisions  as 
they  can  possibly  stow,  or  at  least  a  sufficient  quantity  for  two 
years'  consumption ;  supposing  one  year  to  be  issued  at  whole 
allowance,  and  the  other  year's  provisions  at  half  allowance,  which 
will  last  two  years  longer,  by  which  time,  it  is  presumed,  the 
colony,  with  the  live  stock  and  grain  which  may  be  raised  by  a 
common  industry  on  the  part  of  the  new  settlers,  will  be  fully 
sufficient  for  their  maintenance  and  support. 

That,  in  addition  to  the  crews  of  the  ships  appointed  to  contain 
the  convicts,  a  company  of  marines  should  be  divided  between 
them,  to  be  employed  as  guards  for  preventing  ill  consequences 
that  might  arise  from  dissatisfaction  amongst  the  convicts,  and 
for  the  protection  of  the  crew  in  the  navigation  of  the  ship  from 
insults  that  might  be  offered  by  the  convicts. 

That  each  of  the  ships  should  have  on  board  at  least  two 
surgeons'  mates,  to  attend  to  the  wants  of  the  sick,  and  should 
be  supplied  with  a  proper  assortment  of  medicines  and  instruments, 
and  that  two  of  them  should  remain  with  the  settlement. 

After  the  arrival  of  the  ships  which  are  intended  to  convey  the 
convicts,  the  ship  of  war  and  t'ender  may  be  employed  in  obtain- 
ing live  stock  from  the  Cape,  or  from  the  Molucca  Islands,  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  which  may  be  brought  from  either  of  those 
places  to  the  new  settlement  in  two  or  three  trips  ;  or  the  tender, 
if  it  should  be  thought  most  adviseable,  may  be  employed  in  con- 
^■eying  to  the  new  settlement  a  further  number  of  women  from 
the  l^-iendly  Islands,  New  Caledonia,  etc.,  which  are  contiguous 
thereto,  and  from  whence  any  number  may  be  pi'ocured  without 
difficulty  ;  and  without  a  sufficient  proportion  of  that  sex  it  is 
well-known  that  it  would  be  impossible  to  preserve  the  settlement 
from  gross  irregularities  and  disorders. 

The  whole  regulation  and  management  of  the  settlement  should 
be  committed    to  the    cai^e  of   a   discreet  officer,  and  provision 


should  be  made  in  all  cases,  both  civil  aiul  military,  by  special  1786 
instructions  under  the  Great  Seal  or  otherwise,  as  may  be  thought  ^g  ^^,„ 

Upon  the  whole,  it  may  be  observed  with  great  force  and  truth 
that  the  difference  of  expence  (whatever  method  of  carrying  the 
convicts  thither  may  be  adopted)  that  this  mode  of  disposing  of 
them  and  that  of  the  usual  ineffectual  one  is  too  trivial  to  be  a  Expense  not 
consideration  with  Government,  at  least  in  comparison  with  the  considered, 
great  object  to  be  obtained  by  it,  especially  now  the  evil  is  in- 
creased to  such  an  alarming  degree,  from  the  inadequacy  of  all 
other  expedients  that  have  hitherto  been  tried  or  suggested. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  remark  in  favour  of  this  plan  that  con- 
siderable advantage  will  arise  from  the  cultivation  of  the  New 
Zealand  hemp  or  flax-plant  in  the  new  intended  settlement,  the  Flax, 
.supply  of  which  would  be  of  great  consequence  to  us  as  a  naval 
power,  as  our  manufacturers  are  of  opinion  that  canvas  made  of 
it  would  be  superior  in  strength  and  beauty  to  any  canvas  made  of 
the  European  material,  and  that  a  cable  of  the  circumference  of 
ten  inches  made  from  the  former  would  be  superior  in  strength 
to  one  of  eighteen  inches  made  of  the  latter.  The  threads  or 
ti  laments  of  this  New  Zealand  plant  are  formed  by  nature  with 
the  most  exquisite  delicacy,  and  maybe  so  minutely  divided  as  to 
j)e  manufactured  into  the  finest  linens. 

j\Iost  of  the  Asiatic  productions  may  also  without  doubt  be  Tropical 
cultivated  in  the  new  settlement,  and  in  a  few  years  may  render  '"^°  "'^'"'' 
<  lur  recourse  to  our  European  neighbours  for  those  productions 

It  may  also  be  j^roper  to  attend  to  the  possibility  of  procuring  New  Zealand 
from  New  Zealand  any  quantity  of  masts  and  ship  timber  for  the  *™  ^'' 
use  of  our  fleets  in  India,    as   the    distance    between    the    two 
countrys  is  not  greater  than  between  Great  Britain  and  America. 
Ft  grows  close  to  the  water's  edge,  is  of  size  and  quality  superior  to 
any  hitherto  known,  and  may  be  obtained  without  difficulty. 

Staff  Establishment  for  the  Settlement  at  New  South  Wales  : —   Estimate  of 

Yearly  Salary.  

The  Naval  Commander  to  be  appomted  Governor  or  Super-         £    s.    d.  1— Staff. 

intendent-General        ...         ...         ...         ...         500     0     0 

The   Commanding   Officer   of  the   Marines   to   be   appointed 

Lieut. -(iov.  or  Dept.  Superintendent  ...         ...         ...       250     0    0 

The   Commi.ssary  of  Stores   and   Provisions,   for  himself  and 

assistants  (to  be  appointed   or  named  by  tlie  contractors 

for  the  provisions)        200     0     0 

Pay  of  a  .surgeon      £182  10     0 

Ditto  of  two  mates 182  10    0 

:mri   o   o 

Chaplain        182  10     0 

£1,497  10     0 




18  Aug. 
2— Clothing. 

Estimate  of  clothing  to  serve  a  male  convict  for  one  year  : — 

21  Aug. 

Terms  for 



Value  each 

s.   d. 


4     6 


2     0 


2     6 


3    0 

4  pr. 

1     0 


2    3 


2    3 


4     6 


Woolleu  drawers    ... 



Worsted  stockings 




£2  19    6 

The  expence  of  clothing  female  convicts  may  be  computed  to  amount  to 
the  like  sum. 






























Sir,  London,  21st  August,  1786. 

If  Government  should  determine  to  send  the  convicts  to 
South  Wales,  we  beg  leave  to  offer  to  undei'take  to  convey  them 
thither,  and  provide  what  may  be  wanting  for  them,  on  the 
following  terms  : — 

To  provide  sufficient  vessels  for  transporting  them  thither,  and 
to  remain  two  months  with  them  after  their  arrivals  ;  accomodation 
on.  board  ;  and  sufficient  provisions  for  the  voyage,  and  two  months 
after  ;   at  the  rate  of  twenty-eight  guineas  each  person. 

To  deliver  in  South  Whales  sufficient  provisions,  in  proportion,  as 
the  troops  are  victualled,  for  such  number  of  men  and  such  length 
of  tune  as  maybe  required,  at  the  rate  of  Tg-d.  sterling  p'r  man  p'r 
day  ;  freiglit  and  insurance  to  South  Wales  therein  included. 

To  purchase  on  the  most  reasonable  terms  whatever  tools, 
utensils,  &c.,  may  be  wanted,  without  charging  any  commission 
thereon.  W^e  have,  ttc, 


Lord  Sydney  to  the  Lords  of  The  Admiralty. 

31  Aug.  My  Lords,  W^hitehall,  31st  August,  1786. 

The  King  having  been  pleased  to  signify  his  Royal  Com- 
mands that  750  of  the  convicts  now  in  this  kingdom  under 
sentence  of  transportation  should  be  sent  to  Botany  Bay,  on 
the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  in  the  latitude  of  33°  south,  at 
which  place  it  is  intended  that  the  said  convicts  should  form  a 
Convicts  to  settlement,  and  that  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury  should  forthwith 
Botany  Bay.  provide  a  Sufficient  number  of  vessels  for  their  conveyance  thither, 
together  with  provisions  and  other  supplies  for  their  subsistence, 
as  well  as  tools  to  enable  them  to  erect  habitations,   and  also 


implements  fur  agriculture  ;  and  it  being  his  Majesty's  intention       1786 
that  a  ship  of  war  of  a  proper  class,  with  part  of  her  guns  only      ^i  Aur'. 
on  board,  commanded  by  an  able  and  discreet  officer,  and  a  suffi-     .  — 
cient  establishment  of  inferior  officers  and  men,  together  with  a  required, 
vessel  of  about  200  tons  burthen,  commanded  also  by  an  officer, 
should,  as  soon  as  the  convict  ships  are  ready,  proceed  with  them 
to  the  new  settlement,  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  their  sailing, 
and  for  the  preservation  of  peace  and  good  order  during  the  pas- 
sage, as  well  as  for  other  purposes  after  their  arrival — 

I  am  commanded  to  signify  to  your  Lordships  the  King's  plea-  ^^]P°^  J'^^ 
sure  that  you  do  forthwith  cause  a  ship  of  war  and  a  tender  for 
those  services  to  be  fitted  for  sea  with  all  possible  expedition,  and 
when  the  said  convicts  shall  be  put  on  board  the  ships  which  are 
preparing  for  their  reception  in  the  river  Thames,  to  instruct  the 
commander  of  the  ship  of  war  to  take  the  convict  ships  under  his  instructions 
protection,  and  proceed  with  them  and  the  tender  (which  he  will  c^„*^i|„jgr 
employ  as  he  shall  find  occasion)  to  Botany  Bay,  calling  off  Ply- 
mouth, on  his  way  thither,  for  another  convict  ship,  the  master  of 
which  will  be  directed  to  join  the  convoy  from  thence  upon  its 

From  the  length  of  the  voyage  to  New  South  Wales,  the  convoy 
will,  of  course,  find  it  necessary  to  put  into  port  on  their  way 
thither,  for  the  purpose  of  recruiting  their  water.  Your  Lordships 
will,  therefore,  give  instructions  accordingly,  only  taking  care  that 
one  of  the  places  to  be  fixed  upon  for  a  rendezvous  may  be  the  i^endezyous 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  from  whence  it  is  intended  that  as  many  '^  ^  '^'^*^' 
.supplies  as  possible  for  the  new  settlement  shall  be  procured. 

.  As  it  has  been  thought  advisable  that  some  military  establish-  <5arrison. 
ment  shall  be  made  at  the  new  intended  settlement,  not  only  to 
enforce  due  subordination  and  obedience,  but  for  the  defence  of 
the  settlement  against  incursions  of  the  natives,  and  as  from  the 
nature  of  the  service  to  be  performed   it  is  highly  expedient  that 
it  should  be  composed  of  men  accustomed  to  and  under  proper 
discipline,    his    Majesty    has    been   pleased   to   direct  that   160 
private  marines,  with  a  suitable  number  of  officers  and  non-com-  Marines, 
mission  officers,  shall  proceed  in  the  ship  of  war  and  the  tender 
to  tlie  new  settlement,  where  it  is  intended  they  shall  be  disem- 
barked for  the  purposes  before  mentioned.     They  will  be  properly 
■s'ictualled  by  a  connnissary  immediately  after  their  landing,  and 
provision  has  been  also  made  for  supplying  them  with  such  tools, 
implements,  and  utensils  as  they  may  have  occasion  for,  to  render  xhe  soldiers 

their  situation  comfortable  during:  their  continuance  at  the  new  ^o  be  niade 
-,11  ,  ,  .   ,      .       P     ,      .  1         coiufortable. 

intended   settlement,    which   it   is   designed   siiall   not   exceed    a 

period  of  three  years. 

AVhen  these  circumstances  are  known,  it  is  very  probable  that  Volunteers. 

many  of  the  non-commissioned  officers  and  men  may  express  a 

desire  of  embarking  upon  this  expedition ;  if  the  whole  number 




yi  Aug. 

Marines  to 

to  volunteer. 

Heads  of  a 

sions and 

Officers  to  be 
under  the 

3  Sept. 


to  be  employed  upon  it  were  to  consist  of  persons  of  that  descrip- 
tion, it  would  upon  many  accounts  be  advisable  to  give  them 
a  preference.  It  is  therefore  his  Majesty's  pleasure  that  their 
wishes  in  this  respect  should  as  much  as  possible  be  attended 
to,  and  that  your  Lordship  should,  if  there  should  be  occasion, 
hold  out  such  further  indulgences  to  them  as  may  induce  them  to 
embark  voluntarily  upon  this  service,  either  by  bounty  or  promise 
of  discharge  should  they  desire  it  upon  their  return,  or  at  the 
expiration  of  three  years,  to  be  computed  from  the  time  of  their 
landing  at  the  new  intended  settlement  should  they  prefer  the 
remaining  in  that  country. 

I  enclose  to  your  Lordships  herewith  the  heads  of  a  plan*  upon 
which  the  new  settlement  is  to  be  formed,  for  your  further  infor- 
mation, together  with  the  proposed  establishment  for  its  regula- 
tion and  government;  and  as  soon  as  I  am  acquainted  by  your 
Lordships  with  the  names  of  the  officers  intended  to  command 
the  ship  of  war  and  the  marine  corps  I  shall  receive  his 
Majesty's  further  pleasure  for  preparing  their  commissions,  and 
such  instructions  as  may  be  requisite  for  their  guidance. 

From  the  nature  of  the  services  they  are  to  execute  under  these 
insti'uctions,  entirely  unconnected  with  maritime  affairs,  it  would 
be  proper  that  they  should  be  immediately  subordinate  to  the 
direction  of  this  office,  and  upon  that  ground  it  is  his  Majesty's 
pleasure  that  they  should  be  directed  after  their  arrival  at  New 
South  Wales  to  follow  such  orders  and  directions  as  they  may 
receive  from  his  Majesty  thro'  his  Principal  Secretary  of  State 
for  this  department.  I  have,  kc, 


Lord  Howe  to  Lord  Sydney. 

Langar,  3rd  September,  1786. 
The  benefit  of  the  King's  service  being  our  common  object,  I  am 
persuaded,  my  dear  Lord,  it  will  never  suffer  for  want  of  our  ready 
concurrence  when  a  necessary  facility  can  be  rendered  by  us,  on 
either  part,  to  promote  the  advancement  of  it  on  any  occasion. 

In  the  present  instance,  the  settlement  of  the  convicts,  as  you 
have  determined,  being  a  matter  so  immediately  connected  with 
your  department,  I  could  never  have  a  thought  of  contesting  the 
choice  you  would  make  of  the  officer  to  be  entrusted  with  the 
conduct  of  it. 

I  cannot  say  the  little  knowledge  I  have  of  Captain  Philips! 
would  have  led  me  to  select  him  for  a  service  of  this  complicated 
nature.  But  as  you  are  satisfied  of  his  ability,  and  I  conclude 
he  will  be  taken  under  your  dii-ection,  I  presume  it  will  not 
be  unreasonable   to  move  the   King   for   having  his    Majesty's 

*  Ante,  p.  17. 
t  Phillip's  name  was  frequently  mis-spelt  by  the  public  men  of  the  time. 

THE    MARINES.  '23 

pleasure  signified  to  the  Admiralty  for  these  purposes  as  soon  as       1786 
you  see  proper,  that  no  time  may  be  lost  in  making  the  requisite 
preparations  for  the  voyage.  I  am,  &c., 


The  Marines  and  their  term  op  Service. 

Extract  from  a  letter  written  to  the  Commanding  Marine  Officei's 

at  the  Divisions,  respecting  a  detachment  to  be  sent  out  to 

New  South  Wales : —  r,  ,    ^      i         i-,.«  o-^  ^ 

8th  October,  178G.  s.Oct. 

The  non-commission  ofticei's  and  private  marines  to  be 'allowed 

their  discharge^   if  they  desire  it,   on   their  return  to  England, 

after  they  have  been  relieved  (which  it  is  intended  shall  take 

place  at  the  expiration  of  3  years),  provided  their  good  behaviour  Three  years' 

shall  entitle  them  to  such  favor ;  or  will  be  discharged  abroad  service. 

upon  the  I'elief,  and  be  permitted  to  settle  in  the  country,  if  they 

prefer  it. 

To  be  victualled  by  a  commissary,   and  to  have  such   tools,  Victualling 

implements,  and  utensils  as  they  may  have  occasion  for  whilst 

employed  for  the  protection  of  the  new  settlement. 

Sir  a.  S.  Hamond*  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Dear  Sir,  Gillingham,  8tli  Octr.,  178G. 

I  do  not  exactly  know  what  plan  Grovernment  may  have 
in  view  with  respect  to  Botany  Bay,  but  if  colinizeation  may  be 
intended,  perhaps  it  may  be  thought  necessary  to  have  the 
countrv  surveyed  and  explored.  Lieut.  Bray,  of  the  Navy  who  is  a  volunteer 
a  very  ingenious  draftsman,  is  very  desirous  of  being  a  volunteer 
on  the  expedition.  He  says  he  can  be  well  recommended  to 
Lord  Sydney  by  several  noblemen  of  rank,  but  before  he  makes 
his  application  he  wishes  to  know  if  any  draftsmen  are  intended 
to  be  sent  out.f  If  you  can  give  him  this,  or  any  other  infor- 
mation that  may  be  useful  to  him  in  his  persuit,  it  will  be  serving 
a  man  of  merit,  and  oblige.  Yours,  <kc., 

A.  S.  Hamond. 

The  Lords  of  the  Admiralty  to  Lord  Sydney. 
My  Lord,  Admiralty  Office,  12th  October,  178G.  12  Oct. 

Your  Lordship  having  acquainted  us  in  your  letter  of  the 
31  of  August  last  that  his  Majesty  has  signified  his  royal  com- 
mands that  750  of  the  convicts  now  in  this  kingdom  under 
sentence  of  transportation  should  be  sent  to  Botany  Bay,  on  the 
coast  of  New  South  Wales,  where  it  is  intended  they  should  form 
a  settlement ;  and  at  the  same  time  signified  the  King's  pleasure 

'  Sir  Andrew  Snape  HaiiionJ,  one  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Na\-J'. 
t  Lieut.  Bray's  services  were  not  accepted. 


1786       that  a  ship  of  war  of  a  proper  class,  with  a  proper  vessel  for  a 

12  Oct      tender,  and  a  detachment  of  marines,  should  be  got  in  readiness  to 

proceed  with  the  convicts  for  the  purposes  mentioned  in  your 

Lordship's  letter, — we    are   to  acquaint  your  Lordship  that,   in 

obedience  to  his  Majesty's  commands,  we  immediately  ordered 

TheSiriusto  the  Sirius,*  one  of  his  Majesty's  ships  of  the  sixth  rate,  with  a 

e  got  ready,  p^^pg^  yessel  f or  a  tender,  to  be  fitted  for  this  service ;  and  that 

the  ship  will  be  ready  to  receive  men  by  the  end  of  this  month. 

We  are  further  to  acquaint  your  Lordship,  in  answer  to  that  part 

'  of  your  letter  desiring  to  be  informed  of  the  names  of  the  officers 

intended  to  command  the  ship  of  war  and  the  marine  corps,  that 

Phillip  and    Captain  Arthur  Phillipf  will  be  appointed  to  command  the  Sirius, 

and  Major  Robert  Ross  the  detachment  of  marines. 

We  are,  &c., 
Chs.  Brett. 

12  Oct.  Governor  Phillip's  First  Commission.  | 

George  R. 

George  the  Third,  &c.,  to   our  trusty  and   well-beloved  Captain 

Arthur  Phillip,  greeting  : — 
We,  reposing  especial  trust  and  confidence  in  your  loyalty, 
Phillip  courage,  and  experience  in  military  affiiirs,  do,  by  these  presents, 
Goveruor^  constitute  and  appoint  you  to  be  Governor  of  our  territory  called 
New  South  Wales,  extending  from  the  northern  cape  or  ex- 
tremity of  the  coast  called  Cape  York,  in  the  latitude  of  10°  37',  to  the  southern  extremity  of  the  said  territory  of  New 
South  Wales  or  South  Cape_,  in  the  latitude  of  43°  39'  south,  and 
of  all  the  country  inland  to  the  westward  as  far  as  the  one 
hundred  and  thirty-fifth  degree  of  longitude,  reckoning  from  the 
meridian  of  Greenwich,  including  all  the  islands  adjacent  in 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  within  the  latitude  aforesaid  of  10°  37'  south 
and  43°  39'  south,  and  of  all  towns,  garrisons,  castles,  forts, 
and  all  other  fortifications  or  other  military  works,  which  now 
are  or  may  be  hereafter  erected  upon  this  said  territory.  You 
are  therefore  carefully  and  diligently  to  discharge  the  duty  of 
Governor  in  and  over  our  said  territory  by  doing  and  performing 
all  and  all  manner  of  things  thereunto  belonging,  and   we  do 

*  Philip  Gidlej'  King,  Second  Lieutenant  of  the  Sirius,  who  afterwards  held  the  offices  of 
Lieut. -Governor  of  Norfolk  Island  and  Governor  of  New  South  Wales,  states  in  his 
journal: — "  The  construction  of  a  King's  ship  not  being  deemed  proper  for  the  serxice, 
the  Berwick,  storeship,  was  pitclied  on  by  the  Admiralty,  and  her  name  changed  to  the 
Sirius,  so  called  from  the  bright  star  in  ye  southern  constellation  of  the  Great  Bog." 

t  Appointed  first  Governor  of  New  South  Wales  by  Commission,  12th  October,  1786. 

t  This  commission  is  dated  12th  October,  1786,  and  the  Records  show  that  it  was  acted 
upon  almost  at  once.  It  was  replaced,  however,  by  a  fuller  conunission,  2nd  April,  1787. 
Post,  p.  62.  According  to  the  Annual  Register  for  1787,  Phillip's  apjiointment  was  not 
publicly  announced  until  17th  April.  Instructions  were  issued,  25th  April,  1787.  Post,  p.  85. 
Additional  Instructions,  post,  p.  256. 


hereby  strictly  charge  and  command  all  our  officers  and  soldiers       1786 
who  shall  be  employed  within  our  said  territory,  and  all  others      lo  oct. 
whom  it  may  concern,  to  obey  you  as  our  Governor  thereof  ;  and 
you  are  to  observe  and  follow  such  orders  and  directions  from 
time  to  time  as  you   shall  receive  from  us,  or  any  other  your 
superior  officer  according  to  the  rules  and  discipline  of  war,  and 
likewise  such  orders  and  directions  as  we  shall  send  you  under  instmc- 
our  signet  or  sign  manual,  or  by  our  High  Treasurer  or  Com- 
missioners of  our  Treasury   for    the  time  being,   or  one  of  our 
Principal  Secretaries  of    State,  in   pursuance    of   the    trust    we 
hereby  repose  in  you. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  twelfth  day  of  October, 
1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 


Sir  a.  S.  Hamond  to  Under  Secretary  JSTepean. 
Dear  Sir,  Chatham,  16th  Oct.,  1786.  16  Oct. 

Mr.  White,*  the  surgeon  of  the  Irresistible,  is  a  candidate  sm-geon. 
for  Botany  Bay.  He  is  a  young  man  of  much  credit  in  his 
profession,  and  of  that  sort  of  disposition  and  temper  that  render 
him  a  very  proper  person  for  such  an  establishment.  If  no 
surgeon  is  yet  appointed,  and  you  will  do  me  the  favor  t(j  recom- 
mend him  to  Lord  Sydney,  I  shall  think  myself  much  obliged  to 
you,  and  shall  consider  myself  bound  to  Government  for  his 
good  behaviour.  I  am,  &c., 

A.  S.  Hamond. 

Under  Secretary  Rose!  to  Secretary  Stephens.  | 

Sir,  Treasury  Chambers,  2Lst  Oct.,  1786.  2iOct. 

The  Commissioners  of  the  Navy  having,  in  their  letter  of  swps^ 
the  18th  instant,  represented  to  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  his  ®""^°'^  • 
Majesty's  Treasury  that  they  have  agreed  for  a  sufficient  quantity 
of  shipping  to  convey  the  convicts,  &c.,  to  Botany  Bay,  and  that 
they  will  l3e  ready  to  proceed  from  Gravesend  in  a  month  at 
furthest ;  and  stated  that  if  the  ships  get  to  New  Holland  so  early 
as  to  be  able  to  reach  China  by  the  1st  of  January,  1788,  they 
are  to  be  discharged,  but  if  they  are  unnecessarily  delay'd  on  the 
passage,  or  detained  in  Botany  Bay  after  the  convicts  are  landed, 
so  as  to  be  prevented  from  proceeding  in  time  for  China,  they 
will  be  under  the  necessity  of  continuing  them  in  their  pay  till 
their  return  to  Deptford, — I  am  commanded  by  their  Lordships  to 
desire  that  you  will  move  the  Lords  of  the  Admix'alty  to  direct — 

*  >Ir.   .John   White,   a]ipointed  Chief  Surgeon  of  the     Settlement,    24    October,   17S6. 
Returned  to  Eiii^land,  17'J4. 

t  Mr.  George  Rose,  Under  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 
I  PhiHp  Stephens,  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty. 




1786       the  captain  of  the  King's  ship  who  accompanies  them  to  take  care 

"1  Oct       that  no  unnecessary  delay  happens  on  the  passage  to  Botany  Bay, 

or  on  their  departure  from  thence,  and  that  he  uses  his  best 

endeavours  to  enable  the  ships  under  his  command  to  reach  China 

by  the  1st  January,  1788.  I  am,  tfec, 

Geo.  Rose. 

Major  Ross's  Commission  as  Lieutenant-Governor.* 
24  Oct.  George  R. 

George  the  Third,   &c.,    to   our    trusty  and   well-beloved  Major 

Robert  Ross,  greeting  : — 
We,  reposing  especial  trust  and  confidence  in  your  loyalty, 
courage,  and  experience  in  military  affairs,  do,  by  these  presents, 
constitute  and  appoint  you  to  be  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the 
settlement  within  our  territory  called  New  South  Wales.  You 
are  therefore,  as  Lieutenant-Governor,  to  take  the  said  settlement 
into  your  care  and  charge,  and  carefully  and  diligently  to  dis- 
charge the  duty  of  Lieutenant-Governor  thereof,  by  doing  and 
performing  all  and  all  manner  of  things  thereunto  belonging ; 
and  we  do  hereby  strictly  charge  and  require  all  our  officers  and 
soldiers  who  shall  hereafter  be  in  our  said  territory,  and  all 
others  whom  it  may  concern,  to  obey  you  as  our  Lieutenant- 
Governor  thereof,  and  you  are  to  observe  and  follow  such  orders 
and  instructions  from  time  to  time  as  you  shall  receive  from  us, 
our  Governor  of  our  said  territory  for  the  time  being,  or  any 
other  your  superior  officer,  according  to  the  rules  and  discipline 
of  war,  in  pursuance  of  the  trust  we  hereby  repose  in  you. 

Given  at  our  court  at  St.   James's,   the  twenty-fourth   day 
of  October,  1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 


Judge- Advocate  Collins's  Commission.! 

George  R. 

George  the  Third,  etc.,  to  our  trusty  and  well-beloved   Captain 

David  Collins,  greeting  : — 

We  do,  by  these  presents,  constitute  and  appoint  you  to  be  Deputy 

Judo-e-         Judge-Advocate  in    the   settlement  within  our  territory   called 

Advocate.     ]*;rew  South  Wales.      You  are  therefore,  carefully  and  diligently 

to    discharge    the    duty   of    Deputy   Judge-Advocate,    by    doing 

^  Major  Ross  was  in  command  of  the  detachment  of  marines  sent  out  to  guard  the  con\icts. 
He  was  Lieut. -Governor  of  Norfolk  Island  from  March.  1790,  to  October,  1791. 

t  Captain  of  marines,  afterwards  colonel.  He  acted  as  Judge-Advocate  and  Secretary 
to  the  Governor  at  Sydney,  until  Sept.,  1790,  when  he  sailed  for  England,  on  leave  of 
absence.  He  did  not  resume  the  position  of  Judge-Advocate,  but  was  appointed,  Dec, 
1803,  Lieut. -Governor  of  the  proposed  settlement  at  Port  Phillip.  The  place,  however, 
displeased  him,  and  he  established  a  settlement  instead  on  the  Derwent,  Van  Diemen's 

officers'  commissions.  27 

and  performing  all  and  all  manner  of  things  thereunto  belonging  ;       1786 
and  you  are  to  observe  and  follow  such  orders  and  directions  from      ^i  Oct. 
time  to  time  as  you  shall  receive  from  our  Governor,  of  our  said 
territory  for  the  time  being,  or  any  other  your  superior  officer, 
according  to  the  rules  and  discipline  of  war. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  twenty-fourth  day 
of  October,  1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 


First  Chaplain's  Commission.* 
George  R. 
George  the  Tliird,  &c.,  to  our  trusty  and  well-beloved  Richard 

Johnson,  clerk,  greeting  : — 
We  do,  by  these  presents,  constitute  and  appoint  you  to  be  Chap- 
lain to  the  settlement  within  our  territory  called  New  South 
Wales.  You  are,  therefore,  carefully  and  diligently  to  discharge 
the  duty  of  chaplain  by  doing  and  performing  all  and  all  manner  cimplain. 
of  things  thereunto  belonging  ;  and  you  are  to  observe  and 
follow  such  orders  and  directions  from  time  to  time  as  you  shall 
receive  from  our  Governor  of  our  said  territory  for  the  time 
being,  or  any  other  your  superior  officers,  according  to  the  rules 
and  discipline  of  war. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  twenty-fourth  day  of 
October,  1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 

Surgeon  White's  Commission. 

George  R. 

George  the  Third,  &.c.,  to  our  trusty  and  well-beloved  John  White, 

greeting  :  — 
We  do,    by   these   presents,   constitute   and   appoint   you  to   be 
Surgeon  to  the  settlement  witliin  our  territory  called  New  South 
Wales.     You  are,  therefore,  carefully  and  diligently  to  discharge 
the  duty  of  surgeon  by  doing  and  performing  all  and  all  manner  chief 
of  things  thereunto  belonging ;  and  you  are  to  observe  and  follow  surgeon. 
sucli  orders  and  directions  from  time  to  time  as  you  shall  receive 
from  our  Governor  of  our  said  territory  for  tlie  time  being,  or 
any  other  your  superior  officer,  according  to  the  rules  and  disci})- 
line  of  war. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  St.    James's,   the  twenty -fourtli    day 
of  October,  1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 


*  The  Rev.  Richard  Johnson  acted  as  Chief  Chaplain  of  tlie  Settlement  until  1800,  wlien 
he  retired. 




•  24  Oct. 


31  Oct. 

Assistant-Surgeon  Balmain's  Commission. 

George  R. 

George  the  Third,  &c.,  to  our  trusty  and  well-beloved  William 

Balmain,  gent.,  greeting  : — 
We  do,  by  these  presents,  constitute  and  appoint  you  to  be 
Assistant-Surgeon  to  the  settlement  within  our  territory  called 
New  South  Wales.  You  are,  therefore,  carefully  and  diligently 
to  discharge  the  duty  of  Assistant-Surgeon,  by  doing  and  per- 
forming all  and  all  manner  of  things  thereunto  belonging ;  and 
you  are  to  observe  and  follow  such  orders  and  directions  from 
time  to  time  as  you  shall  receive  from  our  Governor  of  our  said 
territory  for  the  time  being,  or  any  other  your  superior  officer, 
according  to  the  rules  and  discipline  of  war. 

Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  twenty-fourth  day  of 
October,  1786,  in  the  twenty-sixth  year  of  our  reign. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens.* 
Sir,  [London]  October  31,  1786. 

The  Right  Honorable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty  having  ordered  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius,  under  my 
■Armament  command,  to  be  supply'd  with  six  caronades  and  four  six-pounders, 
of  the  Sirius  1  am  to  request  that  you  will  please  to  move  their  Lordships  to 
order  ten  more  of  the  six-pounders  to  be  put  on  board,  with  the 
ironwork  necessary  for  the  cariages.  Having  the  ironwork,  the 
guns  can  at  any  time  be  mounted,  and  may,  I  presume,  in  future 
be  of  great  use  to  us,  on  board  or  on  shore,  as  the  service  may 
require.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sir,  [London]  November  3,  1786. 

I  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  the  Right  Honourable  the 
Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty's  orders  for  surveying 
and  making  the  necessaiy  obseiwations  in  the  different  harbours, 
roads,  &g. — the  orders  for  salutes — for  bearing  widows'  men — ■ 
the  copy  of  the  Act  of  Parliament  for  preventing  abuses  in  the 
payment  of  seamen's  wages,  prize-money,  etc. — abstracts  of  the 
said  Act  and  orders,  to  affix  them  in  a  public  place  on  board  his 
Majesty's  ship  under  my  command,  as  likewise  orders  for  receiving 
such  additional  stores  and  provisions  as  can  be  conveniently  stored. 

Their  Lordships'  orders  on  these  heads  will  be  duly  comply'd 
with.     I  have,  &c.,  ,  A.  Phillip. 

*  This  is  the  first  of  a  series  of  letters  written  from  London.  Lieut.  Philip  Gidley  King,  of 
the  Sirius,  afterwards  Governor  of  New  South  Wales,  says  in  his  juunial  : — "  It  was  not  till 
ye  11th  of  May  [17i7]  that  the  Governor  Joined  us,  he  havinic  been  detained  in  town  until 
the  Ministry  had  arranged  and  fixed  the  different  orders,  settling-  a  number  of  t.hin),'s  so 
incident  to  ye  great  voyage  we  were  about  to  undertake." 

3  Nov. 

from  the 



The  Lords  of  The  Admiralty  to  Lord  Sydney.  1785 

My  Lord,  Admiralty  Office,  21st  Nov.,  1786.         21  Nov. 

Your  Lordship  having,  in  your  letter  of  the  31st  August  The 
last,  acquainted  us  that  it  is  his  Majesty's  pleasure  a  party  of  '"^""^s. 
marines,  consisting  of  160  private  marines,  with  a  suitable  number 
of  officers  and  non-commissioned  officers,  shall  proceed  to  Botany 
Bay,  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  not  only  to  enforce  due 
suljordination  and  obedience  in  the  settlement  intended  to  be 
formed  there,  but  for  the  defence  of  the  settlement  against  the 
incursion  of  the  natives;  and  that  they  shall,  immediately  after 
their  landing,  be  properly  victualled  by  a  commissary,  and  supply'd 
with  such  tools,  implements,  and  utensils  as  may  be  necessary  to 
render  their  situation  comfortable  during  their  continuance  there 
— we  beg  leave  to  inform  your  Lordship  that  the  marines,  while 
they  serve  on  board  his  Majesty's  ships,  are  victualled  in  like 
manner  as  the  seamen,  without  any  deduction  from  their  pay  on 
that  account,  and  do  therefore  humbly  submit  to  his  Majesty  Their  pay. 
whether  any  stoppage  should  be  made  from  the  pay  of  the  marines 
going  to  Botany  Bay  upon  the  present  occasion  towards  defraying 
the  expence  of  the  provisions  with  which  they  are  to  be  supply'd 
by  the  Commissary  while  on  shore. 

And  as  it  is  usual  when  any  regiments  are  sent  upon  service  to 
his  Majesty's  colonies  or  plantations  to  allow  them  to  take  with 
them  a  certain  number  of  women,  we  beg  leave  to  propose  that  the 
wives  of  the  marines  going  to  Botany  Bay,  not  exceeding  ten  to  each  Marines' 
company,  which  will  not  in  the  whole  amount  to  more  than  forty  wives, 
women,  may  be  allowed  to  embark  with  them.     "We  are,  &c., 


Chas.  Brett. 
Rd.  Hopkins. 

FiATiONS  provided  for  the  Marines  during  their  passage  to  Botany  Rations  for 

T)„„  marines. 




Wednesday    ... 





































Per  week  when  on  shore.—  7  lb.  of  bread  or  7  lb.  of    flour,  7   lb.  of  beef 
or  -1  lb.  of  pork,  3  pints  pease,  6  oz.  butter,  and  1  lb.  flour  or  i  lb.  rice. 




23  Nov. 



Sir,  Sirius,  Deptford,  23rd  November,  1786. 

From  the  experienced  utility  of  Peruvian  bark  in  ships 
stationed  on  the  coast  of  Guinea  and  in  similar  climates,  it  would 
seem  a  very  necessary  article  in  the  present  intended  expedition  ; 
but  from  the  high  price  of  the  drug  Navy  sui'geons  cannot  afford 
the  vast  quantity  required  to  do  justice  to  the  men  without 
wronging  themselves  ;  therefore  I  humbly  beg,  sir,  that  you  will 
move  for  a  proportionate  supply  to  the  number  of  men  on  Ijoard 
the  Sirius.  I  am,  &c., 

G.  B.  WoRGAN,  Surgeon  of  the  Sirius. 

6  Dec. 

tion Act. 

Captaix  Phillip  to  Uxder  Secretary  Nepean. 

2  Dec.  Sir,  [London]  December  2nd,  1786. 

„,.        ,  As  I  fear  much  discontent  in  the  garrison  if  there  is  no 

Wine  and  n       •  •    •        /  i  •   i       i  i 

spirits  for     allowance  of  wine  or  spirits  (to  which  they  have  ever  been  accus- 
egarrison.  ^Qj^jg^^j^  until  spruce  beer  can  be  procured  for  them,  I  beg  that 
you  will  please  to  lay  this  circumstance  before  the  Lords  of  the 

I  shall  he  able  to  receive  a  certain  quantity  of  wine  on  board 
at  Teneriffe,  or  the  Cape,  if  judg'd  necessary,  and  which  I  hope 
will  be  the  case.  I  have,  &c., 

■ A.  Phillip. 

Order  for  Transportation.* 

Whereas  by  the  Act  passed  in  the  twenty -fourth  year  of  the 
reign  of  his  present  Majesty,  intituled  'An  Act  for  the  effectual 
transportation  of  felons  and  other  ojffenders,  and  to  authorize 
the  removal  of  prisoners  in  certain  cases,  and  for  other  purposes 
therein  mentioned,'  it  is  enacted  that  from  and  after  the  passing  of 
the  said  Act  when  any  person  or  persons  at  any  session  of  oyer  and 
terminer  or  gaol  delivery  or  at  any  Quarter  or  other  General  Session 
of  the  Peace,  to  be  holden  for  any  county,  riding,  division,  city, 
town,  borough,  liberty,  or  place  within  that  part  of  Great  Britain 
called  England,  or  at  any  great  Session  to  be  holden  for  the 
county  palatine  of  Chester,  or  within  the  Principality  of  Wales, 
shall  be  convicted  of  fraud  or  petty  larceny,  or  any  other  offence 
for  which  such  person  or  persons  shall  be  liable  by  the  laws  t)f  this 
Recital.  realm  to  be  transported  :  It  shall  and  may  be  lawful  for  the 
court  before  which  any  such  person  or  persons  shall  be  so  con- 
victed as  aforesaid,  or  any  •subsequent  court  holden  at  any  place 
for  the  said  county,  riding,  division,  city,  town,  borough,  liberty, 
or  place,  respectively,  with  like  authority  to  order  and  adjudge 
that  such  person  or  persons  so  convicted  as  aforesaid  shall  be 
transported  beyond  the  seas  for  any  term  of  years  not  exceeding 

*  New  South  Wales  was  first  jianied  as  a  place  of  transportation  at  tlie  Council  held  at 
the  Court  of  St.  James's,  6th  of  December,  1786. 


the  number  of  years  or  term  for  -which  such  person  or  persons  is  1786 
or  are  or  shall  be  liable  by  any  law  to  be  transported;  and  in  2 Dec. 
every  such  ease  it  shall  and  may  Ije  lawful  for  his  Majesty,  by 
and  with  the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  declare  and  appoint 
to  what  place  or  places,  part  or  parts,  beyond  the  seas,  either 
within  his  Majesty's  dominions  or  elsewhere  out  of  his  Majesty's  Transporta- 
doininions,  such  felons  or  other  offenders  shall  be  conveyed  or 
transported,  and  such  court  as  aforesaid  is  thereby  authorized 
and  empowered  to  order  such  offenders  to  be  tx-ansported  to  the 
use  of  any  person  or  persons  and  his  or  their  assigns,  who  shall 
contract  for  the  due  performance  of  such  transportation  ;  and 
when  his  Majesty,  his  heirs  and  successors,  shall  be  pleased  to 
extend  mercy  to  any  offender  or  offenders  who  hath  01  have  been 
or  shall  be  convicted  of  any  crime  or  crimes  for  which  he,  she,  or 
they  is,  are,  or  shall  be  by  law  excluded  from  the  benefit  of 
clergy,  upon  condition  of  transportation  to  any  place  or  places, 
part  or  parts,  beyond  the  seas,  either  for  term  of  life,  or  any 
numlier  of  years,  and  such  intention  of  mercy  shall  be  signified 
])y  one  of  His  Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries  of  State,  it  shall 
1>e  lawful  for  any  court  having  proper  authority  to  allow  such 
offender  or  offenders  the  benefit  of  a  conditional  pardon,  and  Conditional 
(except  in  cases  where  such  offender  or  offenders  shall  he  author-  i^*''''°"- 
ized  by  his  Majesty  to  transport  himself,  herself,  or  themselves) 
to  (jrder  the  transfer  of  such  offender  or  offenders  to  any  j^ei'son 
or  persons  who  shall  contract  for  the  due  performance  of  such 
transportation,  and  his  or  their  assigns,  for  such  and  the  same 
terms  of  years  for  which  such  offender  or  offendei-s  shall  have 
l)een  ordered  to  be  transported,  or  for  such  term  of  life  or  years  as 
shall  be  specified  in  such  condition  of  transportation  as  aforesaid. 

And  whereas  it  hath  been  represented  to  his  Majesty  that  the 
several  offenders  whose  names  are  contained  in  the  list  hereunto 
annexed  have  been  transported  or  ordered  to  be  transported  to 
parts  beyond  the  seas,  his  Majesty  doth  hereby  judge  fit,  by  and 
with  the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  declare  and  appoint  the 
place  to  which  the  several  offenders  shall  be  transported  for  the 
term  or  terms  in  their  several  sentences  mentioned  to  be  the 
eastern  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  or  some  one  or  other  of  the  Convicts  to 
islands  adjacent ;  and  all  persons  whom  it  may  concern  are  to  southWalea. 
give  the  necessary  directions  for  causing  the  said  several  offenders 
to  be  conveyed  or  transported  tf>  the  eastern  coast  of  New  South 
Wales,  or  some  one  or  other  of  the  islands  adjacent,  in  the  manner 
directed  by  the  said  Act. 

[The  list  contains  many  hundreds  of  names.     At  the  Council 
held  December  22,   1786,  a  similar  order  was  made  with  regartl 
to  women.      These,  and  others  previously  sentenced  to  he  trans-  Women, 
ported  to  America,  "  shall  be  transported  to  the  eastern  coast  of 
New  South  Wales,  or  some  one  or  other  of  the  islands  adjacent."] 



Estimate  of 

1786      Memo,  from  Uxder  Secretary  Kepeax  to  Sir  C.  Middletox. 

]\Ir.  Nepean  presents  his  compliments  to  Sir  Charles  Middle- 
ton.  Is  desired  by  Mr.  Pitt*  to  request  that  he  will  order  a 
statement  to  be  made  of  the  expences  which  it  is  supposed  will 
be  incurred  under  the  direction  of  the  Navy  Board  for  the  pro- 
viding of  provisions,  clothing,  implements,  &c.,  for  the  convicts, 
and  sending  them  out  to  Botany  Bay,  including  the  expenses 
incurred  for  the  detachment  of  marines.  It  is  not  expected  that 
any  statement  which  can  n  ow  be  made  will  be  an  accurate  one,  but 
INIr.  Pitt  wishes  to  obtain  within  a  few  days  some  information 
upon  the  business  which  may  lead  him  to  form  an  opinion  to 
what  expence  this  establislnnent  may  be  likely  to  amount. 

Mr.  Kepean  has  applied  to  the  Admiralty  for  information 
respecting  the  equipment  of  the  Sirius  and  the  tender,  and  the 
annual  expence  of  their  crews,  as  well  as  with  regard  to  the  pay 
of  the  marines.  He  has  likewise  applied  to  Mr.  Rogers  for  an 
account  of  the  value  of  the  stores  which  have  been  supplied  by 
the  Board  of  Ordnance. 

of  the 

Sirius  and 
Supply — 
cost  of 

Equipment  of  the  Sirius  and  Supply. 

An  estimate  of  the  expences  which  will  attend  the  equipment  of 
the  Sirius  and  the  tender  that  will  accompany  her  to  Botany 
Bay  ;  of  the  annual  expence  of  their  establishment,  including 
the  victualling ;  of  the  probable  value  of  the  stores  that  may 
be  annually  expended  on  board  the  Sirius  and  Supply  ;  and 
also  of  the  annual  pay  of  the  marine  establishment. 

First  Yeai-^s  Equipment —  Sirius.  Supply. 

Hull,  mast,  yards,  furniture,  and  stores  7,072  3,*i70 

Wages      3,3-22  1,123 

Victuals 1,981  681 

Second  Year — 

Wages  and  victuals  as  before . 

Third  Year — 

Wages  and  victuals  as  before 

12,. 375 


5,303        1,804 

Annual  Pay  and  Clothing  of  the  ,  ^,  t>f\n  i^     oj 
Marine  Establishment  ^  ^^^^^^  ^^-  ^^' 

Three  Years  .. 





Total      £45,752 

1  No  charge  for  stores  included  in  the  last  two  years,  it  being  supposed 
that  what  is  carried  out  will  last  the  whole  term. 

*  The  Prime  Minister,  the  Right  Hon.  William  Pitt. 


Estimate  of  the  Expence  of  Ordnance  Stores  ordered  to  be  sent       ^"^^^ 
to  the  intended  Settlement  at  Botany  Bay. 

G  iron  guns,  12  and  6  pdrs. 

2  brass  guns,  mountetl   on  travelling  carriages, 

6  pdrs.     ... 
6  standing  carriages,  12  and  6  pdrs 
2  travelling  carriages,  12  pdrs. 
Round  shot  and  other  stores  necessary 

above  mntd.  guns 
500  tents  for  the  convicts    ... 
160  tents  for  the  marines    ... 
200  musquets  for  barter 
200  cutlasses  for  barter 
200  stand  of  arms  for  marines 

for  the 

1/                         c/ 


Estimate  of 






































First  Year's  Civil  Salaries. 

Estimate  proposed  for  defraying  the  establishment  in  New  South  ^,*ii'estab/ 
Wales  from  the  10th  of  October,  1786,  to  the  10th  of  October,  lishment. 
1787  :— 

Allowance  to  the  Governor    

,,  Lieut. -Governor    ... 

„  Depy.  Judge-Advocate    ... 

„  Provost-Marshal    ... 

,,  Chaplain 

,,  Surgeon 

,,  Three  Surgeon  mates,  each  £91  5s, 

„  Surveyor  of  lands 

„  Agent  

„  Upon  account  for  paj^ment  of  fees 

ui)on  the  receipt  and  audit 


,,         Commissary  











































Captain  Teer  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Sir,  Deptford,  Dec.  the  9th,  1786.  9  Dec 

I  am  desired  by  Sir  Charles  Middleton*  to  acquaint  you 
that  the  following  arrangement  is  made  by  him,  agreeable  to  your 
letter,  and  that  an  othcial  one  will  be  sent  on  Monday  to  the 
Treasury,  and  that  the  ships  will  be  sent  accordingly  as  soon  as 
the  charge  of  provisions  and  other  necessarys  can  be  made. 
Some  spirits  must  Ije  sent  from  the  Lady  Pem-hyn  to  the  Char-  The 
lotte  and  Friendship,  for  the  marines  that  were  lirst  intended  for  t'''"'°P<'»'*s 
her  now  ordered  to  the  two  last.  Therefore,  as  this  is  absolutely 
necessary  now,  you  will  take  care  to  indemnifie  the  masters  of 

*  Comptroller  of  the  Na\-y ;  afterwards  Rear- Admiral  of  the  White. 




9  Dec. 

these  transports,  who  will  act  by  my  orders  for  the  good  of  the 
service,  from  all  harm,  as  no  fraud  is  or  shall  be  done  by  this 


The  women' 

A  mistake 
to  dinde 

The  Lady 
could  ac- 

for  safe 


change  to  the  excise. 


Lady  Penrhyn  to  carry 
Scarborough     ... 







...    to  go  to  Gallons.  * 

40  to  go  to  Plymouth. 
32  to  go  to  Spithead. 

600         150 

Besides  the  marine  ofBcers,  surgeon,  &c. 





Under  Secretary  Kepean  to  Sir  C.  Middleton. 

Dear  Sir,  December  9th,  1786. 

Since  I  was  favor'd  with  your  letter  yesterday  I  have 
received  a  note  from  Captain  Teer,  containing  an  arrangement 
which  you  have  made  for  sending  out  the  women,  by  which  I 
observe  that  instead  of  embarking  the  whole  hundred  and  fifty 
in  the  Lady  Penrhyn,  or,  if  that  could  not  be  done,  to  put  on 
board  of  her  a  hundred  and  twenty-four,  and  to  let  the  remaining 
twenty-six  now  on  board  the  Dunkirk  at  Plymouth  go  out  in  one 
of  the  ships  intended  to  take  away  the  male  convicts  from  thence, 
you  have  order'd  the  women  to  be  divided  on  board  of  tliree  ships. 
I  ought  not,  to  be  sui'e,  to  presume  to  offer  any  opinion  to  you,  as 
you  must,  for  many  reasons,  be  a  better  judge  of  these  matters 
than  I  am,  but  it  strikes  me  very  forcibly  that  they  should  not, 
if  possible,  be  divided. 

Prom  the  tonnage  of  the  Lady  Penrhyn  I  should  imagine  that 
with  scarce  any  alteration  she  could  be  made  to  contain  the  whole 
of  the  women,  tho'  they  might  be  a  little  crowded,  with  less  in- 
convenience than  most  of  the  transports  which  are  to  contain  the 
men,  and  would  most  likely  be  more  healthy,  as  there  would  be 
no  danger  from  the  allowing  the  women  to  be  constantly  upon 
deck.  Howevei',  this  business  must  remain  with  you  to  deter- 
mine, and  I  hope  that  you  will  forgive  me  for  starting  an  opinion 
upon  it. 

I  hope  that  it  has  occurr'd  to  you  in  your  engagements  for 
the  transports  that  the  owners,  as  well  as  the  masters  and  mates, 
must  enter  into  the  bonds  which  the  Acts  of  Parliament  require 
for  the  safe  custody  of  the  convicts  whilst  on  board  the  trans- 
ports. If  that  has  not  been  done  new  difficulties  will  arise,  for 
the  courts  will  not  vest  them  with  the  custody  of  the  convicts 
without  it. 

Pei-haps  some  of  the  victuallers!  might  take  a  part  of  the 
marines.  I  am,  tfcc, 

Evan  Nepean. 

*  The  Galleons  in  the  Thames. 

t  Store  ships. 


Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens.  1786 

Sir,  [London]  December  11,  1786.  "  Dec. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Honourable  the  Lords 
Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius,  Sirius. 
under  my  command,  left  her  moorings  at  Deptford,  and  went 
down  to  Long  Reach  the  9th  instant,  where  she  now  remains,  to 
receive  on  board  her  guns  and  the  remainder  of  her  stores. 
I  enclose  a  weekly  account,  and  have  the  honour  to  be, — 

A.  Phillip. 

Sir  C.  Middleton  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Dear  Sir,  December  11,  1786. 

It  is  absolutely  impracticable  to  arrange  the  transports  in 
any  other  manner  than  we  have  done  without  unloading  and  Too  late  to 
new  filling  all  the  ships,  and  which  would  require  at  least  three  ^''^''  ^  ^"*" 
weeks  from  this  time.     The  Lady  Penryhn  being  intended  for 
seventy  women,  the  number  we  were  ordered  to  provide  for,  was 
made  a  pro\'ision  ship,  and  fitted  accordingly  for  the  women.     The 
others,   being  for  males,  had  the  disposition  of  provisions,  &c., 
suitable  to  that  arrangement.      I  do  not,  however,  see  any  force 
in  the  objection  you  have  mentioned  of  putting  male  and  female 
in  the  same  ship,  as   it   is    done  continually  in  all  the  African  African  and 
(Xegro)  cargoes  that  are  carried  to  the  West  Indies.     Each  have  preceJentd^" 
their  separate  rooms,  and,  though  both  in  the  same  vessell,  have 
no  communication  with  each  other.     It  will  be  the  same  in  the 
two  ships  who  are  to  go  to  Plymouth,  and  who  by  a  new  arrange- 
ment of  the  marines  will  just  caiTy  the  number  of  males  and 
females    intended  to  embark  from   that  place,   with    this    only 
difference,  that  a  few  supernumeraries  will  be  carried  out  in  them 
to  the  other  ships.     The  women  have  separate  rooms  from  the  no  com- 
men,  and  no  communication  whatever  with  each  other.      This  munication 

D6t'W6Gn    tllG 

restriction  must  be  strongly  enforced  to  the  officers  who  embark  sexes, 
as  the  guard,  and  to  ye  agent  who  conducts  them,  and  from  the 
example  which  I  have  been  a  witness  of  for  some  weeks  in  a 
Guinea  ship  I  see  no  reason  for  apprehension  in  this  disposition. 

The  women   cannot  be   more  crowded  than  they  are,  having  Women 
only  1  k  ton  allowed  to  each,  and  which  is  as  little  as  possible  for  to'.rethe'r 
so  long  a  voyage.* 

On  the  subject  of  security  I  see  a  real  difficulty,  unless  the  Security. 
King's  authority  [is  given]  to  supersede  the  usual  practice  of  the 
courts  in  dispensing  with  it. 

I  have  never  been  employed  in  sending  out  convicts  till  now,  i^gal  forms, 
and  of  course  have  made  no  enquiry  into  the  law  forms,  and  which 
sliould  have  been  conveyed  to  us  in  the  original  order.      I  must, 
however,   observe  that,   as   far  as   I  remember  concerning  this 
business,  those  who  formerly  carried  out  convicts  had  not  only 

*  See  Phillip's  letters  to  Nepean,  post  pp.  46,  77. 




11  Dec. 


of  contract. 

State  of  tlie 

Talveii  by 

an  allowance  pr.  head,  but  an  interest  in  them  after  they  were 
embarked.  This  makes  a  wide  diflerence,  and  will  account  for  ye 
security,  which,  under  present  circumstances,  cannot  be  expected 
from  owners  of  ships,  who  haA'e  no  other  advantage  but  the  freight 
and  victualling,  and  take  the  risk  of  their  ships  (which,  by  the 
Ijye,  is  no  small  one)  upon  themselves. 

I  send  Captain  Teer  with  this,  who  will  explain  to  you  more 
particularly  by  word  of  mouth  than  I  can  by  letter  of  the  present 
state  of  the  ships  and  the  difficulties  that  will  attend  any  further 
alteration  in  them. 

I  trust  and  hope  that  when  any  business  of  this  kind  is  agitated 
again  that  I  may  have  some  notice  of  it  before  it  is  sent  officially. 
This  was  the  practice  in  the  last  war,  and  prevented  all  difficulties, 
and  saved  much  expence  to  ye  public.  We  must  now  do  as  well 
as  we  can,'and  I  shall  be  very  [particulai']  in  following  every  mode 
that  can  be  pointed  out  for  putting  an  end  to  this  disagreeable 
and  troublesome  business  ;  being  with  much  regard,     Yours,  &c., 

Chas.  Middleton. 

P.S. — I  write  in  great  haste, 
before  me. 


great  load  of  business 

12  Dec. 

Guns  for 
the  Supply. 

15  Dec, 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 
Gent'n,  Admiralty,  12th  Deer,  1786. 

My  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Adm'ty  having  received  a 
letter  from  Lieut.  Ball,  commander  of  his  Majesty's  arm'd  tender 
the  Supply,  representing  that  he  is  of  opinion  four-pounder 
guns  will  be  too  heavy  for  her,  and  desiring  that  they  may 
be  exchanged  for  three-pounders,  I  am  commanded  by  their 
Lordships  to  send  you  the  said  letter  enclosed  for  your  considera- 
tion and  opinion  whether  it  may  be  proper  to  comply  therewith. 

I  am,  &c., 

P.S. — You  will  please  to  return  the  enclos'd  with  your  ans'r. 

Second  Captain  of  the  Sirius. 
At  the  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  15th  of  December,  1786. 

Present : — 
The  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty, 
Viscount  Howe,  Lord  Hawkesbury, 

Viscount  Gallway,  William  Pitt,  Esq., 

Lord  Sydney,  Sir  George  Yonge. 

Whereas  there  was  this  day  read  at  the  Board  a  memorial 
from  the  Right  Honorable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, dated  the  1 4th  of  this  instant,  in  the  words  following,  viz. : — 
"Lord  Sydney,  one  of  your  Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries  of 
State,  having,  in  his  letter  of  the  31st  of  August  last,  signified  to 

*  Pliilip  Stephens.     Copied  from  the  letter-book  at  tlie  Admiralty,  in  which  only  the 
initials  of  the  name  are  given. 

WAR   SHIP    FOR   BOTANY    BAY.  37 

us  your  ^Majesty's  pleasure  that  one  of  your  ships  of  war  should       1786 
proceed  with  the  transport  vessels  appointed  to  convey  convicts  to     is  Dec. 
Botany  Bay,  on  the  coast  of  Ne^\■  South  Wales,  with  a  view  to  form  warlhTp  for 
a  settlement  at  that  place ;  and  it  appearing  by  the  stalf  of  the  Botany  Bay. 
intended  settlement,  which  accompanied  his  Lordship's  said  letter, 
tliat  it  is  your   royal  intention  to  appoint  the  captain  of  your 
Majesty's  ship  employed  upon  this  service  to  be  Governor  or  Super-  Governor. 
intendant-General  of  the  said  settlement,  we  beg  leave  to  represent 
to  your  Majesty  that,  as  it  will  probably  be  found  expedient  for 
the  ships  to  proceed  to  some  other  parts  of  the  coast,  or  to  some 
of  the  islands  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  while  the  residence  of   the 
captain,  in  the  quality  of  Governor  or  Superintendant,  may  be 
requisite  on  shore,  for  the  better  forming  and  maintaining  the 
settlement,  we  are  of  opinion  it  will  be  for  the  advantage  of  your 
Majesty's  service  that  an  officer  of  supei'ior  rank  to  a  lieutenant 
should  upon  such  occasions,  and  at  all  times  in  the  absence  of  the 
captain,  have  the  charge  and  command  of  the  said  ship,  and  we 
do  therefore  humbly  propose  that  your  Majesty  will  be  pleased, 
by  your  Order-in-Council,  to  authorize  us  to  appoint  an  additional 
officer  to  the  said  ship,  under  the  denomination  of  second  captain,  second 
with  the  rank  of  post-captain,  and  with  power  to  command  her  in  Captain. 
the  absence  of  the  principal  captain,  subject,  nevertheless,  to  his 
control,  and  to  such  orders  and  directions  as  he  may,  from  time 
to  time,  think  fit  for  the  regulation  of  his  proceedings  ;  that  the 
pay  of  the  second  captain  be  equal  to  the  pay  of  a  captain  of  a 
.sixth-rate,  and  that  he  be  allowed  four  servants." 

His  Majesty,  taking  the  said  memorial  into  consideration,  was 
pleased,  with  the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  approve  of  what 
is  therein  proposed,  and  to  order,  as  it  is  hereby  ordered,  that  the  Order  in- 
Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  do  appoint  an  additional  ^*'""'=''' 
officer  to  the  man-of-war  that  shall  proceed  with  the  transport 
vessels  appointed  to  convey  the  convicts  to  Botany  Bay,  under 
the  denomination  of  second  captain,  with  the  rank  of  post- 
captain,  and  with  the  poAver  to  command  the  said  ship  in  the 
absence  of  the  principal  captain,  subject  nevertheless  to  his  con- 
trol, and  to  such  orders  and  directions  as  he  may,  from  time  to 
time,  think  fit  to  give  him  for  the  regulation  of  his  proceedings  ; 
that  the  pay  of  the  saifl  second  captain  be  equal  to  the  pay  of  a 
captain  of  a  sixth-rate,  and  that  he  be  allowed  four  servants.* 


Dear  Sir,  27,  Church-street,  Soho,  Dec.  21st,  1786.  21  Dec. 

Should  the  accompanying  letter  and  plan  meet  your  appro-  better  and 
bation,  you  will  do  me  a  favour  by  laying  them  before  Lord  Sydney.  p'=^"- 

*  The  vessel  chosen  was  the  Sirius,  and  the  appointment  of  second  captain  was  g-iven  to 
Captain  .lohn  Hunter,  afterwards  Governor  of  Mew  South  Wales— 1795-1800. 

t  Marlhoroutjh  Parsons  Stirling,',  Captain  of  .%th  Foot,  July  Sth,  1773  ;  Major,  Feh.  lOtli, 
1783  ;  local  rank  of  Lieut. -Colonel  in  the  East  Indies. 



21  Dec. 


A  corps  for 
New  South 

Six  months' 

Permit  me  to  acknowledge  how  sensibly  I  feel  your  kind  atten- 
tion, and  shall  esteem  it  an  additional  obligation  your  giving  me 
a  few  lines  when  at  Leisure  to  say  how  my  proposals  are  received. 

I  am,  &c., 

M.  P.  Stirling. 


My  Lord,  December  21st,  1786. 

I  beg  leave  to  submit  the  accompanying  proposal  for  your 
Lordship's  consideration,  and  from  my  long  and  faithful  services 
to  solicit  your  interest  in  my  behalf. 

I  am  certain  it  will  strike  your  Lordship  most  forcibly  the 
necessity  of  having  a  corps  ready  for  that  service  by  the  time 
accounts  arrive  from  thence,  and  flatter  myself  the  terms  will  be 
found  advantageous  to  Government,  moderate,  and  consistent  with 
my  claims  to  your  Lordship's  attention. 

Should  the  measure  be  instantly  adopted,  I  could  not  pledge 
myself  for  the  perfect  discipline  of  the  corps  under  six  months 
from  their  being  assembled,  wherever  it  may  be  thought  con- 
venient, and  am  convinced  less  time  would  only  disappoint  the 
expectations  which  might  be  formed ;  nor  would  I,  my  Lord, 
however  alluring  the  greatness  of  the  object  to  a  soldier,  risk 
some  little  reputation,  hardly  acquired  during  many  years'  servi- 
tude, with  an  undisciplined  multitude. 

I  have,  ifec, 

M.  P.  Stirling. 
[Enclosure.  ] 


As  it  is  probable  the  present  body  of  marines  destined  for  the 
protection  of  the  colony  intended  to  be  formed  at  Botany  Bay, 
in  New  South  Wales,  may  be  found  on  their  arrival  there  inade- 
quate to  the  service,  both  from  the  increasing  number  of  the 
colonists,  who  will  require  a  strong  force  to  keep  them  in  subjec- 
tion, as  well  as  from  the  uncertain  dispositions  of  the  natives, 
who  may  be  naturally  presumed  hostile  to  strangers  forming 
a  settlement  among  them,  and  are  certainly  formidable  and 
numerous,  fi-om  the  inmiense  tract  of  country  they  possess — in 
order  to  obviate  any  difficulty  that  may  arrive  when  a  reinforce- 
ment shall  prove  necessary,  Lieut.-Colonel  Stirling,  of  his 
in'irciand^'^  Majesty's  36th  Ilegt.,  proposes  to  raise  a  corps  in  Ireland,  to  be 
ready  in  every  respect  for  that  service  by  the  time  accounts  shall 
arrive  from  the  Governor  either  to  relieve  or  reinforce  the 
marines  now  going  out,  as  may  be  thought  most  proper, 
strength  The  corps    to  consist  of  the  following  number: — One  lieut.- 

o  corps.        colonel  comdg.,  (without  a  company),  eight  captains,  eight  lieut- 
enants,   eight   ensigns,    one   chaplain,    one   quarter-master,    one 

18  Doc. 

Plan  for 



COLONEL  Stirling's  proposal.  39 

adjutant,  one  surgeon,  one  mate,  twenty-four  sergeants,  twenty-  ^'''^j 
four  corjjorals,  sixteen  drummers,  twenty -four  contingent,  five  is  Dec. 
hundred  and  four  privates. 

The  men  to  be  enlisted  for  seven  years  from  the  time  of  their  Seven  years' 
landing  in  New  South  Wales ;  at  the  expiration  of  that  time,  the  enlistment. 
corps  to  be  compleated  in  whatever  manner  shall  be  judged  most 
eligible,   and  to  be  recruited  from   time  to  time  by  having  a 
captain,  lieutenant,  and  ensign  in  Ireland. 

The  corps  to  be  raised  without  any  expense  to  the  State,  and  if  f »  f-^'P?"^^^ 

T  •  /^   1         1    CI    •   1-         •        11  11  •         •  !■     1  if  to  the  State. 

Lieut.-Lolonel  btirlmg  is  allowed  the  nommation  oi  the  omcers, 
taking  them  from  the  Line,  and  giving  each  a  step,  their  former 
commission  remaining  at  the  disposal  of  Government,  he  will  be 
responsible  for  the  corps  being  compleated  in  three  months  from 
the  date  of  his  beating  orders. 

If  Government  think  proper  to  appoint  the  officers,  he  will  give  in 
an  estimate  of  quotas  for  each  officer,  they  taking  the  responsibility 
for  fulhlling  their  agreement  and  adhering  to  their  Instructions. 

Lieut. -Colonel  Stirling  begs  leave  to  add  that  he  has   been  Lieut. - 
upwards   of    four-and-twenty  years   an  officer  in  his   Majesty's  g"jr°",f  .^ 
service — has  been  on  trying  service  in  both  East  and  West  Indies,  services. 
and  being  obliged  by  loss  of  health  to  return  lately  from  the  former, 
had  the  mortification  to  have  a  junior  officer  put  over  his  head,  as 
major  to  the  52nd  Regt.,  although  he  was  by  five  years  the  oldest 
captain  in  his  Majesty's  army  in  India,  and  the  officer  who  suc- 
ceeded was  actually  on  his  passage  to  Europe  at  the  time  of  his 

He  also,  at  a  very  critical  period  in  the  year   1783,  when  the  a  former 
troops  in  general   were  found   averse  to   the  service   in   India,  °^^^' 
received  the  then  commander-in-chief's  approbation  to  an  offer  of 
raising  five  hundred  men  immediately  for  that  service,   and   had 
his  orders  on  this  head,  when  the  33  rd  Regt.  being  ordered  out, 
he  suffered  a  severe  disappointment. 

From  these  circumstances,  and  his   long  services,   is  inclined  Success 
to  hope  that  should  this,  his  plan,  be  deemed  expedient,   he  will 
be  favoured  with  a  preference,*  his  connexions  in  Ireland  ensuring 
success,  and  his  most  sanguine  wishes  leading  him  to  promote,  by 
every  exertion,  an  undertaking  so  useful  to  his  country. 

M.  P.  Stirling, 
Major  in  the  Army  and  Lieut.-Colonel  in  India. 
December  18th,  1786.  

Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Craven-street,  22nd  Dec,  178G.  " 1"" 

As  there  is  a  certainty  that  the  marine  detachment  intended  Themarines. 
for  Botany  Bay  will  be  under  a  necessity  of  encamping  on  their 

*  Colonel  Stirling's  proposals  were  not  accepted.  A  commission  to  raise  a  special  corps, 
afterwards  known  as  the  New  South  Wales  Corps,  was  g-iven  to  Major  Francis  Grose.  Post, 
pp.  24U-251. 



22  Dec. 




arrival  there,  and  that  they  must  unavoidably  continue  so  until 
such  time  as  proper  places  of  security  can  be  found,  as  well  for 
their  own  safety  as  for  the  safety  of  the  convicts, — 

I  have,  as  commanding  officer  of  the  detachment,  to  request 
you  will  be  pleased  to  demand  camp  equipage  for  them  agreeable 
to  the  enclosed  list : — For  one  field  officer,  four  captains,  one 
adjutant,  one  quarter-master,  twelve  subalterns,  twelve  Serjeants, 
twelve  corporals,  eight  drummers,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty 
privates — the  actual  number  the  detachment  consists  of. 

I  must  again  request  your  attention  to  this  demand,  as  our 
leaving  England  without  them  may  be  attended  with  the  most 
alarming  consequence  to  the  detachment. 

I  submit  it  to  you,  sir,  whether  it  will  be  proper  to  demand  a 
greater  quantity  than  will  on  our  first  arrival  be  wanted  for  the 
service,  as  the  having  but  the  bare  quantity  mentioned  in  the 
enclosed  list  will  put  it  out  of  your  power  to  supply  what  may, 
from  the  many  accidents  such  articles  are  liable  to,  be  from  time 
to  time  absolutely  wanted. 

This  may  appear  to  you  the  more  necessary  on  reflecting  that 
you  may  sometimes  have  occasion  to  detach  from  the  main  body. 

I  am,  (fee, 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

■27  Dee. 

The  Sirius — 
asked  for. 

GovERXOR  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephexs. 

Sir,  [London]    27  December,  178G. 

I  am  to  request  that  you  will  please  to  move  the  Right 

Honorable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  to  give 

me  such  orders  for  my  conduct  as  they  may  judge  proper  when 

the  following  circumstances  occur  : — 

1.  When  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius,  under  my  command,  is 
supply'd  with  fresh  meat  in  any  foreign  port,  am  I  to  order  the 
same  for  the  marines  on  board  the  transports  1 

2.  And  is  such  provision  to  be  paid  for  by  bill  on  the  Victualling 
Board  or  on  the  Treasury  ? 

3.  Am  I  to  bear  the  marines'  wives  that  go  out  as  super- 
numerarys  on  board  the  Sirius  on  the  supernumerary  list  with 
their  husbands,  that  they  may  be  victualled  1 

4.  If  it  should  be  necessary  to  land  any  marine  that  may  be 
sick  in  a  foreign  port,  in  what  manner  is  he  to  be  landed  and 
paid  foi"  1 

5.  Am  I  to  order  wine  to  be  purchased  for  the  Sirius  and  the 
tender  ?  and 

6.  If  when  I  arrive  at  the  Cape  or  such  port  as  I  intend 
to  take  my  departure  from  for  the  intended  settlement,  am  I 
at  liberty  to  order  the  provisions  that  have  been  expended  on 


the  passage  on  board  the  Sirius  and  on  board  the  tender,  to  be       1786 
replaced,  particularly  bread  and  beef,  supposing  the  same  may  be       27  Dec. 
purchased  at  a  reasonable  price  1 

7.  Are  the  convicts  to  be  supply ed  with  fresh  meat  when  the 
marines  on  board  the  transports  are  ;  and  is  it  to  be  paid  for  by 
bill  on  the  A^ictualling  Board  or  on  the  Treasury  1 

8.  Should  it  be  necessary  to  land  any  of  the  convicts,  either 
from  the  loss  of  limbs,  or  from  any  fatal  distemper  on  board  the 
transports,  am  I  at  liberty  to  do  it,  and  is  the  expense  to  be  paid 
by  bill  on  the  Yictualling  Board  or  on  the  Treasury  1 

9.  If  in  a  foreign  port  any  of  the  masters  of  the  ships  under 
my  convoy  should  be  obliged  to  purchase  stores  or  provisions 
that  may  be  absolutely  necessary  to  enable  them  to  proceed  on 
their  voyage,  and  the  merchants  should  refuse  to  take  their  bills, 
am  I  at  liberty  to  draw  on  the  Navy  Board  bills  to  purchase 
.such  stores. 

10.  If  from  the  particular  conduct  of  any  marine  belonging  to 
the  garrison,  I  judge  it  for  the  good  of  the  service  to  exchange 
such  marine  for  a  marine  belonging  to  the  Sirius  or  to  the  tender, 
am  I  at  liberty  to  make  such  exchange  1 

11.  If  I  judge  it  necessary  hereafter  to  order  the  Sirius  or  the 
tender  to  England,  in  order  to  lessen  the  expense  to  Government, 
or  for  any  other  just  reason,  I  presume  I  am  at  liberty  to  do  it ; 
but  if  I  send  home  the  Sirius  or  the  tender,  in  what  manner 
am  I  to  be  paid  as  captain,  in  full  pay,  after  such  ship  is  paid 
off  in.  England  ? 

12.  In  case  of  sending  home  the  Sirius  or  the  tender,  am  I  at 
lil;)erty  to  discharge  such  men  as  may  desire  to  remain  in  the 
.settlement,  and  who  are  not  absolutely  necessary  for  the  navigating 
the  ship  home  1 

13.  May  any  commission  or  warrant  officer  be  permitted  to 
remain  when  his  ship  is  ordered  home  1 

14.  When  I  put  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius  under  the  command 
of  Captain  Hunter,  that  officer  of  course  should  take  charge  of 
the  ship's  books,  sign  the  officers'  monthly  expenses,  &c.  In  that 
case,  as  I  shall  have  no  accounts  to  pass  for  the  time,  in  what 
manner  am  I  to  be  paid?*  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Under  Secretauy  Nepeax  to  Mr.  Thomas. 

Whitehall,  30  Dec,  1786. 
Mr.  -Nepeax   presents   his    compliments   to    Mr.   Thomas;   begs 
be    will    he    so    good   as   to  favor  him  with  an  account  of  the 
number  of  persons  which  each  of  the  transport  ships  is  to  contain. 

*  Replies  to  these  questions  are  given  in  a  letter  from  Secretary  Stephens.    Post, 
pp.  48,  49. 

30  Dec. 



1786       gjg   setting  down  the   numbers  upon  this  paper  will  be  quite 
30  Dec.      sufficient.* 



The  first 

Alexander — in  the  river 
Scarborough — at  Portsmouth 

Friendship— at  Plymouth 

Charlotte — at  Plymouth 

Lady  Penrhyn — in  the  river 

Ship  to  be  taken  up 

















.      40 










Sir  C  Middleton  to 

Dear  Sir, 

As  Mr.  Wilberforce  is  not  in  town  himself,  I  introduce  for 
a  few  minutes'  conversation  Mr.  Johnson,  who  is  nominated  as 
minister  for  Botany  Bay.  He  has  settled  his  business  with  the 
Treasury,  and  therefore  comes  to  you  for  his  appointment,  and 
an  order  for  a  few  parish  things,  which  are  perfectly  proper,  and 
not  paid  for  by  individuals.  He  may  procure  them  himself,  and 
they  may  be  brought  into  one  list  of  necessaries. 

I  am,  lire, 

Chas.  Middleton. 


1  Jan. 

tion orders. 

Bonds  and 

Under  Secretary  Nepean  to  Mr.  Shelton. 

Sir,  Whitehall,  1  Jany.,  1787. 

I  send  you  herewith  attested  copies  of  four  Orders  of 
Council,  which  passed  on  the  6h  and  2 2d  days  of  last  month,  fixing 
the  destination  of  the  several  convicts  therein  named,§  now  under 
sentence  of  transportation.  These  attested  copies  are  intended 
for  your  use. 

I  understand  from  Mr.  Campbell  i|  that  you  have  already  been 
furnished  with  a  list  of  such  convicts  as  are  to  be  sent  out  in  the 
Alexander,  and  as  it  is  wished  that  they  may  be  removed  as  soon 
as  possible  from  the  hulk  to  make  room  for  the  "people  now  in 
Newgate,  I  will  beg  of  you  to  get  the  bonds  and  contracts  (if 
necessary)  executed  with  as  little  delay  as  may  be. 

*  The  reply  to  this  note  Ir  the  return  which  accompanies  it. 

t  Wives  of  marines. 

J  The  name  is  omitted,  and  also  the  date,  but  the  letter  is  evidently  intended  for  Under 
Secretary  Nepean.  Mr.  William  Wilberforce,  the  philanthropist  had  interested  himself  in 
the  appointment  of  a  chaplain  for  the  settlement. 

§  The  Order-in-Conncil  appointing  New  South  Wales  as  a  place  to  which  convicts  might 
be  sent  was  made  on  the  6th  December,  1780.     Ante,  p.  30. 

U  Mr.  Duncan  Campbell,  Superintendent  of  Convicts,  on  the  Thames. 


The  Lady  Penrhyn,  now  in  the  river,  will  receive  all  the  female       1787 
convicts  now  in  Newgate  under  sentence  of  transportation,  and      j  jj^j,^ 
her  commander,  with  Mr.  Richardson,  will  enter  into  the  bonds 
the  latter  will  contract. 

There  will  be  a  further  list  sent  to  you,  I  hope,  to-day,  of  other  The  Scar- 
convicts  now  in  the  hulks  who  are  to  be  sent  to  the  ship  Scar-  ^*^''^"=-^' 
borough  at   Portsmouth,   to  be    conveyed   from    thence   to   the 
intended  settlement  at  Botany  Bay,  and  which  will  include  all 
that  are  to  go  out  in  the  first  convoy.  I  am,  &c., 

Evan  Nepean. 

Articles  to  be  provided,  puix-hase  of  stock,  &c.,  for  the  intended 
settlement  at  Botany  Bay.* 

The  wine  to  be  procured  from  the  Cape  de  Verd  Islands  must  wine, 
be  paid  for  in  bills  of  exchange. 

Live  stock  and  grain  to  be  procured  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  Live  stock 
must  be  paid  for  in  the  same  manner.  and  grain. 

At  Java  and  all  the  Molucca  Islands,  from  whence  black  cattle,  cattie  and 
goats,  and  hogs  are  to  be  procured,  a  Dutch  factor  resides,  who  is  ^°^' 
the  only  European  usually  on  the  island.      By  a  comjoact  between 
the  Raja  and  the  Dutch,   the  factor  controuls  the  whole  of  the 
commerce,  and  it  is  probable  that  he  will  not  permit  any  trade  a  bribe 
with  foreigners  until  he  is  bribed.     About  £10,   in  addition  to  necessary, 
some    English    beer    (perhaj^s    a    few    dozen),    will    satisfy    him. 
Ducats  to  the  amount  of  £50  will  be  sufiicient  for  this  purpose, 
with  two  or  three  casks  of  beer. 

The  cattle,  hogs,  and  goats  are  to  be  obtained  from  the  natives  Barter, 
for  cutlasses  and  firearms,  and  it  is  supposed  that  200  musquets 
and  the  same  number  of  cutlasses  would  purchase  a  sufiicient 
quantity.  Those  arms  might  be  taken  from  the  Ordnance  Depart- 
ment, as  a  great  number  of  them  are  now  in  store,  daily  de- 
creasing in  value. 

As  there  will  most  likely  be  occasion  to  keep  up  an  intercourse  Trade  with 
with  the  Society  Islands,  from  whence,   indeed,   various  supplies  ^'^^  islands. 
may  be  obtained,  about  £150  laid  out  in  small  hatchets,  some  of 
them  made  in  the  Otaheite  fashion,  glass  beads  (chiefly  white), 
pocket  looking-glasses,   nails   and   gimlets,    and    a  few   real  red 
feathers,  will  answer  that  purpose. 

Admiralty  Warrant  for  Captain  Collins  as  Judge-Advocate. 

Whereas  we  have  thought  fit  to  appoint  you  to  olficiate  as  Judge- 
Advocate  to  the  detachment  of  his  Majesty's  marine  forces  ordered 
to  proceed  to  Botany  Bay,  on  the  coast  of  New  Soutli  Wales,  for 
the  protectioi>  of  the  settlement  intended  to  be  formed  at  that 
place,  you  are  hereby  autliorized  and  directed  to  ofiiciate  as 
Judge- Advocate  accordingly  at  all  such  courts-martial  as  shall  be  Advocate. 

*  No  date  or  sigDature. 


1787  there  lielcl  for  the  trial  of  any  officers,  non-commiss'cl  officers,  or 
1  Jan.  private  men  belonging  to  the  said  detachment,  pursuant  to  an 
Act  of  Parliament  now  in  force  for  the  regulation  of  his  Maj's 
marine  forces  while  on  shore,  and  any  other  Act  of  Parliament 
in  that  behalf  which  shall  hereafter  be  in  force,  and  to  such 
rules,  articles,  and  regulations  as  now  are  or  shall  hereafter  be 
established  by  the  Lord  High  Admiral  or  Commiss'rs  for  executing 
the  office  of  Lord  High  Admiral  for  the  time  being,  during  the 
continuance  of  the  power  and  authority  hei'eby  given  to  you  as 
aforesaid.  And  for  your  care  and  trouble  in  executing  the  said 
employment  we  do  hereby  grant  unto  you  an  allowance  after  the 
I'ate  of  ten  shillings  per  day,  to  be  paid  to  you  quarterly  by  the 
Paymastei"  of  Marines,  and  to  commence  on  the  date  hereof. 

Given,  &c.,  and  the  seal,  &c.,  the  1st  of  Jan'y.,  1787. 

C.  Brett. 
j.  l.  goaver. 

Warrant  for  Transportation. 

George  R. 

3  Jan.  Whereas  a  contract  has  l)eou  entered  into  for  transporting  to  New 
8outh  Wales,  or  some  other  of  the  islands  adjacent,  the  several 
convicts  now  in  your  custody  on  board  the  hulks  in  the  river 
Thames  whose  names  are  contained  in  the  list  hereunto  annexed*  : 
Our  will  and  pleasure  is  that  you  forthwith  do  deliver  over  to 
the  contractors,  Mr.  William  Richards,  shipbroker,  and  Mr. 
Duncan  Sinclair,  master  of  the  transport  ship  called  the 
The  Alexander,  the  said  convicts  whose  names  are  specified  in  the 

convicts.  said  list,  in  order  that  they  may  be  transported  to  the  said  coast 
of  New  South  Wales,  or  some  one  or  other  of  the  islands 
adjacent,  on  board  the  said  ship  Alexander,  for  the  terms  of  years 
for  which  said  convicts  are  severally  sentenced  or  ordered  to  be 
transported.  And  for  so  doing  this  shall  be  your  warrant. 
Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's,  the  third  day  of  January, 
1787,  in  the  twenty -seventh  year  of  our  reign. 

To    our    trusty    and   well-beloved    Duncan    Campbell,    Esq., 
Superintendaut  of  the  Convicts  on  the  river  Thames. 

By  his  Majesty's  command, 


4  Jan. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board, 
Gent'n,  Admiralty,  4  Jan'ry,  1787. 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty  your  letter  of  the  2d  inst.,  informing  them  that  being 
under  orders  to  hire  transports  to  carry  convicts  to  Botany  Bay 

*  The  list  is  not  attached  to  the  warrant  in  the  Record  Oflfice. 


at  the  time  of  Lieut.  Shortland's*  return  with   the  troops  from       1787 
Halifax,    and   an  agent   being   requisite  for  superintending  the      i  Jan 
same,  yuu  appointed  him,  as  being  conversant  in  the  business,  to  Lieu~ 
take  charge  of  the  said  ships,  I  am   commanded  by  their  Lord-  shortiand. 
ships  to  acquaint  you  that  they  have  no   objection   to  Lt.  Short- 
land's  being  employed  to  superintend   these   transports,  but  that 
you  should  have  obtained  their  Lordships'  permission  before  you 
app'd  him  to  that  employment.  I  am,  Arc, 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sir,  [London]  Jan.  4,  1787. 

As  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  add  additional  securities  Alterations 
to  the  hatchways  and  to  alter  the  handcuffs  on  board  the  Alex-  po^s. 
•■  nder,  the  same  will  be  necessary  to  be  done  on  board  the  different 
ships  as  they  arrive  at  Portsmouth,  consequently  orders  should  be 
sent  down  to  that  port,  to  inform  your  ofhce,  or  the  Navy  Board, 
when  such  alterations  are  made,  otherwise  the  convicts  may  be  sent 
from  town  l^efore  the  ships  are  ready  to  receive  them. 

I  likewise  beg  leave  to  observe  that  the  number  of  scythes  (only  Scythes,   ^ 
6),  of  razors  (only  5  dozen),  and  the  quantity  of  buck  and  small  shot.  ' 
shot  (only  two  hundred  pounds)  now  ordered  is  very  insufficient, 
and  that  20  scythes,  12  dozen  of  razors  (at  12s.  a  dozen),  and  oftj. 
[!  cwt.]  of  small  shot,  chiefly  buck,  in  addition  to  the  above,  is  very 

I  have  likewise  to  request  that  you  will  please  to  inform  me  in  Supennten- 
what  manner  those  people  are  to  be  paid  who  superintend  the  con^^cts^ 
convicts  in  their  various  occupations,  for  some  people  there  must 
be  named  for  that  purpose,  and  no  one  will  undertake  this  business 
without  some  reward,  tho'  it  may  be  very  small,  being  held  out 
to  them,  as  likewise  those  who  must  he  employed  in  issuing  the 
daily  provisions — these  people  cannot  well  be  taken  from  the 
garrison — I  think  they  may  from  the  ship. 

The  knowing  what  provisions,  cloathing,  itc,  are  on  board  the 
different  ships  is  very  necessary,  as  I  find  there  are  some  things 
put  on  board  the  transports  by  the  agent  that  cannot  possibly 
remain  there.  I  therefore  beg  that  I  may  have  the  account  as 
soon  as  it  can  possibly  be  given. 

Several  (jf  the  staff'  have  rec^uested  that  I  would  once  more  -^^J^^  ^°'' 
apply  to  you  for  a  twelvemonth's  advance,  as  they  find  themselves 
much  distress'd  in  fitting  for  the  voyage,  and  the  uncertainty  of 

*  Lieut.  John  Shortiand.  He  sul)sequently  Vjecame  Master  and  Commander  in  the  Navy. 
His  eldest  son,  .John  Shortiand,  went  (jut  to  New  South  Wales  with  Covenior  Phillip, 
at  midshipman  of  the  Sirius,  and  was  on  hoard  that  vessel  when  she  was  wrecked  at 
Norfolk  IslaiKl.  He  went  back  to  Knf,'Iand  with  Cajit.  Hunter,  and  returned  with  him  to 
Port  Jackson  in  1793,  as  First  Lieutenant  of  the  Relianee.  In  179"  he  diseovcrcd  Hunter 
River.     He  was  made  C'onnnander  i/i  ISOO. 

t  Copied  from  the  Letter-book  at  the  Admiralty,  in  which  the  initials,  instead  of  the  name 
in  full,  are  frequently  pfiven. 


1787       which  makes  their  agents  unwilling  to  advance  the  sum  they  find 

4  Jan.      absolutely  necessary  to  set  out — and  they  feel  it  the  more  as  the 

officers  of  marines  have  now  received  a  year's  advance.     Indeed, 

I  doubt  if  one  or  two  of  the  assistant  surgeons  will  be  able  to 

leave  town  without  the  advance.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 

11  Jan. 

Gent'n,  Admiralty,  11th  Jan'y,  1787. 

I  am  commanded  by  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty 
to  signify  their  direction  to  you  to  transmit  to  them  a  list  of 
the  names  of  the  ships  you  have  taken  up  for  the  conveyance 
The  First  q£  ^]^g  convicts,  the  marine  establishment,  provisions,  tools,  &c., 
to  Botany  Bay,  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  with  the 
names  of  their  masters,  distinguishing  which  of  them  are  intended 
to  receive  the  convicts  and  the  marine  establishment  and  which 
are  to  receive-  the  provisions,  &c.,  the  state  of  readiness  which 
they  are  in,  and  to  what  ports  they  are  ordered,  and  whether 
any  and  which  of  them  have  already  received  any  convicts  on 
board.  I  am, 


Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Sir,  [London]  Jan.  11,  1787. 

By  letters  from  Lieut.  Shortland  and  the  surgeon's  assistant 
on  board  the  Alexander,  I  find  that  184  men  are  put  on  board 
that  ship,  and  56  women  on  board  the  Lady  Penrhyn,  that  there 
Overcrowd-  are  amongst  the  men  several  unable  to  help  themselves,  and  that 
pwts^  *'^°^  ^^  kind  of  surgeon's  instruments  have  been  put  on  board  that 
ship  or  any  of  the  transports.  You  will,  sir,  permit  me  to  observe 
that  it  will  be  very  difficult  to  prevent  the  most  fatal  sickness 
amongst  men  so  closely  confined ;  that  on  board  that  ship  which 
is  to  receive  210  con\dcts  there  is  not  a  space  left  for  them  to 
move  in  sufficiently  large  for  40  men  to  be  in  motion  at  the  same 
time,  nor  is  it  safe  to  permit  any  number  of  men  to  be  on  deck 
while  the  ship  remains  so  near  the  land. 
Removal  to  Qn  this  Consideration,  I  hope  that  you  will  order  the  Alex- 
ander and  Lady  Penrhyn  to  join  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius 
immediately,  and  proceed  to  Spithead,  where  more  liberty  may  be 
allowed  the  convicts  than  can  be  done  with  safety  in  the  river, 
and  those  that  are  wanting  to  compleat  the  number  to  be  sent 
out  in  those  ships  may  be  sent  round  to  Portsmouth  with  the  other 
convicts,  for  the  most  fatal  consequences  may  be  expected  if  the 
full  number  is  kept  on  board  any  length  of  time  before  we  sail. 
Surgical  You  will,  I  presume,  see  the  necessity  of  ordering  some  surgeon's 

required.   "  instruments  to  be  sent  on  board  the  ships  that  carry  the  convicts 


— and  I  do  hope  that  no  more  will  be  embarked  till  the  ships  are       1787 
ready  to  sail,  and  which  they  cannot  be  for  a  week  after  they  get      ii  Jan. 
to  Spithead.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 
Gent'n,  Admiralty,  16  Jan'ry,  1787.  i^Jan. 

I  am  commanded  by  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty 
to  signify  their  direction  to  you  to  direct  the  masters  of  the  Alex- 
ander and  Lady  Penryhn,  transports,  taken  up  to  carry  convicts 
to  Botany  Bay,  to  put  themselves  under  the  comm'd  of  Capt. 
Phillip,  or  in  his  absence  Captain  Hunter,  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Sirius,  in  Long  Reach,  and  to  follow  his  orders  for  their  further 
proceedings.  I  am,  <kc., 


Secretary  Stephens  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

18  Jan. 

Sir,  Admiralty,  18  Jan'ry,  1787. 

Having  laid  before  my  Lords  Commiss'rs  of  the  Admi- 
ralty a  letter  from  Mr.  Rose,  Secretary  to  the  Lords  Commr's  of 
the  Treasury,  desiring  that  directions  may  be  given  to  the  captain 
of  the  ship  which  is  to  conduct  to  Botany  Bay  the  ships  taken 
up  to  proceed  with  convicts  to  that  place,  to  take  care  that  no 
unnecessary  delay  happens  on  the  passage  thither,  or  in  sending  no 
the  ships  from  thence  after  the  convicts  are  landed,  and  that  he  ^"i"^,*^®^^*""^ 
uses  his  best  endeavours  to  enable  them  to  reach  China  by  the 
1st  Jan'ry,  1788,  as  they  must  otherwise  be  continued  in  pay  till 
the  return  to  Deptford,  I  am  commanded  by  their  Lordships  to 
send  you  the  enclosed  copy  of  the  said  letter,*  and  to  desire  you 
will  lay  the  same  before  Lord  Sydney,  they  not  thinking  them- 
selves at  liberty  to  give  any  directions  to  Capt.  Phillip  for  his 
proceedings  after  his  arrival  at  Botany  Bay.  I  am,  etc., 


29  Jan. 

Superintendent  Campbell  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

My  Dear  Sir,  Adelphi,  29  Jan.,  1787. 

It  cost  me  some  time  to  find  out  a  paper  which  would 
enable  me  to  answer  your  letter  effectually,!  and  which  I  have  this 
moment  laid  my  hand  on,  which  caused  my  delay  in  answering 
yours  sooner. 

It  appears  by  a  calculation  I  made  for  the  information  of  the  Trans- 
House  of  Connnons  some  years  since  that  upon  an  average  of  f°J^^^  '°" 
seven  years,  viz.,  from  1769  to  1775,  both  inclusive,  I  transported  England 
547  convicts  annually  from  London,  Midx.,  Bucks,  and  the  four 
counties  of  the  Home  Circuit,  and  that  117  of  these  transports 
were  women.     I  always  looked  upon  the  number  from  the  other 
parts  of  the  kingdom  to  be  equal  to  what  was  transported  by  me- 
With  regard,  &c.,  Dun.  Campbell. 

•  Ante,  p.  25.    t  The  letter  to  which  this  is  a  reply  is  not  available. 



1787  Surgeon  White  to  Governok  Phillip. 

7  Feb.  Sir^  [London]  7  February,  1787. 

Marines  I  beg  leave  to  inform  you  that  in  case  of  ilhiess  prevailing 

and  convicts  amonji:  the  marines  intended  for  Botany  Bay  there  has  been  no 

without  »  1  n  »  1  11  1    •  1  T 

medicines,  necessaries  supply ed.  As  they  are  equally  subject  to  the  diseases 
and  accidents  to  men  embarked  on  board  the  King's  ships,  I  am 
inclined  to  think  and  hope  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admi- 
ralty, on  your  representation,  would  order  them  to  be  supply'd 
in  proportion,  and  in  the  usual  manner  of  the  Navy.  I  think  it 
my  duty  to  add  that  the  convicts  are  in  a  similar  position. 

I  have,  itc, 
John  White. 

The  Transports  and  the  East  India  Company.* 

At  a  Court  of  Directors,  held  on  Friday,  the  9th  February,  1787, — 
Order'd,  that  in  case  the  ship  Lady  Penrhyn  should  be  pre- 
vented arriving  in  China  by  the  time  prescribed  in  her  charter- 
party,  she  be  allowed  to  remain  there  till  the  next  season,  and 
then  receive  her  loading  for  London,  provided  the  Company  shall 
not  incur  any  addititional  expense  thereby. 

0  Feb. 

The  trans- 
and  the 
East  India 

At  a  Court  of  Directors,  held  on  Wednesday,  the  4th  April, 
1787, — Order'd,  that  the  owners  of  the  ships  chartered  for  China 
from  Botany  Biiy  be  excused  from  the  obligation  of  those  ships 
being  in  China  by  the  15th  January,  1788,  free  of  expence  to  the 

23  Feb. 

No  direc- 



Secretary  Stephens  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Admiralty  Office,  23d  February,  1787. 

My  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  having  taken 
into  their  consideration  the  several  queries  stated  in  your  letter 
of  the  27th  of  December  last,t  I  am  commanded  to  acquaint  you, 
in  answer  to  the — 

1  and  2.  That  as  the  Board  of  Treasury  have  given  directions 
to  the  Navy  Board  for  victualling  the  marines  who  are  to  embark 
on  board  the  transports,  my  Lords  cannot  give  any  directions 
respecting  the  furnishing  them  with  fresh  provisions. 

3.  The  wives  of  marines  who  are  permitted  to  embark  on  board 
the  Sirius  must  be  victualled  in  like  manner  as  the  wives  of  land 
forces  embarked  on  board  transport  ships,  of  which  you  will 
obtain  information  from  the  Victualling  Boaixl. 

4.  If  it  be  absolutely  necessary  to  send  any  marines  sick  on 
shore  in  foreign  parts,  they  must  be  treated  in  the  same  manner 

Tlie  paragraphs  wliich   follow  are  extracts  from  records  in  the  East  India  Company's 
Office.      The  transports  Charlotte,  ScarVjorough,  and  Lafly  Penrhyn  were  under  charter  to 
the  Company  from  Botany  Bay  to  Ciiina,  wlience  they  were  to  carry  cargoes  of  tea  to 
t  Ante,  p.  40. 


as  seamen  ;  but  the  expence  to  be  kept  separate,  and  bills  drawn       1787 
on  the  Commissioners  for  Sick  and  Hurt  for  the  amount.  23  Feb. 

5  and  6.  You  are  at  liberty  to  purchase  wine  for  the  use  of  ^y^^^l 
the  crews  of  the  Sirius  and  Supply  tender,  and  to  cause  the  pro-  allowed, 
visions  they  may  have  exj^ended  on  the  passafje  to  be  replaced, 
particularly  bread  and  beef,  if  the  same  can  be  purchased  at  a 
reasonable  rate. 

7  and  8.  Their  Loi'dships  cannot  give  any  directions  respecting  Nodirec- 
the  victualling  of  the  convicts,  nor  for  the  treatment  of  them,  in  v"ctuamiig. 
case  it  should  be  found  necessary  to  land  any  of  them. 

9.  Nor  can  their  Lordships  authorize  you  to  interfere  in  the  Governor 
purchasing  any  stores  or  provisions  that  may  be  wanted  for  any  SlitM-fJie. 
of  the  transports  in  the  course  of  the  voyage. 

10.  You  are  at  lilDerty  to  exchange  marines  from  the  garrison  Marines 
to  the  Sirius  or  Supply  tender  if  you  judge  it  for  the  good  of  the  "xdianacd. 
service  so  to  do. 

11.  12,  and  13.  As  you  will  be  instructed  to  follow  such  orders  Fhiiiip  to 
as  you  receive  through  the  channel  of  one  of  his  Majesty's  Prin-  '^"''''  ^' 
cijaal  Secretaries  of  State,  on  your  arrival  at  Botany  Bay,  their 
Lordships  decline  answering  these  articles,  not  considex-ing  them- 
selves at  liberty  to  give  directions  for  your  conduct  subsequent  to 

your  arrival  at  that  place. 

14.  When  Captain  Hunter  takes  charge  of  the  ship's  books 
and  accounts,  his  certificate  thereof  to  the  Navy  Board  will  be 
their  justification  of  paying  you  without  passing  any  further 
account.  I  am,  ifec, 

Philip  Stephens. 

Surgeon  White   to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Hungerford  Coffee  House,  Strand, 
Sir,  Feb'y  27th,  1787.  27Fob. 

Finding  that  the  Revd.  Mr.  Johnston  is  to  be  allowed  the  Appikatir.n 
piivaledge  of  taking  with  him  to  Botany  Bay  a  servant,  I  hope  it  ''J'' servant., 
will  not  be  deemed  unreasonable  or  improper  if  I  solicite  a  like 
indulgence,  whose  situation  during  the  voyage  will  require  some 
assistance,  having  no  mate  on  board  the  ship  I  take  my  passage  in 
— indeed  the  number  of  mates  will  by  no  means  admit  of  it.  The 
marine  officers  generally  (and  of  course  will)  have  servants  out  of 
the  ranks,  an  advantage  I  can  by  no  means  lay  claim  to  or  expect. 
Being  in  a  ci\il  capacity,  .and  without  a  servant,  my  situation 
must  be  truly  uncomfortable,  onwhich  lam  persuaded  it  is  needless 
to  say  more,  when  addressing  you,  who  must  know  and  admit  the 
inconveniences  I  shall  lie  subject  to,  not  only  on  the  passage,  but 
after  landing  without  one.  I  have  apply'd  to  Captain  Phillip,  PiiiHip's 
who  has  no  objection,  and  admits  the  propriety,  if  not  necessity, 
of  the  re(iuest,  Ijut  can  do  nothing  in  the  matter  without  yr.  per- 
mission being  first  obtained       The  obligation  I  already  owe  you 


1787  would  prevent  my  asking  any  further,  were  I  not  encouraged  liy 
others,  and  satisfied  in  my  own  mind,  it  cannot  meet  your  dis- 
approbation ;  with  a  hope  of  that  being  the  case,  I  beg  leave  to 
assure  you  of  my  gratitude,  esteem,  and  respect. 

I  am   &c., 

John  White. 

28  Feb  Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

My  Lord,  [London]  February  28th,  1787. 

Having    received  the    inclosed    reports*    respecting    the 
marines  and  convicts  2iow  embarked  on  board  the  Alexander  and 
Lady  Penrhyn  transports,   I  beg  to  submit  it  to  your  Lordship 
whether  it  may  not  be  advisable  to  make  some  alteration  in  the 
A  more         provisions,  by  allowing  the  marines  a  proportion  of  flour  in  lieu 
ration.  of  a  Certain  proportion  of  salt  meat,   and  some  addition  to  the 

provisions  served  to  the  convicts  ;  at  present  a  convict  has  only, 
for  forty-two  days,   sixteen  pounds  of  bread,  as  will  appear  to 
your  Lordship  by  the  inclosed  list. 
Fresh  food         And  I  likewise  beg  leave  to  solicit  your  Lordship  that  orders 
Strom'  wine  ^^^Y  ^^®  given  for  the  supplying  both  marines  and  convicts  with 
for  the  siek.  f  resh  meat  and  vegetables  while  they  remain  at  Spithead,  and  that 
a  small  quantity  of  wine  may  be  allowed  for  the  sick. 

I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 
P.S. — I  likewise  beg  leave  to  represent  to   your  Lordship  that 
the  contractors  having  a  power  of  substituting  half-a-pound  of 
rice  in  lieu  of  one  pound  of  flour  will  be  very  severely  felt  by  the 

Phillip's   Views    on   the  Conduct   of   the    Expedition    and 
THE  Treatment  of  Convicts.! 

IhipjTshouM  ^"^  arriving  at  the  settlement  two  or  three  months  before  the 

prececiethe    traiisports  many  and  very  great    advantages  would   be  gained. 

lanspor  ■.    jj^^^  wovdd  be  ready  to  receive  the  convicts  who  are  sick,  and 

they    would   find   vegetables,    of    which     it    may    naturally    he 

Phillip-s        supposed  they  will  stand  in  "reat  need,  as  the  scurvy  must  make 

«or6si"'nt  i.  i.  •/  o  '  ./ 

"  ■  a  great  ravage  amongst  people  naturally  indolent  and  not  cleanly. 
Huts  would  be  ready  for  the  women ;  the  stores  would  be 
properly  lodg'd  and  defended  from  the  convicts  in  such  manner 
as  to  pre\ent  their  making  any  attempt  on  them.  The  cattle  and 
stock  would  be  likewise  properly  secured,  and  the  ground  marked 
out  for  the  convicts;  for  lists  of  those  intended  to  be  sent 
being  given  to  the  commanding  officers,  mentioning  their  ages, 
crimes,  trades,  and  characters,  they  might  be  so  divided  as  to 
render   few    changes   necessary,    and    the  provisions   would    be 

*  The  reports  are  not  available, 
t  Phillip's  handwritin":,  on  small  sheets  of  paper. 

Phillip's  suggestions.  51 

ready  for  issuing  without  any  waste.  But  if  convicts'  provisions,  1787 
&c.,  must  be  landed  a  few  days  after  the  ship's  arrival,  and 
consequently  mostly  at  the  same  time,  great  inconvenience  will 
arise,  and  to  keep  the  convicts  more  than  a  few  days  on  board 
after  they  get  into  a  port,  considering  the  length  of  time  which 
they  must  inevitably  be  confined,  may  be  attended  with  conse- 
([uences  easier  to  conceive  than  to  point  out  in  a  letter.  Add  to 
this,  fevers  of  a  malignant  kind  may  make  it  necessary  to  have  a 
second  hospital. 

A  ship's  company  is  landed,  huts  rais'd,  and  the  sick  provided  Convicts  not 
for  in  a  couple  of  days  ;  but  here  the  greatei-  nunaljer  are  convicts,  tn,stc<l. 
in  whom  no  confidence  can  be  placed,  and  against  whom  both 
person  and  provision  is  to  be  guarded.  Everything  necessary  for 
the  settlement  should  be  received  at  the  Cape  on  board  wdth  the 
commanding  officer,  and  nothing  left  for  the  transports  but  a 
certain  proportiim  of  live  stock. 

I  may  add,  the  short  space  of   time  left  to  choose  a  proper 

The  confineing  the  convicts  on  board  the  ships  requires  some  probabio 
consideration.      Sickness  must  be  the  consequence  in  so  long  a- ♦{[g'^yo** ,?? 
%'oyage   (six    months  may  be  allow'd  for  the  voyage — that  is, 
from  the  time  of  leaveing  England  to  the  arrival  in  Botany  Bay) 
and  disagreeable  consequences    may  be  feared  if  they  have  the 
liberty  of  the  deck.     The  sooner  the  crimes  and  behaviour  of 
these  people  are  known  the  better,  as  they  may  be  divided,  and 
the  greatest  villains  particularly  guarded  against  in  one  trans- 

The  women  in  general  I  should  suppose  possess  neither  virtue  Care  of  the 
noi*  honesty.  But  there  may  be  some  for  thefts  who  still  retain  ^™'"<'"- 
some  degree  of  virtue,  and  these  should  be  permitted  to  keep 
together,  and  strict  orders  to  the  master  of  the  transport  should 
be  given  that  they  are  not  abused  and  insulted  by  the  ship's 
c<^impany,  which  is  said  to  have  been  the  case  too  often  when 
they  were  sent  to  America. 

At  the  ports  we  put  int(»  for  water,  &c.,  there  may  be  some  What  is  to  be 
sick  that  may  have  fever  of  such  a  nature  that  it  may  be  neces-  i5°"aks  outT 
sarv  for  the  sake  of  the  rest  to  remove  them  out  of  the  shij).      In 
such  a  case,  how  am  I  to  act? 

The  greatest  care  will  be  necessary  to  prevent  any  of  the  con- 
victs from  being  sent  that  have  any  venereal  complaints. 

During  tlie  passage,  when  light  aii's  or  calms  permit  it,  T  shall  .".'jftl^g'""" 
visit  the  transports  to  see  that  they  are  kept  clean  and  i-eceive  voya^'c. 
the  allowance  ordered  by  Government ;  and  at  these  times  shall 
endeavour  to  make  them  sensible  of  their  situation,   and   that 
their  happiness  or  misery  is  in  their  own  hands, — that  those  who 
l)ehave  well  will  be    rewarded  by  being   allow'd   to  work  occa- 

*The  MS.  is  continued,  on  foolscap,  in  another  hand— evidently  a  copy  of  Phillip's  pai)er. 



ajrainst  the 

with  them, 
if  possible. 

1787  sioually  on  the  small  lotts  of  land  set  ajDart  for  them,  and  which 
they  will  be  put  in  possession  of  at  the  expiration  of  the  time  for 
which  they  are  transported. 

On  landing  in  Botany  Bay  it  will  be  necessary  to  throw  up  a 
slight  work  as  a  defence  against  the  natives — who,  tho'  only  seen 
in  small  numbers  by  Captn.  Cook,  may  be  very  numerous  on  other 
parts  of  the  coast — and  against  the  convicts  ;  for  this  my  own 
little  knowledge  as  a  field  engineer  will  be  sufficient,  and  will  be  the 
work  of  a  few  days  only ;  but  some  small  cannon  for  a  redoubt 
will  be  necessary.  Within  the  lines  the  stores  and  provisions  will 
be  secured ;  and  I  should  hope  that  the  situation  I  should  be  able 
to  take  may  admit  of  having  the  small  rivers  between  the  garrison 
and  the  convicts  so  situated  that  I  may  be  able  to  prevent  their 
having  any  intercourse  with  the  natives. 
Jiaivc friends  I  shall  think  it  a  great  point  gained  if  I  can  proceed  in  this 
business  without  having  any  dispute  with  the  natives,  a  few  of 
which  I  shall  endeavour  to  pursuade  to  settle  near  us,  and  who  I 
mean  to  furnish  with  everything  that  can  tend  to  civilize  them, 
and  to  give  them  a  high  opinion  of  the  new  guests,  for  which 
purpose  it  will  be  necessary  to  prevent  the  transports'  crews  from 
having  any  intercourse  with  the  natives,  if  possible.  The  convicts 
must  have  none,  for  if  they  have,  the  arms  of  the  natives  will  be 
very  formidable  in  their  hands,  the  women  abused,  and  the  natives 

The  keeping  of  the  women  apart  merits  great  consideration, 
and  I  don't  know  but  it  may  be  best  if  the  most  abandoned  are 
permitted  to  receive  the  visits  of  the  convicts  in  the  limits  allotted 
them  at  certain  hours,  and  under  certain  restrictions  ;  something 
of  this  kind  was  the  case  in  Mill  Bank  formerly.  The  rest  of  the 
women  I  should  keep  apart,  and  by  permitting  the  men  to  be  in 
their  company  when  not  at  work,  they  will,  I  should  suppose, 
marry,  in  which  case  they  should  be  encouraged,  if  they  are 
industrious,  by  one  day  in  the  week  more  than  the  unmarried  on 
their  own  lotts  of  ground. 

The  natives  may,  it  is  probable,  permit  their  women  to  marry 
and  live  with  the  men  after  a  certain  time,  in  which  case  I  should 
think  it  necessary  to  punish  with  sevei^ity  the  men  who  use  the 
women  ill,  and  I  know  of  no  punishment  likely  to  answer  the 
purpose  of  deterring  others  so  well  as  exiling  them  to  a  distant 
spot,  or  to  an  island,  where  they  woxild  be  ol^liged  to  work  hard 
to  gain  their  daily  subsistance,  and  for  which  they  would  have  the 
necessary  tools,  but  no  two  to  be  together,  if  it  could  be  avoided. 

Rewarding  and  punishing  the  convicts  must  be  left  to  the 
Governor;  he  will  be  answerable  for  his  conduct,  and  death,  I 
should  think,  will  never  be  necessary — in  fact,  I  doubt  if  the  fear 
of  death  ever  prevented  a  man  of  no  principle  from  committing  a 
bad  action.     There  are  two  crimes  that  would  merit   death — 

hhould  lie 

inj,'  with 

and  i)uriisl'.' 

Phillip's  srcGESTioxs.  53 

murder  and  sodomy.     For  either  of  these  crimes  I  would  wish  to       1767 
conline  the  criminal  till  an  opportunity  offered  of  deliverincr  him 
as  a  prisoner  to  the  natives  of  ^^ew  Zealand,  and  let  them  eat  him. 
The  dread  of  this  will  operate  much  stronger  than  the  fear  of  death. 

As  the  getting  a  large  quantity  of  stock  together  will  be  my  Preservation 
first  great  object,  till  that  is  obtained  the  garrison  should,  as  in  °^  ''*°'^^- 
Gibraltar,  not  be  allowed  to  kill  any  animal  without  first  report- 
ing his  stock,  and  recei^dng  permission.  This  order  would  only 
be  necessary  for  a  certain  time,  and  I  mention  it  here  only  to 
show  the  necessity  of  a  military  government  ;  and  as  I  mean  in 
every  matter  of  this  kind  to  sett  the  example,  I  think  that  I  can 
say  this  will  never  occasion  any  uneasiness,  but  if  it  should,  it 
will  be  absolutely  necessary,  otherwise  we  shall  not  do  in  ten 
years  what  I  hope  to  do  in  four. 

Women  may  be  brought  from  the  Friendly  and  other  islands,  Womenfrom 
a  proper  place  prepared  to  receive  them,  and  where  they  will  be  *^®  >^iands. 
.'supported  for  a  time,  and  lots  of  land  assigned  to  such  as  marry 
with  the  soldiers  of  the  orarrison. 

As  I  v\^ould  not  wish  convicts  to  lay  the  foundations  of  an  Convicts 
empire,   I  think  they  should  ever    remain    separated    from    the  £,'latea*- 
garrison,  and  other  settlers  that  may  come  from  Europe,  and  not 
be  allowed  to  mix  with  them,  even  after  the  7  or  14  years  for 
which  they  are  transported  may  be  expired. 

The  laws  of  this  country  will,  of  course,  be  introduced  in  [New]  Xo  slavery, 
.South  Wales,  and  there  is  one  that  I  would  wish  to  take  place 
from  the  moment  his  IMajesty's  forces  take  possession  of  the  coun- 
try :    That  there  can  be  no  slavery  in  a  free  land,  and  conse- 
quently no  slaves. 

The  cloathing  for  the  convicts  will  last  for  a  certain  time,  after  How  are  the 
which  ^\•hat  means  should  I  have  of  furnishing  them  with  materials  brclo*thed"? 
for  their  making  their  own  cloaths  ? 

It  will  be  necessary  to  know  how  far  I  may  permit  the  seamen  Land  grants. 
and  mariiies  of  the  garrison  to  cultivate  spots  of  land  when  the 
duty  of  the  day  is  o^•er,  and  how  far  I  can  give  them  hopes  that 
the  grounds  they  cultivate  will  be  secured  to  them  hereafter ; 
likewise,  how  far  I  may  pemiit  any  of  the  garrison  to  remain, 
when  they  are  ordered  Home  in  consequence  of  relief. 

By  what  I  am  infoi-med,  hatchets  and  beads  are  the  articles  for 
liarter — a  few  small  gr'indstones  for  the  chiefs  ;  and  as  they  use  a  JheTatfvTs. 
light  they  hold  it  in  their  hands,  small  tin  lamps  on  a  very  simple 
construction  must  be  very  acceptable. 

Ships  may  arrive  at  Botany  Bay  in  future.     On  account  of  ^       .  ^ 
the  convicts,  the  orders  of  the  port  for  no  boats  landing  but  in  reJuTatlous. 
particular  places,  coming  on  shore  and  returning  to  the  sliips  at 
stated  hours,  must  be  sti-ictly  inforced. 

The  saddles  I  mentioned  will  be  absolutely  necessary,  for  two  ^^  .„„,.„ 

r,  -n  •  1  •        1.  1  ■     Exploration, 

Jiorsemen  will  examine  the  country  to  a  certam  distsmce,  when  it 





Articles  for 

might  be  dangerous  to  attempt  it  Avith  half  the  garrison,  for  I  am 
not  of  the  general  opinion  that  there  are  very  few  inhabitants  in 
this  country,  at  least  so  few  as  have  been  represented — but  this 
article  I  take  upon  myself,  as  likewise  the  knifes,  &c.,  that  I 

Such  fruit  trees  and  cuttings  that  will  bear  removing  should  be 
added  to  the  seeds  carried  from  England,  as  likewise  roots  that 
will  bear  keeping  that  length  of  time  out  of  the  ground. 

Two  or  three  of  the  houses  in  question  will  be  highly  necessary, 
and  there  is  no  time  to  lose  in  giving  the  orders,  if  intended. 

A  certain  quantity  of  the  articles  of  husbandry,  stores,  corn, 
seeds,  &c.,  of  the  articles  for  traffick,  should  be  put  on  board  the 
Berwick,*  that  in  case  of  an  accident  we  may  not  be  in  immediate 
want  of  those  things,  and  the  same  on  board  the  store-ship  in 
which  the  Lt.-Gouvrnour  goes. 

1  March. 

The  Gover- 



Purcliase  of 

A  hospital 

Fresh  meat 
.ind  vege- 

Exchange  of 


Discharge  of 



Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sir,  [London]  March  1st,  1787. 

From  the  letter  I  have  i-eceived  from  the  Admiralty,  and 
of  which  I  enclose  a  copy,!  y<»ii  "^^ill  see  that  respecting  my  11th, 
12th,  13th  queries  the  Board  decline  giving  any  answer.  As  I 
am  to  be  entirely  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  State, 
immediately  after  I  arrive  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  for 
what  regards  the  Naval  Department,  as  well  as  respecting  the 
settlement,  from  the  Board's  answer  to  these  queries,  as  well  as 
snnilar  answers  to  several  others  of  the  same  nature,  I  must  re([uest 
your  particular  attention  to  the  following  circumstances  in  draw- 
ing up  my  instructions  : — 

That  I  am  directed  to  order  wine  to  be  purchased  in  the  passage, 
at  Tenerifie,  or  where  it  can  be  procured;  for  circumstances  may 
prevent  my  taking  on  board  the  quantity  intended,  at  Teneriffe,  or 
perhaps  any  part  of  it,  and  it  may  be  got  at  the  Cape  or  elsewhere. 

That  I  may  employ  one  of  the  transports  as  an  hospital  ship,  if 
I  find  it  necessaxy  on  the  passage. 

To  order  the  marines  and  convicts  to  be  supply'd  with  fresh 
meat  and  vegetables  at  such  places  as  I  may  stop  at  in  the  passage, 
and  to  order  the  Commissary  to  draw  bills  on  the  Treasury  for 
such  supplies. 

That  I  have  the  power  of  exchanging  any  part  of  the  garrison 
with  the  marines  embark'd  on  board  the  ships,  or  of  incorporating 
the  marines  now  Ijelonging  to  the  ship  with  those  of  the  garrison, 
if  the  service  requires  it. 

That  I  am  directed  to  appoint  officers  to  fill  such  stations  as 
may  become  vacant  by  death  or  otherwise. 

That  I  am  directed  to  discharge  from  the  ship  such  officers  and 
men  as  may  not  be  necessary  for  the  navigating  of  the  ships,  and 

*  Renamed  the  Sirius.    Ante,  p.  24.  f  Ante,  p.  48. 

Phillip's  suggestions.  55 

which  may  be  necessaiy  in  the  garrison,  such  people  being  desirous       1787 
of  remaining  in  the  settlement.  i  March. 

That  I  make  the  settlement  in  such  port  as  I  may  find  the"most  The  place  of 
convenient  and  best  to  answer  the  intentions  of  Government.         settlement. 

That  I  send  one  of  the  ships  to  Charlotte  Sound,  in  the  Island  Bread-fmit 
of  New  Zeland,  for  the  flax-plant,  and  to  the  Friendly  Islands  ^vomelr*^ 
for  the  bread-fruit,  and,  as  women  will  be  there  procured,  that 
I  put  an  oflicer  on  board  such  transport. 

That  the  terms  by  which  lands  are  to  be  granted  are  pointed  Land  grants, 
out  by  the  article  which  gives  me  the  power  of  granting  lands. 

That  I  have  a  power  of  exiling  to  New  Zealand  or  the  neigh-  Power  of 
bouring  islands  any  convict  that  may  be  condemned  to  death.         ^^^^^ 

That  I  have  the  power  of  emancipation.  ^"Jf""'^*" 

The  power  of  suspending  and  sending  home  such  officer  who  suspension, 
from  his  situation  cannot  be  tried  by  a  court-martial. 

That  in  case  of  sending  home  the  Sirius  I  have  orders  from  x^e  naval 
the  Secretary  of  State  to  take  the  command  of  such  ships  or  commami. 
vessels  as  remain  on  the  coast,  by  hoisting  a  distinguishing  pendant 
on  board  such  ship  or  tender  as  I  may  judge  necessary  (such 
pendant  not  to  give  me  any  claim  to  the  pay  of  a  commanding- 
officer),  in  order  to  retain  the  command  by  sea,  to  be  more  at 
liberty  to  visit  the  coast,  and  to  retain  the  command  of  the  ships 
or  vessels  that  I'emain. 

That  I  have  a  power  to  change  the  species  of  provisions  served  A  better 
to  the  marines  and  convicts,  for  if  salt  meat  is  issued,  without  [j^g^gj^ 
any  pi'(jportion  of  flour,  as  has  been  hitherto  done  by  the  con- 
tractor to  the  marines  embarked  on  board  the  Alexander,  the 
scurvy  must  prove  fatal  to  the  greatest  part.  Of  the  marines 
already  embarked  two  months,  one  in  six  are  sent  to  the  hospital 
since  that  ships  arrival  at  Spithead.*  I  am,  ifec,  "* 

A.  Phillip. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 
Gentlemen,  2nd  March,  1787.         2  March: 

I  am  commanded  by  my  Lords  Commrs.  of  the  Admty.  to 
signify  their  direction  to  you  to  order  the  masters  of  the  several 
transports  and  store-ships  named  on  the  other  side  hereof  to  put 
themselves  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Philip  (or  in  his  absence.  The  First 
of  Capt.  Hunter),  of  his  Majesty's  ship  the  Sirius,  and  fijllow  his     ^^ ' 
orders  for  their  future  proceedings.  I  am,  tfec, 

Vessels  : — 
Alexander  Borrowdale 

Lady  Penryhn  Golden  Grove 

Scarborough  Fishburn 

Chailotte  Prince  of  Wales 


•  See  Lord  Sydney's  reply ;  post,  pp.  82-83. 




3  March. 


Secretary  Stephens  to  Captain  Marshall.* 
Sir,  3rd  March,  1787. 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Adm'ty  your  letter  of  yesterday's  date,  acquainting  them  that 
.  .  fearing  the  weather  might  continue  bad  you  had  applied  to  Com- 
Thc  Gordon,  missioner  Martin  for  the  Gorgon,  the  ship  which  he  had  appointed 
for  the  reception  of  the  convicts,  to  be  fitted  with  as  much  security 
as  the  time  would  possibly  admit,  and  that  you  had  been  obliged  to 
embark  them  on  board  her,  and  had  given  orders  for  their  guard  and 
security,  similar  to  those  issued  when  the  Firm  hulk  receives  such 
people,  I  am  commanded  by  their  Lordships  to  acquaint  you  that 
they  approve  thereof,  and  Lord  Sydney,  one  of  his  M'y's.  Princi- 
pal Sec'rys  of  State,  having  desired  that  as  the  said  convicts,  as 
well  as  the  marines  who  have  been  appointed  to  guard  them,  will 
stand  in  immediate  need  of  a  supply  of  provisions  for  their  subsist- 
ence until  they  can  be  sent  out  to  the  Motherbank,  which  Mr. 
Townshend,  who  is  charged  with  the  care  of  them,  cannot 
conveniently  procure,  orders  may  be  given  for  the  said  marines 
and  convicts  being  supplied  with  such  provisions  from  one  of  his 
Majesty's  ships  in  Portsmouth  harbour,  as  Mr.  Townshend  shall 
require,  upon  his  settling  with  the  purser  for  the  amount  thereof, 
and  that  as  the  boiling  of  the  meat  with  which  they  are  supplied 
on  board  of  the  ship  wherein  they  are  now  confined  will  most 
likely  be  attended  with  difficulty,  the  meat  may  l^e  dressed  on 
board  the  ship  from  whence  the  same  shall  be  supplied,  I  am 
comra'd  by  their  Lordships  to  signify  their  direction  to  you  to  give 
the  necessary  orders  conformable  thereto. 

The  enclosed  letter  from  Lord  Sydney  to  Mr.  Townshend,  f  upon 
the  subject,  you  will  be  pleased  to  cause  to  be  delivered  to  him. 

I  am,  &c., 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

My  Lord,  [London]  March  12th,  1787. 

As  the  Navy  Board  have  informed  me  that  no  alteration 
can  be  made  respecting  the  victualling  of  the  marines  during  the 
passage,  it  is  to  prevent  my  character  as  an  officer  from  being 
called  in  question,  should  the  consequences  I  fear  be  realized,  that 
I  once  more  trouble  your  Lordship  on  this  subject. 

The  contracts  for  the  garrison  and  convicts  were  made  before 
I  ever  saw  the  Navy  Board  on  this  business,  and  tho'  I  never 
have  had  it  in  my  power  officially  to  interfere  in  any  respect,  yet 
I  have  repeatedly  pointed  out  the  consequences  that  must  be 
expected  from  the  men's  being  crowded  on  board  such  small 
ships,  and  from  victualling  the  marines  according  to  the  contract, 

*  One  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Victualling  Department, 
t  Not  recorded. 

12  March. 

Bad  victual 
ling— a 

Phillip's  iiemoxstr\nces.  57 

which  allows  no  flour,  as  is  customary  in  the  Navy.     This  must 
be  fatal  to  many,  and  the  more  so  as  no  anti-scorbutics  are  allowed       17S7 
on  board  the  transports  for  either  marine  or  convict ;   in  fact,  my    ^o  March 
Lord,  the  garrison  and  convicts  ai'e  sent  to  the  extremity  of  the 
globe  as  they  would  be  sent  to  America — a  six-weeks'  passage. 

I  see  the  critical  situation  I  may  be  in,  after  losing  part  of  the 
garrison  that  is  at  present  very  weak  when  the  service  for  which 
it  is  intended  is  considered  ;  but  I  am  prepard  to  meet  difficulties, 
and  I  have  only  one  fear — I  fear,  my  Lord,  that  it  may  be  said 
hereafter  the  officer  Avho  took  charge  of  the  expedition  should 
have  known  that   it  was  more  than  probable  he  lost  half  the 
garrison  and  convicts,  crowded  and  victualled  in  such  a  manner 
for  so  long  a  voyage.     And  the  public,  believing  it  rested  with  Phillip 
me,  may  impute  to  my  ignorance  or  inattention  what  I  have  never  l-ei^ponsl. 
been  consulted  in,  and  which  never  coincided  with  my  ideas,  to  ^'■^^^y- 
avoid  which  is  the  purport  of  this  letter ;   and  I  flatter  myself 
your  Lordship  will  hereafter  point  out  the  situation  in  which  I 
have  stood  thro'  the  whole  of  this  business  should  it  ever  be 
necessary.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sir,  Portsmouth,  Uth  March,  1787.         uiiardn 

I  yesterday  muster'd  the  convicts  on  board  the  different  Muster  of 
transports  at  the  Mother  Bank.  The  enclosed  lists*  are  exact  as  convicts. 
to  numbers,  and  the  most  correct  I  could  get  from  them  of  their 
names.  I  hope  it  will  answ'r  all  your  purposes,  and  if  there  is 
anything  else  wanted  you  will  please  to  let  me  know,  and  I  shall 
have  pleasure  in  obeying  your  commands.  Perhaps  you  would 
wish  to  have  similar  lists  of  those  on  board  the  ships  from 
Plymouth  ;  if  you  do,  you  have  only  to  let  me  know. 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  informing  you  that  the  convicts  seem  The  convicts 
perfectly  satisfied  and  obedient.      They  wish,  if  possible,  to  be  o'[fjj^e,^t^"'^ 
allowed  more  bread  than  is  at  present  served  them — taking  off  as 
much,  if  so,  of  the  allowance  of  their  salt  provisions,  as  may  be 
equal  in  value. 

You  are  too  well  acquainted  with  the  consequences  attending  Xheirhealih. 
the  being  kept   long  upon  a  diet  of  salt  provisions  to  need  my 
saying  anything  upon  that  head,  being  well  convinced  that  what- 
ever can  be  done  for  the  preservation  of  health  will  be  done  by 

I  likewise  beg  to   observe  to   you    that   the   contractors    for  No  flour, 
victualling   the  marines   have  not   put  any  flour   on  board  the 
transports  for  their  use,  and  of  course,  as  they  are  the  only  people 
deprived  of  that  necessary  article,  which  I  have  reason  to  Ijelieve 
was  never  intended  to  be  the  case,  may  I  request  that. you  will 

*  In  the  lists  are  given  fictitious  and  real  names.     Among  the  fictitious  are — "  Black  Jack," 
"  Bone,"  "  Gash,"  "  Major,"  ^c. 



1787       use  your  endeavours  to  get  the  uiistake  rectified,  as  you  know  that 
14  Jiaivh.    the  preservation  of  their  health  is  of  the  utmost  consequence  on 
the  present  occasion.  I  have,  &c., 

R.  Ross. 

17  March 

Sick  men 
be  dis- 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 
Gent.,  Admiralty,  17  March,  1787. 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty 
your  letter  of  yesterday's  date,  informing  them  of  the  arrival  of 
the  two  convict  ships  from  Plymouth,  of  the  Cynet  [Cygnet],  sloop, 
having  made  the  signal  for  sailing,  and  of  Captain  Hunter,  of  the 
Sirius,  having  applied  to  you  to  know  what  to  do  with  respect  to  the 
eleven  men  sick  on  shore,  should  he  go  to  sea,  having  very  little 
reason  to  expect  their  return  to  their  duty,  and  requesting,  there- 
fore, that  you  may  know  their  Lordships'  pleasure  thereon,  and 
Avhether  you  are  to  consider  the  Supply,  tender,  in  the  same 
situation  •  and,  in  return,  I  am  comm'd  by  their  Lordships  to 
to  signify  their  direction  to  you  to  cause  the  men  sent  sick  on  shore 
from  the  said  ship  and  tender  to  l^e  discharged,  and  to  endeavour 
to  supply  their  jjlaces  by  volunteei's  from  the  guard-ship,  agreeable 
to  what  is  contained  in  my  letter  to  you  of  the  26th  of  last  month. 

I  am,  «fcc., 

18  March. 




Bad  pro- 

GovERXOR  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepeax.* 
Dear  Sir,  [London]  March  18th,  1787. 

A  letter  which  I  have  received  from  the  surgeon  states 
the  situation  of  the  convicts  to  be  such  that  I  am  under  the 
necessity  of  requesting  you  to  lay  their  case  before  Lord  Sydney, 
that  directions  may  be  given  to  the  Commissioners  of  the  lISTavy 
for  ordering  lighters  from  Portsmouth  yard  to  the  Alexander,  to 
i^eceive  the  convicts  while  the  ship  is  cleaned  and  smoaked,  and 
tho'  I  have  so  often  solicited  that  essence  of  malt  or  some  anti- 
scorbutic may  lie  allowed,  I  cannot  help  once  more  repeating  the 
necessity  of  it ;  and,  putting  the  convicts  out  of  the  question, 
wliich  humanity  forbids,  the  sending  of  the  marines  that  are  on 
board  the  transports  such  a  voyage  as  they  are  going,  in  a  worse 
state  than  ever  troops  were  sent  out  of  the  Kingdom,  even  to  the 
nearest  garrison  (for  taking  off  the  tonnage  for  the  provisions 
of  stores,  they  have  not  one  ton  and  a  half  a  man)  cannot,  I 
am  certain,  be  the  intention  of  liis  Majesty's  Ministers,  yet  it  is 
absolutely  the  case,  and  I  have  repeatedly  stated  this  fact.  Fresh 
meat  for  all  the  convicts  and  wine  for  the  sick  I  was  informed  had 
been  ordered  in  consequence  of  the  representation  I  made  as  soon 
as  the  ships  got  round  to  Portsmouth,  but  the  sick  only  have  fresh 
meat.  Wine,  at  the  discretion  of  the  surgeon,  is  very  necessary  for 
the  sick,  as  the  convicts  are  not  allowed  anything  more  than  water. 

*  A  private  letter. 


The  necessity  of  making  one  of  the  transports  an  hospital  ship 
is  obvious,  and,  I  think,  cannot  1)6  deferred.     The  Friendship,  as    i^  March, 
liaving  the  smallest  number  of  convicts  on  board,  I  propose  for 
that  purpose. 

The  giving  cloaths  to  those  convicts  who  have  been  embarked  Comiots' 
at  Plymouth  is  so  very  necessary  that  I  have  ordered  it  to  be  '^  °  '"=' 
done,  and  presume  the  Navy  Board  will  replace  the  cloathing, 
but  as  there  are  more  convicts  to  be  sent  on  board  the  different 
shijjs,  unless  orders  are  being  given  for  their  being  washed  and 
cloathed  on  their  leaving  the  prison  or  the  hulks,  all  that  we  may 
do  will  be  to  no  purpose. 

These  complaints,  my  dear  sir,  do  not  come  unexpected,  nor  Dan-er 
were  they  unavoida])le.  I  foresaw  them  from  the  beginning,  and  =^^ead. 
repeatedly  pointed  them  out,  when  they  might  have  been  so  easily 
prevented,  at  a  very  small  expense,  and  with  little  trouble  to 
those  who  have  had  the  conducting  of  this  business.  At  present 
the  evils  complained  of  may  be  redressed,  and  the  intentions  of 
Goverimient  by  this  expedition  answered.  But  if  now  neglected, 
it  may  be  too  late  hereafter,  and  we  may  expect  to  see  the  seamen 
belonging  to  the  transports  run  fi'om  the  ships  to  avoid  a  fatal  dis- 
temper, and  may  he  refused  entrance  into  a  foreign  port. 

The  situation  in  which  the  magistrates  sent  the  women  on  -riie  women 
board  the  Lady  Penrhyn,  stamps  them  with  infamy — tho'  almost  ^"'V'Sj!^.'"^ 
naked,  and  so  very  lilthy,  that  nothing  but  clothing  them  could 
have  prevented  them  from  perishing,  and  which  could  not  be  done 
in  time  to  prevent  a  fever,  which  is  still  on  board  that  ship,  and 
where  there  are  many  venereal  complaints,  that  must  spread  in 
spite  of  every  precaution  I  may  take  hereafter,  and  will  bo  fatal 
to  themselves.  There  is  a  necessity  for  doing  something  for  the 
young  man  who  is  on  board  that  ship  as  surgeon,  or  I  fear  that  Their 

.  .  .   1  helpless 

we  shall  lose  him,  and  then  a  hundred  women  will  be  left  without  condition, 
any  assistance,   several  of  them  with  child.      Let  me  repeat  my 
desire  that  orders  immediately  may  be    given    to    inci'ease    the 
convict  allowance  of  bread.      16  lb  of  l)read  for  42  days  is  very 

To  supjily  all  tliH  convicts  with  fresh  meat  while  tliey  remain  Fresh  moat 
at  Portsmouth,  the  sick  with  some  small  quantity  of  wine.  *"   *"*^' 

Lighters   to  Ije   ordered  to  attend  the  Alexander  wliile  that  Care  of  the 
sliip  is  smoaked,  etc.      To  wash  and  cloath  the   convicts   that  are 
still  to  be  sent  down  before  they  are  put  on  board  the  transports, 
and  to  have  one  of  the  transports  ordered  to  serve  as  an  hospital 

This  is  a  long  letter,  but  it  is  my  duty  to  repeat  complaints, 
that  may  be  redressed,  and  which  I  am  certain  you  desire  ('([ually 
with  myself.  I  I'emain,  &:c., 

A.    PlIILLll'. 



i"87  Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 

20  March.        Gent'n,  Admiralty,  20th  Mar.,  1787. 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty 
your  letter  of  the  16th  inst.,  enclosing  a  copy  of  one  from  the 
The  Supply,  master  and  surgeon  of  the  Supply,  armed  tender,  relative  to  the 
alterations  which  Lt.  Ball,  the  commander,  had  caused  to  be  made 
in  the  accommodation  provided  for  them,  I  am  commanded  by 
their  Lordships  to  acquaint  you  that  they  have  signihed  to  Lt. 
Ball  their  disapprobation  thereof,  and  ordered  him  to  cause  the 
accommodation  for  those  officers  to  be  restored  to  the  state  in 
which  they  were  fitted  under  your  direction.*         I  am,  &c., 

P.  S. 

22  March. 

soup  for 

23  March. 

Lieut.  Riou. 

Sick  men  dis. 
charged  pre- 

29  Jlarch. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

[London]  Thursday  morning,  22nd  March,  1787. 
Captain  Phillip  presents  his  compliments  to  Mr.  Stephens,  and 
as  it  is  probable  the  ship's  company  will  be  on  salt  provisions  for 
some  months  after  they  arrive  on  the  coast  of  New  South  AVales, 
will  be  glad  of  two  hundred  pounds  of  portable  soup,  in  addition 
to  the  fifty  pounds  already  supply'd.  1  am,  (tc, 

A.  Phillip. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  Captain  Marshall. 
Sir,  Admiralty,  2.3  March,  1787. 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the 
Adm'ty  your  letter  of  yesterday's  date,  enclosing  one  from 
Captain  Gower,  of  the  Salisbury,  requesting  a  month's  leave 
of  absence  for  Lt.  Riou,t  of  the  said  ship,  to  attend  his 
private  afi^airs,  and  informing  their  Lordships  of  your  having 
ordered  Captain  Hunter,  of  the  Sirius,  and  Lieutenant  Ball,  of 
the  Supply,  tender,  to  cUscharge  the  men  they  had  put  sick  on 
shore,  and  that  they  are  now  completing  their  complements  from 
their  guard-ships,  I  am,  in  return,  comm'd  by  their  Lordships  to 
acquamt  you  that  they  are  pleased  to  permit  you  to  give  Lieut. 
Riou  the  leave  of  absence  desired,  but  that  it  was  not  their 
intention  the  sick  men  should  have  been  discharged  from  the 
Sirius  and  Supply,  and  other  men  appointed  to  suj)ply  their  places, 
nor  did  they  apprehend  you  would  have  given  orders  for  that 
purpose,  until  the  said  ship  and  tender  had  received  their  sailing 
orders.  I  am,  etc., 


Secretary  Stephens  to  Captain  Marshall. 

Sir,  A^lmiralty,  29th  March,  1787. 

Having  laid  before  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Admiralty 

your  letter  of  the  27th  inst.,  informing  them  of  the  sailing  of  the 

Winchelsea  from  Spithead,   and  enclosing  a  letter  which  you  had 

received    from   Lieut.   Ball,    commanding    his    Majesty's    armed 

*  Post,  p.  61. 

t  Afterwards  commander  of  the  Guardian. 


tender  Supply,  desiring,  for  the  reasons  therein  stated,  that  an      1787 
enquiry  may  be  made  into  his  conduct  respecting  the  victualling    29  March. 
the  said  tender,  I  am  commanded "  by  their  Loi'dships  to  return  victuaiTin'^ 
you  the  said  letter  herewith,  and  to  signify  their  direction  to  you  the  Supply. 
to  take  to  your  assistance  some  of  the  captains  of  the  ships  under 
your  command,  and  to  cause  a  particular  enquiry  to  be  made  into 
what  is  therein  represented,  reporting  to  me,  for  their  Lordships' 
information,  how  the  same  shall  appear  to  be  judged  necessary. 
I  am,  &c.,  P,S. 

Secretary  Stephens  to  The  Navy  Board. 
Genl'n,  Admiralty,  2nd  April,  1787.  2  April. 

My  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Admiralty  having  directed 
Captain  Hunter,  of  his  Majesty's  ship  the  Siiius,  to  make  enquiry 
concerning  the  alterations  made  in  the  apartments  of  the  master 
and  surgeon  of  the  Supply,  tender,  whose  complaint  thereof  you 
enclosed  to  their  Lordships  in  your  letter  of  the  16th  ult.,  I  am 
comm'd  to  send  you  a  copy  of  Captain  Hunter's  letter  in  answer 
thereto,  and  to  aquaint  you  that  my  Lords  have  dii'ected  him  to  ^  ground- 
reprimand  the  master  and  surgeon  for  having  made  so  groundless  '^^s  char-;e. 
a  charge  against  the  lieutenant  of  the  Supply.*        I  am   &c., 


Secretary  Stephens  to  Captain  Marshall. 
Sir,  Admiralty,  3rd  April,  1787.  3  April. 

Having  laid  before  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty  the 
report  of  the  captains  who,   in  consequence  of  their  Lordships' 
directions  to  you  in  my  letter  of  the  29th  ult.,  you  assembled  to 
enquire  into  the  conduct  of  Lieut.  Ball,  commanding  his  Majesty's 
armed  tender  the  Supply,  respecting  the  victualling  the  said  ten- 
der, I  am  commanded  to  acquaint  you  that  their  Lordships  have  oJ^fhg'i.ul^ 
sent  a  copy  thereof  to  the  Navy  Board,  for  their  information,  and  piy  !;ui)er- 
as  they  deem  the  master  an  improper  person  to  be  continued  in  '*'^  '^  ' 
the  tender,  they  have  directed  them  to  appoint  a  proper  person  to 
supercede  him.      I  am,  (tc,  P.S. 

Phillip's  Commission.! 
Arthur  Phillip  Esqre  ) 

Governor  of  New  South  Wales,     j 
George  the  Third  l)y  the  Grace  of  God  King  of  Great  Britain  France      2  April. 
and  Ireland  Defender  of  the  Faith  &c.  to  our  right  trusty  and 
well-beloved  Councillor  Edward  Lord  Thurlow  Baron  Thurlow 
our  Chancellor  of  Great  Britain  greeting  :■■- 
Wee  will  and  conmiand  that  under  our  Great  Seal  of  Great  Britain  Letters 
(remaining  in  your  custody)  you  cause  these  our  letters  to  be  made  I'^^tont. 

*  Ante,  p  60. 

t  Phillip  was  appointed  Governor  of  New  South  Wales  12th  October  178C,  when  a  commis- 
Bion,  bricHy  worUtd,  was  »it;ned.     Ante,  p.  21. 


1787       forth  patent  in  form  following  :  George  the  Third  by  the  Grace  of 
2  A))rii      God  of  Great  Britain   France  and   Ireland  King  Defender  of  the 
Faith  etc. 
To  our  trusty  and  well-beloved  Arthur  Phillip  Esquire. 

Wee  reposing  especial  trust  and  confidence  in  the  prudence 
courage  and  loyalty  of  you  the  said  Arthur  Phillip  of  our  especial 
grace  certain  knowledge  and  meer  motion  have  thought  fit  to 
constitute  and  appoint  and  by  these  presents  do  constitute  and 
appoint  you  the  said  Phillip  to  be  our  Captain-General  and 
Governorof  Governor-iu-Chief   in  and  over  our  territory  called   New   Soutli 

New  South  ,.»  ^        -K-r  1  /-H  -PI 

Wales.  \\  ales  extending  from  the  JNorthern  Uape  or  extremity  oi  the  coast 

called  Cape  York  in  the  latitude  of  ten  degrees  thirty-seven 
minutes  south  to  the  southern  extremity  of  the  said  territory  of 
New  South  Wales  or  South  Cape  in  the  latitude  of  forty-three 

Limitsofthe  degrees  thirty -nine  minutes  south  and  of  all  the  country  inland 
em  or\.  -westward  as  far  as  the  one  hundred  and  thirty-fifth  degree  of  east 
lonoitude  reckoning  from  the  meridian  of  Greenwich  including 
all  the  islands  adjacent  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  within  the  latitudes 
aforesaid  of  ten  degrees  thirty-seven  minutes  south  and  forty- 
three  degrees  and  thirty-nine  minutes  south  and  of  all  towns 
garrisons  castles  forts  and  all  other  fortifications  or  other  military 
works  which  may  be  hereafter  erected  upon  the  said  territory  or  any 
of  the  said  islands. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  require  and  command  you  to  do  and  execute 

The  Oover-    j^n  things  in  due  manner  that  shall  belong  to  your  said   command 

nor  to  be  ~  o  ♦/ 

guided  bv     and  trust  Wee  have  reposed  in  you  according  to  the  several  powers 

slon  ancT"^'  ^^^^  directions  granted  or  appointed  you  by  this  present  Commis- 

instructions.  sion  and  the  instructions  and  authorities  herewith  given  to  you  or 

by  such  further  powers  instructions  and  authorities  as  shall  at  any 

time  hereafter  be  granted  or  appointed  you  under  our  signet  and 

sign  manual  or  by  our  order  in  our  Pri^y  Council 

And  our  will  and  pleasure  is  that  you  the  said  Arthur  Phillip 
after  the  publication  of  these  our  letters  patent  do  in  the  first 
oath^^^^  *''^  place  take  the  oaths  appointed  to  be  taken  by  an  Act  passed  in 
the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  King  George  the  First  intituled 
"  An  Act  for  the  further  security  of  his  Majesty's  person  and 
Government  and  the  succession  of  the  Crown  in  the  heirs  of  the 
late  Princess  Sophia  being  Protestants  and  for  extinguishing  the 
hopes  of  the  pretended  Prince  of  AVales  and  his  open  and  secret 
abettors  "  as  altered  and  explained  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  sixth 
year  of  our  reign  intituled  "  An  Act  for  altering  the  oath  of 
abjuration  and  the  assurance  and  for  amending  so  much  of  an 
Act  of  the  seventh  year  of  her  late  Majesty  Queen  Anne  intituled 
"  An  Act  for  the  improvement  of  the  Union  of  the  two  Kingdoms 
as  after  the  time  therein  limitted  requires  the  delivery  of  certain 
lists  and  copies  therein  mentioned  to  persons  indicted  of  High 
Treason  or  misprision  of  Treason." 

Phillip's  commission.  G3 

As  also  that  you  make  use  and  subscribe  the  declaration  men-       1787 
tioned  in  Act  of  Parliament  made  in  the  twenty -fifth  year  of  the      2  April, 
reign  of  King  Charles  the  Second  intituled  "  An  Act  for  preventing  ^°  p°p^''^^' 
dangers  which  may  arise  from  Popish  Recusants." 

And  likewise  that  you  take  the  usual  oath  for  the  due  execution  Oath  of 
of  the  office  and  trust  of  our  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-  ° 
Chief  in  and  over  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  for  the 
due  and  impartial  administration  of  justice. 

And  further  that  you  take  the  oath  required  to  be  taken  by  Trade  and 
Governors  in  the  plantations  to  do  their  utmost  that  the  several  lUs?' 
laws  relating  to  trade  and  the  plantations  be  duly  observed. 
Which  said  oaths  and  declaration  our  Judge- Advocate  in  our  said 
territory  is  hereby  required  to  tender  and  administer  unto  you  and 
in  your  absence  to  our  Lieutenant-Governor  if  there  be  any  upon 
the  place. 

All  which  being  duly  performed  you  shall  administer  unto  our 
Lieutenant-Governor  if  their  be  any  upon  the  place  and  to  our 
Judge-Advocate  the  oaths  mentioned  in  the  lirst-recited  Act  of 
Parliament  altered  as  above  as  also  cause  them  to  make  and  sub- 
scribe the  afore-mentioned  declai'ation. 

And  Wee  do  hereliy  authorize  and  empower  you  to  keep  and 
use  the  public  seal  which  will  be  herewith  delivered  to  you  or 
shall  be  hereafter  sent  to  you  for  sealing  all  things  whatsoever  that  public  seal, 
shall  pass  the  Great  Seal  of  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies. 

Wee  do  further  give  and  grant  unto  you  the  said  Arthur  Phillij) 
full  power  and  authority  from  time  to  time  and  at  any  time  here- 
after by  yourself  or  by  any  other  to  be  authorized  by  you  in  that 
behalf  to  administer  and  give  the  oaths  mentioned  in  the  said  first-  Power  to 
recited  Act  of  Parliament  altered  as  above  to  all  and  every  such  o^tii'"'^**^' 
person  or  persons  as  you  shall  think  fit  who  shall  at  any  time  or 
times  pass  into  our  said  territory  or  its  dependencies  or  shall  be 
resident  or  al)iding  therein. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  authorize  and-  empower  you  to  constitute 
and  appoint  justices  of  the  peace  coronors  constables  and  other 
necessary  officers  and  ministers  in  our  said  territory  and  its  depend-  power  to 
encies  for  the  better  administration  of  justice  and  putting  the  law  ^^','^j°"^,* 
in  execution  and  to  administer  or  cause  to  be  administei-ed  unto 
tliom  such  oath  or  oatlis  as  are  usually  given  for  the  execution 
and  portormance  of  offices  and  places. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  give  and  grant  unto  you  full  powei-  and 
authority  where  you  shall  see  cause  or  shall  judge  any  ofi'endcr  or 
oftenders  in  criminal  matters  or  for  any  fine  or  fines  or  forfeitures 
due  inito  us  fit  objects  of  our  mercy  to  pardon  all  such  olFenders  and  To  pardon 
to  remit  all  such  offences  fines  and  forfeitures  treason  and  wilful  ' 
murder  only  excepted  in  which  cases  you  shall  likewise  have  power 
uj)()n  extraordinary  occasions  to  grant  reprieves  to  the  offenders  reprieve, 
untill  and  to  the  intent  our  royal  pleasure  may  be  known  therein. 



2  April. 

Custody  of 
lunatics  and 
their  estates. 

Grants  and 



Power  to 
levy  forces 
for  defence. 

Pirates  and 

Martial  law. 

And  whereas  it  beiongetli  to  us  in  right  of  our  Royal  Pi-erogative 
to  have  the  custody  of  ideots  and  their  estates  and  to  take  the 
profits  thereof  to  our  own  use  finding  them  necessaries  and  also  to 
provide  for  the  custody  of  lunaticks  and  their  estates  without 
taking  the  pi'ofits  thereof  to  our  own  use. 

And  whereas  while  such  ideots  and  lunaticks  and  their  estates 
remain  under  our  immediate  care  great  trouble  and  charges  may 
arise  to  such  as  shall  have  occasion  to  resort  unto  us  for  directions 
respecting  such  ideots  and  lunaticks  and  their  estates  Wee  have 
thought  fit  to  entrust  you  with  the  care  and  committment  of  the 
custody  of  the  said  ideots  and  lunaticks  and  their  estates  and  Wee 
do  by  these  presents  give  and  gi'ant  unto  you  full  power  and 
authority  without  expecting  any  further  special  warrant  from  us 
from  time  to  time  to  give  order  and  warrant  for  the  preparing  of 
grants  of  the  custodies  of  such  ideots  and  lunaticks  and  their 
estates' as  are  or  shall  be  found  by  inquisitions  thei-eof  to  be  taken 
by  the  Judges  of  our  Court  of  Civil  Jurisdiction  and  thei'eupon  to 
make  and  pass  grants  and  committments  under  our  Great  Seal  of 
our  said  territory  of  the  cu.stodies  of  all  and  every  such  ideots  and 
lunaticks  and  their  estates  to  such  person  or  persons  suitors  in  that 
behalf  as  according  to  the  rules  of  law  and  the  use  and  practice  in 
those  and  the  like  cases  you  shall  judge  meet  for  that  trust  the  said 
grants  and  committments  to  be  made  in  such  manner  and  form  or  as 
nearly  as  may  be  as  hath  been  heretofore  used  and  accustomed  in 
making  the  same  under  the  Great  Seal  of  Great  Bi-itain  and  to  con- 
tain such  apt  and  convenient  covenants  provisions  and  agreements 
on  the  parts  of  the  committees  and  grantees  to  be  performed  and 
such  security  to  be  by  them  given  as  shall  be  requisite  and  needful. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  give  and  grant  unto  you  the  said  Arthur 
Phillip  by  yourself  or  by  your  captains  or  commanders  by  you  to 
be  authorized  full  power  and  authority  to  levy  arm  muster  and 
command  and  employ  all  persons  whatsoever  residing  within  our 
said  territory  and  its  dependencies  under  your  government  and  as 
occasion  shall  serve  to  march  from  one  place  to  another  or  to 
embark  them  for  the  resisting  and  withstanding  of  all  enemies 
pirates  and  rebels  both  at  sea  and  land  and  such  enemies  pirates 
and  rebels  if  there  shall  be  occassion  to  pursue  and  prosecute  in  or 
out  of  the  limits  of  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  and  (if 
it  shall  so  please  God)  them  to  vanquish  apprehend  and  take  and 
being  so  taken  according  to  law  to  put  to  death  or  keep  and 
preserve  alive  at  your  discretion. 

And  to  execute  martial  law  in  time  of  invasion  or  other  times 
when  by  law  it  may  be  executed  and  to  do  and  execute  all  and 
every  other  thing  and  things  which  to  our  Captain-General  and 
Governor-in-Chief  doth  or  ought  of  right  to  belong. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  give  and  grant  unto  you  full  power  and 
authority  to  erect  raise  and  build  in  our  said  territory  and  its 

Phillip's  commission.  65 

dependencies   such   and   so   many    forts   and    platforms    castles       1787 
cities    boroughs    towns    and    fortifications    as    you     shall    judge      2  April, 
necessary  and  the  same  or  any  of  them  to  fortify  and  furnish  portifica- 
with  ordnances  and  ammunition  and  all  sorts  of  arms  fit  and  tions. 
necessary  for  the  security  and  defence  of  the  same  or  any  of  them 
to  demolish  or  dismantle  as  may  be  most  convenient. 

And  forasmuch  as  divers  mutinies  and  disorders  may  happen 
by  persons  shipped  and  employed  at  sea  during  the  time  of  war 
and  to  the  end  that  such  as  shall  be  shipped  and  employed  at  sea 
during  the  time  of  war  may  be  better  governed  and  ordered  Wee 
do  hereby  give  and  grant  unto  you  the  said  Arthur  Phillip  full  Naval 
power  and  authority  to  constitute  and  appoint  captains  lieuten-  '^^^'^'P'""^- 
ants  masters  of  ships  and  other  commandei's  and  officers  and  to 
grant  to  such  captains  lieutenants  masters  of  ships  and  other 
commanders  and  ofiicers  commissions  to  execute  the  law-martial 
during  the  time  of  war  according  to  the  directions  of  an  Act  Martial  law, 
passed  in  the  twenty-second  year  of  the  reign  of  our  late  royal 
grandfather  intituled  "An  Act  for  explaining  amending  and 
reducing  into  one  Act  of  Parliament  the  laws  relating  to  the 
government  of  his  Majesty's  ships  vessels  and  forces  by  sea  as 
the  same  is  altered  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  nineteenth  year  of 
our  reign  intituled  an  Act  to  explain  and  amend  an  Act  made 
in  the  twenty-second  year  of  the  reign  of  his  late  Majesty  King 
(reorge  the  Second  intituled  an  Act  for  amending  explaining 
and  reducing  into  one  Act  of  Parliament  the  laws  relating  to  the 
government  of  his  Majesty's  ships  vessels  and  forces  by  sea." 

And  to  use  such  proceedings  authorities  punishments  corrections  Punishmrnt 
executions  upon  any  offender  or  offenders  who  shall  be  mutinous  °^  offendtis. 
sf^ditious  disorderly  or  any  way  unruly  either  at  sea  or  during  the 
time  of  their  abode  or  residence  in  any  of  the  ports  harbours  or 
bays  of  our  said  territory  as  the  case  shall  be  found  to  require 
according  to  martial  law  and  the  said  directions  during  the  time 
of  war  as  aforesaid. 

Provided  that  nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  construed  to 
tlie  enabling  you  or  any  by  your  authority  to  hold  plea  or  have 
any  jurisdiction  of  any  offence  cause  matter  or  thing  committed  or  No  jurisdic- 
done  upon  the  high  sea  or  within   any  of  tlie    havens  rivers  or  *'2"  ^'^^'^ 
creeks   or    our  said   territory   and    its    dependencies    under  your  comuiittc'i 
Government  by  any  captain  commander  lieutenant  master  officer  <'"*'^^*"°'* 
seaman    soldier   or    other   person  whatsoever   who    shall    bo    in 
actual  service  in  pay  in  or  on  board  any  of  our  ships  of  war  or 
other  vessels  acting  by  immediate  commission  or  warrant  from 
our  Commissioners  for  executing  the  office  of  our  High  Admii-al 
of  Great  Britain  or  from  our  High  Admiral  of  Great  Britain  for 
the  time  being  under  the  seal  of  our  Admiralty, 

Jiut  that  such  captain    commander    lieutenant    master    officer 
seaman  soldier  or  other  person  so  offending  shall  be  left  to  be 





2  April. 

oil  the  high 
f  eas  to  be 
tried  by 

on  shore  by 
officers  or 
men  belong- 
ing to  the 

to  be 

dealt  with 
on  shore. 


Power  to 
grant  land. 

proceeded  and  tried  as  the  merits  of  their  offences  shall 
require  either  by  commission  under  our  Great  Seal  of  Great 
Britain  as  the  statute  of  the  Twenty-eighth  of  Henry  the  Eighth 
directs  or  by  commission  from  our  Commissioners  for  executing 
the  office  of  our  High  Admiral  of  Great  Britain  or  from  our  High 
Admiral  of  Great  Britain  for  the  time  being  according  to  the 
aforesaid  Act  intituled  "  An  Act  for  amending  explaining  and 
reducing  into  one  Act  of  Parliament  the  laws  relating  to  the 
Government  of  his  Majesty's  ships  vessels  and  forces  by  sea  "  as 
the  same  is  altered  by  an  Act  passed  in  the  nineteenth  year  of 
our  reign  intituled  "  An  Act  to  explain  an  Act  made  in  the 
twenty-second  year  of  his  late  Majesty  King  George  the  Second 
intituled  '  An  Act  for  amending  explaining  and  reducing  into  one 
Act  of  Parliament  the  laws  relating  to  the  Govei*nment  of  his 
Majesty's  ships  vessels  and  forces  by  sea.' " 

Provided  nevertheless  that  all  disorders  and  misdemeanors  com- 
mitted on  shore  by  any  captain  commander  lieutenant  master 
officer  seaman  soldier  or  any  other  person  whatsoever  belonging 
to  any  of  our  ships  of  war  or  other  vessels  acting  by  immediate 
commission  or  warrant  from  our  Commissioners  for  executing  the 
office  of  our  High  Admiral  of  Great  Britain  or  from  our  High 
Admiral  of  Great  Britain  for  the  time  being  under  the  seal  of 
our  Admiralty  may  be  tried  and  punished  according  to  the  laws 
of  the  place  where  any  such  disorders  offences  and  misdemeanors 
shall  be  committed  on  shore  notwithstanding  such  offender  be  in 
our  actual  service  and  borne  in  our  pay  on  board  any  such  our  ships 
of  war  or  other  vessels  acting  by  immediate  commission  or  warrant 
from  our  Commissioners  for  executing  the  office  of  our  High  Admi- 
ral of  Great  Britain  or  from  our  High  Admiral  of  Great  Britain 
for  the  time  being  as  afoi-esaid  so  as  he  shall  not  receive  any  pro- 
tection for  the  avoiding  of  justice  for  such  offences  committed  on 
shore  from  any  pretence  of  his  being  employed  in  our  service  at  sea. 

Our  will  and  pleasure  is  that  all  public  monies  which  shall  be 
raised  be  issued  out  by  warrant  from  you  and  disposed  of  by  you 
for  the  support  of  the  Government  or  for  such  other  purpose  as 
shall  be  particularly  directed  and  not  otherwise. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  likewise  give  and  grant  unto  you  full  power 
and  authority  to  agree  for  such  lands  tenements  and  heredita- 
ments as  shall  be  in  our  power  to  dispose  of  and  them  to  grant  to 
any  person  or  persons  upon  such  terms  and  under  such  moderate 
quit  rents  services  and  acknowledgments  to  be  thereupon  reserved 
unto  us  according  to  such  instructions  as  shall  be  given  to  you 
under  our  sign  manual  which  said  grants  are  to  pass  and  be 
sealed  by  our  seal  of  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  and 
being  entered  upon  record  by  such  officer  or  officers  as  you  shall 
appoint  thereunto  shall  be  good  and  effectual  in  law  against  iis 
our  heirs  and  successors. 

Phillip's  co:mmissiox.  67 

And  Wee  do  hereby  give  you  the  said  Arthur  Phillip  full  power       1787 
to  appoint  fairs  marts  and  markets  as  also  such  and  so  many  ports     2  April, 
harbours    bays    havens    and    other    places    for    conveniency    and^^^ — :. 
security  of  shipping  and  for  the  better  loading  and  unloading  of  fairs  and 
goods  and  merchandizes  as  by  you  shall  be  thought  fit  and  necessary'.  °^^'^'^'''8- 

And  Wee  do  hereby  require  and  command  all  officers  and  minis- 
ters civil  and  military  and  all  other  inhabitants  of  our  said  territory 
and  its  dependencies  to  be  obedient  aiding  and  assisting  you  the  said 
Arthur  Phillip  in  the  execution  of  this  our  commission  and  of  the 
powers  and  authorities  herein  contained  and  in  case  of  your  death 
or  absence  out  of  our  said  territory  to  be  obedient  aiding  and  assist- 
ing to  such  person  as  shall  be  appointed  by  us  to  be  our  Lieutenant-  General 
Governor  or  Commander-in-Chief  of  our  said  territory  and  its  depen-  J'^^s^iittion. 
dencies  to  whom  Wee  do  therefore  by  these  presents  give  and  grant 
all  and  singular  the  powers  and  authorities  herein  granted  to  be  by 
him  executed  and  enjoyed  during  our  pleasure  or  until  your  arrival 
within  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies. 

And  if  upon  your  death  or  absence  out  of  ovir  said  territory  and  Provision 
its  dependencies  there  be  no  person  upon  the  place  commissioned  [nVffi-e"*^^ 
or  appointed  by  us  to  be  o\ir  Lieutenant-Governor  or  Commander- 
in-Chief  of  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  our  will  and 
})leasure  is  that  the  officer  highest  in  rank  who  shall  be  at  the 
time  of  your  death  or  absence  upon  service  Avithin  the  same  and 
who  sliall  take  the  oaths  and  subscribe  the  declaration  appointed 
to  be  taken  and  subscribed  by  you  or  by  the  Commander-in-Chief 
of  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  shall  take  upon  him  the 
administration  of  the  Government  and  execute  our  said  commission 
and  instructions  and  the  several  powers  and  authorities  therein 
contained  in  the  same  manner  and  to  all  intents  and  purposes  as 
other  our  Governor  or  Commander-in-Chief  should  or  ought  to  dc 
in  case  of  your  absence  until  your  return  or  in  all  cases  until!  our 
further  pleasure  be  known  therein. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  declare  ordain  and  appoint  that  you  the  Term  of 
said  Arthur  Phillii)  shall  and  may  hold  execute  and  enjoy  the  °^'^^- 
office  and  place  of  our  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-Chief  in 
and  over  our  said  territory  and  its  dependencies  together  with  all 
and  singular  the  powers  and  authorities  hereby  granted  unto  you 
for  and  during  our  will  and  pleasure. 

In  witness  &c. 

Witness  ourself  at  Westminster  the  second  day  of  April  in 
the  twenty-seventh  year  of  our  reign. 
By  writ  of  Frivj  Seal.  

TuE  Act  of  Parliament  Establishing  the  Colony. 
(27  George  III,  1787.) 
Whereas  by  an  Act  made  and  passed  in  the  twenty-fourth  year  24  Geo.  iii 
of  his  present  Majesty's  reign,  intituled,  An  Act  for  the  efTectual  ''•  ^**- 


I'J'fi"       transportation  of  felons  and  other  offenders,  and  to  authorise  the 

removal  of  prisoners  in  certain  cases,  and  for  other  purposes  therein 

mentioned,  it  is  enacted  that,  from  and  after  the  passing  of  that 

Act,  when  any  person  or  persons  at  any   Sessions  of  Oyer  or 

Terminer  or  Gaol  Delivery,  or  at  any  Quarter  or  other  General 

Session  of  the  Peace  to  be  holden  for  any  county,  riding,  division, 

city,  town,  borough,  liberty,  or  place,  within  that  part  of  Great 

Britain  called  England,  or  at  any  Great  Session  to  be  holden  for 

the    County  Palatine   of  Chester,  or   within   the   Principality  of 

Wales,  shall  be  lawfully  convicted  of  grand  or  petit  larency,  or  any 

other  offence  for  which  such  pei-son  or  persons  shall  be  liable  by 

the  laws  of  this  realm  to  be  transported,  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful 

for  the  Court  before  which  any  such  person  or  persons  shall  be 

convicted  as  aforesaid,  or  any  subsequent  Court  holden  at   any 

place  for  the  same  county,  riding,  division,  city,  town,  borough, 

liberty,  or  place  respectively,  with  like   authority,  to  order  and 

Court  may    adjudge  that  such  person  or  persons  so  convicted  as  aforesaid  shall 

portatioii.     be  transported  beyond  the  seas  for  any  term  of  years  not  exceeding 

the  number  of  years  or  terms  for  which  such  person  or  persons  is 

or  are  or  shall  be  liable  by  any  law  to  be  transported  ;  and  in  any 

such  case  it  shall  or  may  bo  lawful  for  his  Majesty,  by  and  with 

the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  declare  and  appoint  to  what 

Order-in-      place  or  places,  part  or  parts,  beyond  the  seas,  either  within  his 

appoint""^  Majesty's  dominions,  or  elsewhere  out  of  his  Majesty's  dominions, 

place  of        such  felons  or  other  offenders  shall  be  conveyed  or  transported: 

tion.  And  such  Court  as  aforesaid  is  thereby  authorised  and  empowered 

to  order  such  offenders  to  be  transferred  to  the  use  of  any  person 

or  persons,  and  his  or  their  assigns,  who  shall  contract  for  the  due 

performance  of  such  transportation. 

And  when  his  Majesty,  his  heirs  and  successors,  shall  be  pleased 
to  extend  mercy  to  any  offender  or  offenders  who  hath  or  have 
been  or  shall  be  convicted  of  any  crime  or  crimes,  for  which  he, 
she,  or  they  is  or  shall  be  by  law  excluded  from  the  benefit  of 
clergy,  upon  condition  of  transportation  to  any  place  or  places, 
part  or  parts,  beyond  the  seas,  either  for  terms  of  life  or  any 
number  of  years,  and  such  extension  of  mercy  shall  be  signified 
by  one  of  his  Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries  of  State,  it  shall  be 
Court  may  lawful  for  any  Court,  having  proper  authority,  to  allow  such 
ferof  offender    or  offenders   the  benefit  of  a  conditional   pardon,    and 

'^Tit"^*t*r'  (p^<^^P^  ^^  cases  where  such  offenders  shall  be  authorised  by  his 
Majesty  to  transport  liimself,  herself,  or  themselves)  to  order  the 
transfer  of  such  offender  or  offenders  to  any  person  or  persons  who 
shall  contract  for  the  due  performance  of  such  transportation,  and 
his  or  their  assigns,  for  such  and  the  same  term  of  years  for  which 
any  such  offender  or  offenders  shall  have  been  ordered  to  be  trans- 
ported, or  for  such  term  of  life  or  years  as  shall  be  specified  in 
such  condition  of  transportation. 


And  whereas  his  Majesty,  by  two  several   Orders-in-Council,       I'J'S? 
bearing  date  respectively  on  the  sixth  day  of  December,  178G,  hath  order-jn- 
judged  fit,  by  and  with  the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  declare  app^nting- 
and  appoint  the  place  to  which  certain  offenders,  named  in  two  New  South 
lists    to    the  said  several   Orders-in-Council    annexed,  should  be 
transported  for  the  time  or  term  in  their  several  sentences  men- 
tioned, to  be  the  eastern  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  or  some  one 
or  other  of  the  islands  adjacent. 

And  whereas  Sir   James    Eyre,    Knight,    and    Sir   Beaumont  Order  o^^ 
Hotham,    Knight,  two  of  the  Barons  of  his  Majesty's   Court  of  transporta- 
Exchequer  of  the  degi^ee  of  the  coiffe,  according  to  the  authority  *'°"- 
to  them  given  by  the  said  statute,  did,  on  the  thirtieth  day  of 
December,  1786,  oixler  that  the  said  several  offenders,  in  the  said 
se^"eral  lists  to  the  said  several  Orders-in-Council  annexed,  should 
be  transported  to  the  place  and  for  the  time  and  terms  aforesaid. 

And  whereas  it  may  be  found  necessary  that  a  colony  and  a  Colony  and 
civil  Government  should  be  established  in  the  place  to  which  such  ment^'°^*^'" 
convicts  shall  be  transported,  under  and  by  virtue  of  the  said  Act 
of  Parliament,  the  said  two  several  Orders  of  Council,  and  other 
the  said  above-recited  Orders,  and  that  a  Court  of  Criminal  Juris-  ^.^^j"^' 
diction  should  also  be  established  within  such  place  as  aforesaid, 
with  authority  to  proceed  in  a  more  summary  way  than  is  used 
within  this  realm,  according  to  the  known  and  established  laws 

Be  it  therefore  enacted  by  the  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty, 
1)y  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Lords  Spiritual   and 
Temporal  and  Commons,  in  this  present  Parliament  assembled,  and 
by  the  authority  of  the  same,  that  his  Majesty  may,  by  his  Com- 
mission under  the  Great  Seal,  authorise  the  person  to  be  appointed 
Governor,  or  the  Lieutenant-Governor  in  the  absence  of  the  Gover-  Governor 
nor,  at  such  place  as  aforesaid,  to  convene  from  time  to  time,  as  ™n^ene 
occasion  may   require,   a  Court  of  Judicature  for  the  trial  and  Criminal 
punishment  of  all  such  outrages  and  misbeha\-iours  as,  if  committed 
within  this  realm,  would  Ik;  deeined  and  taken,  according  to  the 
laws  of  this  realm,  to  be  treason  or  misprision  thereof,  felony  or 
misdemeanor,  which  Court  shall  consist  of  the  Judge- Advocate,  How 
tf)  be  appointed  in  and  for  such  place,  together  with  six  officers  of  *^°™l^^ 
his  Majesty's  forces  Vjy  sea  or  land  : 

Which  Court  shall  proceed  to  try  such  offenders  by  calling  such 
offenders  respectively  before  that  Court,  and  causing  the  charge 
against  him,  her,  or  them  respectively  to  be  read  over,  which  ^'^''^od  of 
charge  shall  always  be  reduced  into  writing,  and  shall  be  exhibited 
to  the  said  Court  by  the  Judge- Advocate,  and  by  examining  wit- 
nesses upon  oath,  to  be  administered  by  such  Court,  as  well  for  as 
against  such  offenders  respectively,  and  afterwards  adjudging  by 
the  opinion  of  the  major  part  of  the  persons  composing  such  Court, 
that  the  party  accused  is  or  is  not  (as  the  case  shall  aj)pear  to 




Judsnnent  of 
death  or 


In  capital 
cases  five 

Cmirt  to  Ve 
a  Court  of 

them)  guilty  of  the  charge,  and  by  pronouncing  judgment  therein 
(as  upon  a  conviction  by  verdict)  of  death,  if  the  offence  be  capital, 
or  of  such  corporal  punishment  not  extending  to  capital  punish- 
ment, as  to  the  said  Court  shall  seem  meet ;  and  in  cases  not  capital, 
by  pronouncing  judgment  of  such  corporal  punishment,  not  extend- 
ing to  life  or  limb,  as  to  the  said  Court  shall  seem  meet. 

II.  And  be  it  further  enacted  that  the  Provost-Marfhal,  or 
other  officer  to  be  for  that  purpose  appointed  by  such  Governor  or 
Lieutenant-Governor,  shall  cause  due  execution  of  such  judgment 
to  be  had  and  made  under  and  according  to  the  warrant  of  such 
Governor  or  Lieutenant-Governor  in  the  absence  of  the  Governor, 
under  his  hand  and  seal,  and  not  otherwise. 

Provided  always  that  execution  shall  not  be  had  or  done  on 
any  capital  convict  or  convicts  unless  five  persons  present  in  such 
Court  shall  concur  in  adjudging  him,  her,  or  them,  so  accused 
and  tried  as  aforesaid,  to  be  respectively  guilty,  and  until  the  pro- 
ceedings shall  have  been  transmitted  to  his  Majesty  and  by  him 

III.  And  be  it  so  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid  that  the 
said  Court  shall  be  a  Court  of  Record,  and  shall  have  all  such 
powers  as  by  the  laws  of  England  are  incident  and  belonging  to  a 
Court  of  Record. 

2  April. 


and  civil 

Civil  Court. 

Letters  Patent  Constituting  the  Courts  of  Law. 

George  the  Third,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  Great  Britain, 
France,  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the  Faith,  kc.  To  all  to 
whom  these  presents  shall  come,  greeting  : — 
"Whereas  by  virtue  of  an  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  the  twenty- 
fourth  year  of  our  reign  Wee  have  judged  fit,  by  and  with  the 
advice  of  our  Privy  Council,  by  two  several  orders  bearing  date 
respectively  on  the  sixth  day  of  December  [and  the  twenty-second 
flay  of  December]  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-six,  to 
declare  and  appoint  the  place  to  which  certain  offenders  should  be 
transported  for  the  time  or  terms  in  their  several  sentences  men- 
tioned to  be  the  eastern  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  or  some  or 
other  of  the  islands  adjacent. 

And  whereas  Wee  find  it  necessary  that  a  colony  and  civil 
government  should  be  established  in  the  place  to  which  such 
convicts  shall  lie  transported,  and  that  sufficient  pi'ovision  should 
be  made  for  the  recovery  of  debts  and  determining  of  private 
causes  between  party  and  party  in  the  place  aforesaid. 

Wee,  taking  the  same  into  our  Royal  consideration,  and  being 
desirous  that  justice  should  be  administered  to  all  our  subjects, 
have  of  our  especial  grace,  certain  knowledge,  and  meer  motion 
thought  fit  to  grant,  ordain,  direct,  and  appoint,  and  by   these 

ci\t:l  coukt.  71 

presents  do  for  us,  our  heirs  and  successors,  will,  grant,  ordain,       1787 
direct,  and  appoint  that  there  shall  be  within  the  place  aforesaid      2  April. 
a  Court,  to  be  called  the  Court  of  Civil  Jurisdiction. 

And  that  such  Court  shall  consist  of  the  Judge- Advocate  for  The  civil 
the  time  being,  together  with  two  fit  and  proper  persons  inhabiting  co°n"tit^tion 
the  said  place,  to  be  appointed  from  time  to  time  by  our  Governor, 
or  in  case  of  the  death  or  absence  by  our  Lieutenant-Governor  for 
the  time  being,  or  of  any  two  of  them  (whereof  the  J  udge- Advocate 
to  be  one),  to  which  Court  Wee  do  hereby  give  full  power  and 
authority  to  hold  plea  of  and  to  hear  and  determine  in  a  summary  and  juris- 
way  all  pleas  concerning  lands,  houses,  tenements,  and  heredita-  ^^i^tion. 
ments,  and  all  manner  of  interests  therein,  and  all  pleas  of  debt, 
account,  or  other  contracts,  trespasses,  and  all  manner  of  other 
persona]  pleas  whatsoever . 

And  Wee  do  further  will,  ordain,  and  grant  to  the  said  Court 
full  power  and  authority  to  grant  probate  of  wills  and  administra-  Probate 
tion  of  the  personal  estates  of  intestates  dying  within  the  place  or  tration™"^^' 
settlement  aforesaid. 

And  our  further  will  and  pleasure  is,  and  Wee  do  by  these 
presents  for  us  our  heirs  and  successors  direct,  ordain,  and  appoint 
that,  upon  complaint  to  be  made  in  writing  to  the  said  Court  by  procedure, 
any  person  or  persons  against  any  other  person  or  persons  residing 
or  being  within  the  said  place  of  any  cause  or  suit,  the  said  Court 
shall  or  may  issue  a  warrant  in  writing  under  the  hand  and  seal 
of  the  said  J  udge- Advocate  for  the  tune  being,  to  be  directed  to 
the  Provost-Marshall,  or  such  other  officer  as  shall  be  appointed  by 
our  Governor  to  execute  the  process  thereof,  which  warrant  shall  gmnnjong  to 
contain  shortly  the  substance  of  the  complaint,  and  shall  either  appear. 
command  such  officer  to  summon  the  defendant  or  defendants  to 

Or  in  case  the  value  of  the  demand  be  ten  pounds  or  upwards 
(of  which  oath  shall  first  be  made),  command  him  to  bring  his, 
her,  or  their  body  or  bodies,  or  take  bail  for  his  or  their  appearance  Bail  for 
before  the  said  Court  at  a  certain  time  or  place  therein  to  be  ''W'^^'^'^"^'^- 
named,  to  answer  to  the  said  complaint  and  to  hud  sufficient 
security  for  his,  her,  or  their  performance  of  such  judgment, 
sentence,  or  decree  as  shall  be  pronomiced  thereupon  or  finally 
given  upon  an  appeal. 

And  upon  appearance,  arrest,  or  non-appearance,  or  return  by 
the  officer  that  the  defendant  or  defendants  cannot  be  found.  Wee 
do  hereV>y,  for  us,  our  heirs  and  successors,  ordain,  direct,  and 
authorize  the  said  Court  to  proceed  to  the  examinatiou  of  the  Proceeding 
matter  and  cause  of  such  complaint,  and  upon  due  proof  made  '" 
thereof,  either  upon  the  oath  or  oaths  of  any  witness  or  witnesses 
in  writing,  to  be  by  him,  her,  or  them  subscribed  (for  which  pur- 
pose Wee  do  by  these  presents  empower  and  i-equire  the  said 
Court  to  administer  an  oath  to  such  witnesses  as  shall  be  produced 



2  April. 


ment in 

Costs  to 

Appeal  to 



and  Pri\'j- 

Time  of 


Ijy  either  party,  plaintiff  or  defendant),  or  by  the  voluntary  con- 
fession of  such  defendant  or  defendants,  to  give  judgment  and 
sentence  according  to  justice  and  right. 

And  to  award  and  issue  out  a  warrant  or  warrants  of  execution 
under  the  hand  and  seal  of  the  said  Judge- Advocate  for  the  time 
being,  for  levying  the  duty  adjudged  or  decreed  to  the  party  or 
parties  complainant,  together  vath  costs  of  suit,  upon  the  goods 
and  chattels  of  such  defendant  or  defendants,  and  to  cause  sale  to 
be  made  of  the  said  goods  and  chattels,  rendering  to  the  party  the 
overplus,  if  any  be. 

And  for  want  of  sufficient  distress,  Wee  do  hereby  for  us  our 
heirs  and  successors  give  full  power  and  authority  to  the  said 
Court  to  imprison  the  defendant  or  defendants  until  satisfaction 
be  made  by  him,  her,  or  them,  to  the  plaintiff  or  plaintiffs  of  the 
duty  decreed,  together  with  the  costs  ;  and  in  case  judgment  shall 
l)e  given  for  the  defendant  or  defendants.  Wee  do  hereby  likewi.^e 
give  full  power  and  authority  to  the  said  Court  to  award  costs  to 
such  defendant  or  defendants,  and  to  issue  like  process  of  execution 
for  the  same  as  in  cases  where  costs  are  awarded  to  any  plaintiff 
or  plaintiffs. 

And  if  either  paii;y  shall  find  him  or  themselves  aggrieved  by 
any  judgment  or  decree  to  be  given  or  pronounced  by  the  said 
Court,  our  "\\'ill  and  pleasure  is  that  he,  she,  or  they  shall  and  may 
appeal  to  the  Governor  of  the  eastern  coast  of  Xew  South  Wales 
and  the  parts  adjacent,  or  in  case  of  his  death  or  absence  to  the 
Lieutenant-Govei-nor  for  the  time  being,  whom  Wee  do  herebv 
empower  and  authorize  to  hear  and  determine  the  same,  and  to 
issue  process  of  summons  to  answer  to  such  appeal  and  the  like 
process  of  execution  as  the  said  Court  is  hereby  directed  and 
empowered  to  issue. 

And  if  either  party  shall  find  him.  her,  or  themselves  aggrieved 
by  the  judgment  or  determination  of  the  said  Governor  in  any 
case  where  the  debt  or  thincj  in  demand  shall  exceed  the  value  of 
£300,  and  not  otherwise,  our  will  and  pleasure  is  that  such  party 
so  aggrieved  may  appeal  to  us  or  our  heirs  and  successors  in 

And  Wee  do  further  will  and  ordain  that  no  appeal  shall  be 
admitted  from  the  judgment  of  the  said  Court,  unless  the  same 
shall  be  interposed  within  eight  days  after  the  said  judgment,  nor 
from  the  judgment  of  the  Superior  Court  unless  the  same  shall 
be  interposed  within  fourteen  days  after  the  judgment  of  such 
Superior  Court ;  And  further,  that  the  said  Court  may  proceed 
in  a  summary  way  by  foreign  attachment  of  goods,  debts,  and 
effects  of  delators  in  the  hand  or  possession  of  other  persons 
residing  in  the  place  aforesaid. 

And  Wee  further  will  and  ordain  that  all  complainants  at  whose 
suit?  any  persons  shall  be  imprisoned  shall  make  an  allowance 


to  each  of  such  defendants  after  such  rate  for  every  day  so  long       1787 
as  such  defendants  shall   be  kept   in  prison  as  the  said  Court      2  April. 
shall  direct,  and  in  default  of  payment  thereof  for  one  week  such 
person  shall  be  discharged  out  of  prison,  and  such  discharge  out  of 
prison  shall  be  a  discharge  of  the  debt,  unless  the  complainant  ^f'^^g^toHn^ 
shall  before  any  new  proceeding  against  such  defendants  pay  or  prison, 
tender  to  them  all  the  arrears  of  such  allowance  from  the  time  of 
the  last  payment  to  the  time  of  such  new  proceeding. 

Provided  always  that  such  defendant  do  make  oath  before  the 
Judge- Advocate,  to  his  satisfaction,  that  he  hath  not  any  estate  or  if„na^,]gtQ 
effects  sufficient  to  maintain  himself  with  necessaries  in  the  prison,  niaintai!i 
otherwise  that  such  allowance  be  not  made  to  him. 

And  whereas  it  is  necessary  that  a  Court  of  Criminal  Juris-  criminal 
DICTION  should  also  be  established  within  the  colony  or  settlement  ^°"'"'- 
aforesaid,  with  authority  to  proceed  in  a  more  summary  way  than 
Ls  used  within  this  realm  according  to  the  known  and  established 
laws  thereof. 

And  whereas,  by  an  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  this  present  Act  of 
year  of  our  reign,  it  is  enacted  that  his  Majesty  may,  by  his  Com-  fg^cft&dT:^* 
mission  under  the  Great  Seal,  authorize  the  person  to  be  appointed 
(jf  vernor,  or  the  Lieutenant-Governor  in  the  absence  of  the  Gover- 
nor of  such  place  as  aforesaid,  to  convene  from  time  to  time,  as 
occasion  may  require,  a  Court  of  Judicature  for  the  trial  and  punish-  covemor 
ment  of  all  such  outrages  and  misbehaviours  as  if  committed  within  t" convene 
this  realm  would  be  deemed  and  taken  according  to  the  laws  of  this  Court, 
realm  to  be  treason  or  misprision  thereof,  felony,  or  misdemeanour. 

Which  Court  shall  consist  of  th(i  Judge-Advocate  to  be  appointed 
in  and  for  such  place,  together  with  six  officers  of  his   Majesty's 
forces  by  sea  or  land,  which  Court  shall  proceed  to  try  such  offenders 
by  calling  such  offenders   respectively  l)efore  that   Court  by  the 
Judge- Advocate,  and  by  examining  witnesses  upon  oath  to  l^e  ad- 
ministered by  such  Court,  as  well   for  as   against  such  offenders 
respectively,  and  afterwards  adjudging  by  the  opinion  of  the  major 
part  of  the  persons  composing  such  Court  that  the  party  accused  is 
or  is  not  (as  the  case  shall  appear  to  them)  guilty  of  the   charge, 
and  by  pronouncing  judgment  (as  upon  a  conviction  by  verdict)  of 
death,  if  the  offence  be  capital,  or  of  auch  corporal  p7(nisJnnenf,  not  sentence  of 
extending  to   capital  punishment,  as  to  the  said  Court  shall  seem  y„i!'.';jjral 
meet,  and  in  cases  not  capital  by  pronouncing  judgment  of  such  punisimient. 
coi-jwral  punishment,  not  extending  to  life  or  limb,  as  to  the  said 
Court  shall  seem  meet. 

And  that  the  Provost-Marshal,  or  other  officer  to  be  for  that 
purpose  appointed  by  such  Governor  or  Lieutenant-Governor,  shall 
cause   due    execution    of    such  judgement   to   be   had    and   made  Execution  of 
under  and  according  to  the  warrant  of  such  Governor  or  Lieutenant-  J^'^K'"*-"*- 
Governor,  in  the  absence  of  the  Governor,  under  his  hand  and  seal, 
and  not  otherwise. 




2  April. 





and  juris- 

Conduct  of 

Sentence  of 

Provided  always  that  execution  shall  not  be  had  or  done  on  any- 
capital  convict  or  convicts  unless  fiv^e  persons  present  in  such  Court 
shall  concur  in  adjudging  him,  her,  or  them,  so  accused  and  tried 
as  aforesaid,  to  be  respectively  guilty  until  the  proceedings  shall 
have  been  transmitted  to  his  Majesty  and  by  him  approved  :  And 
that  the  said  Court  shall  be  a  Court  of  Record,  and  shall  have  all 
such  powers  as  by  the  laws  of  England  are  incident  and  belonging 
to  a  Court  of  Record. 

Now  know  ye  that  Wee,  upon  full  consideration  of  the  premises 
and  of  our  especial  grace,  certain  knowledge,  and  mere  motion,  have 
thought  fit  to  grant,  direct,  and  appoint,  and  by  these  presents  Wee 
do  accordingly,  for  us,  our  heirs  and  successors,  grant,  direct,  ordain, 
and  appoint  that  there  shall  be  within  the  settlement  and  colony 
aforesaid  a  Court  which  shall  be  called  the  Court  of  Criminal 
Jurisdiction  ;  and  Wee  do  hereby  create,  direct,  and  constitute  the 
said  Court  of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  to  be  a  Court  of  Record,  and 
that  our  said  Court  of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall  have  all  such 
powers  as  are  incident  to  a  Court  of  Record  by  the  laws  of  that 
part  of  our  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  called  England. 

And  Wee  further  will,  ordain,  and  appoint  that  the  said  Court 
of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall  consist  of  our  Judge-Advocate  for 
the  time  being,  together  with  six  officers  of  our  sea  and  land 
service,  as  our  Governor,  or  in  case  of  his  death  or  absence  our 
Lieutenant-Governor,  shall,  by  precept  issued  under  his  hand  and 
seal,  convene  from  time  to  time  for  that  purpose,  and  that  the  said 
Court  of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall  have  power  to  enquire  of,  heai\ 
determine,  and  punish  all  treasons  or  misprisions  thereof,  murders, 
felonies,  forgeries,  perjuries,  trespasses,  and  other  crimes  whatso- 
ever committed  in  the  place  or  places  aforesaid,  such  punishment 
so  to  be  inflicted  being  according  to  the  laws  of  that  part  of  our 
Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  called  England,  as  nearly  as  may  be, 
considering  and  allowing  for  the  circumstances  and  situation  of 
the  place  and  settlement  aforesaid  and  the  inhabitants. 

And  it  is  our  further  will  and  pleasure  that  our  said  Court  of 
Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall  proceed  to  try  all  offenders  by  calling 
them  respectively  before  such  Court,  and  causing  the  charge  or 
charges  against  him,  her,  or  them,  respectively,  when  reduced  into 
writing  and  exhibited  by  our  Judge- Advocate,  to  be  read  over  to 
such  offender  or  offenders  respectively,  and  that  the  said  Court 
shall  adjudge  by  the  opinion  of  the  major  part  of  the  persons  com- 
posing the  same  as  aforesaid  that  the  party  accused  is  guilty  or 
not  guilty  of  the  charge  so  exhibited  as  aforesaid. 

And,  if  adjudged  guilty,  that  the  Court  shall  proceed  to  pro- 
nounce judgement  of  death,  if  the  offence  be  capital,  in  like  manner 
as  if  the  prisoner  had  been  found  guilty  by  verdict  of  a  jury  in  that 
part  of  our  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain  called  England,  or  by  pro- 
nouncing judgment  of  such  corporal  punishment,  not  extending 


to  capital  punishment,  as  to  the  said  Court,  or  the  major  part  of       1787 
the  persons  comprising  the  same,  shall  seem  meet  ;  and  in  cases     9  April. 
not  capital  by  the  laws  afoi*esaid  by  pronouncing  judgment  of  such 
corporal  punishment,  not  extending  to  life  or  limb,  as  the  said  comomi 
Court,  or  the  major  part  of  the  persons  composing  the  same,  shall  Punishment, 
seem  meet. 

And  it  is  our  further  will  and  pleasure  and  Wee  do  hereby 
ordain,  direct,  and  appoint  that  our  Provost-Marshall,  or  such  other  provost- 
otHcer  as  shall  be  appointed  for  that  purpose  by  our  Governor,  Marshal. 
or  in  case  of  his  death  or  absence  by  our  Lieutenant-Governor 
for  the  time  being,  shall  cause  due  execution  to  be  bad  and  made  of  Rxecmion  of 
such  judgments  as  aforesaid,   according  to    the  warrant  of    our  judgments. 
Governor,  or  in  Lis  absence  of  our  Lieutenant-Governor  for  the  time 
being,  under  their  hands  and  seals  respectively,  and  not  otherwise. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  ordain  and  direct  that  execution  of  any 
judgment   of  death  shall  not  be  had  or  done   on  any  offender  or 
offendei-s  unless  five  persons  present  sitting  in  judgment  in  our  in  capital 
said  Court  of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall  concur  in  adiudging  such  cases  five 


offender  or  offenders  so  accused  and  tried  as  aforesaid  to  be  respec-  concur.  ^ 
tively  guilty,  until  the  proceedings  in  the  trial  of  such  offender  or 
offenders  shall  have  been  transmitted  to  us,  our  heirs  and  successors, 
and  our  or  their  pleasure  shall  have  been  signified  thereupon. 

And  that  execution  be  not  done  in  any  capital  case  whatever 
without  the  consent  of  our  said  Governor,  or  in  case  of  his  death 
or  absence,  of  our  Lieutenant-Governor  ;  and  in  case  execution  shall  warrant  for 
be  suspended,  that  the  said  Governor  or  Lieutenant-Governor  shall  execution, 
apply  to  us,  our  heirs  and  successors,  for  our  or  their  direction  therein. 

And  our  further  will  and  pleasure  is  that  all  and  every  the 
members  of  our  said  Court  of  Civil  Jurisdiction  respectively  shall, 
before  they  proceed  to  sit  in  judgment,  severally  make  oath  well  Members  of 
and  truly  to  try  the  several  issues  brought  before  them,  and  to  give  ^^^  Court 
true  judgment  according  to  the  evidence ;  and  that  all  and  every 
the  members  of  our  said  Court  of  Criminal  Jurisdiction  shall,  in 
like  manner,  make  oatli  to  make  true  deliverance  between  us,  our 
lieirs  and  successoi-s,  and  the  several  prisoners  who  shall  by  them 
be  tried,  and  to  give  a  true  judgment  according  to  the  evidence. 

And  Wee  do  hereby  give  full  ])0wer  and  authority  to  our  Judge-  by  the 
Advocate  for  the  time  being  to  administer  such  oaths  to  the  respec-  Advocate 
tive  members  of  our  said  several  Courts. 

And  further  know  ye  that  Wee,  for  preserving  the  peace  of  our 
said  settlement  and  the  islands  tbei-euuto  adjacent,  of  our  especial 
grace,  certain  knowledge,  and  meer  motion  have  granted,  ordained, 
directed,  and  appointed,  and  by  these  presents  do  grant,  ordain, 
dire:-t,  and  appoint,  that  our  ])resent  and  all  our  future  Governors 
and  Lieutenant-Governors,  and  our  Judge- Advocate  for  the  time 
being,  shall  be  Justices  of  the  Peace  within  the  said  place  or  justices  of 
settlement.  ^^^  Peace. 




2  April. 

Powers  of 
Justices  of 
the  Peace. 

Authority  of 



To  remain  in 
force  until 

And  that  all  and  every  such  Justice  and  Justices  of  the  Peace 
shall  have  the  same  power  to  keep  the  peace,  arrest,  take  bail,  bind 
to  good  behaviour,  suppress  and  punish  riots,  and  to  do  all  other 
matters  and  things  with  respect  to  the  inhabitants  residing  or  being 
in  the  place  and  settlement  aforesaid  as  Justices  of  the  Peace  have 
within  that  part  of  Great  Britain  called  England,  within  their 
respective  jurisdictions. 

And  these  our  Letters  Patent  or  the  enrollment  or  exemplifica- 
tion thereof  shall  be,  as  well  unto  the  said  Courts  respectively  as 
unto  all  and  every  person  or  persons  whomsoever,  a  sufficient 
warrant  and  discharge  from  time  to  time  for  all  and  whatever 
they  shall  do  or  execute  in  pursuance  of  our  Royal  will  and  pleasure 
hereinbefore  declared. 

And,  lastly,  our  will  and  pleasure  is,  and  Wee  do  hereby  declare, 
that  this  our  charter  shall  be  and  remain  in  force  only  until  Wee 
shall  be  pleased  to  revoke  and  determine  the  same. 

In  witness  whereof  AVee  have  caused  these  our  Letters  to  be 
made  Patent. 

Witness  ourself,  at  Westminster,  the  second  day  of  April,  in 
the  twenty -seventh  year  of  our  reign. 

By  Writ  of  Privy  Seal.  Yorke. 

4  April. 


Vice-Admiralty  Court. 
At  the  Court  of  St.  James's,  the  4th  of  April,  1787. 

Present : — 
The  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty. 
Lord  President.  Lord  Sydney. 

Earl  of  Aylesford.  Sir  Geo.  Yonge. 

Viscount  Hinchinbroke.  Henry  Dundas,  Esq, 

Lord  Herbert.  John  Chas.  Villiers,  Esq. 

Whereas  there  was  this  day  read  at  the  Board  a  memorial  from 
the  Right  Honorable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty, 
dated  the  27th  of  last  month,  in  the  words  following,  viz.  : — 

Lord  Sydney  having  acquainted  us  that  your  Majesty  has  been 
pleased  to  appoint  Captain  Arthur  Phillip  to  be  Captain-General 
and  Governor-in-Chief  of  the  territory  called  New  South  Wales, 
extending  from  the  northern  cape  or  extremity  of  the  coast,  called 
Cape  York,  in  the  latitude  of  ten  degrees  thirty-seven  minutes 
south,  to  the  southern  extremity  of  the  said  territory  of  New 
South  AVales,  or  South  Cape,  in  the  latitude  of  forty-three  degrees 
thirty-nine  minutes  south,  and  of  all  country  inland  to  the  west- 
ward, as  far  as  the  one  hundred  and  thirty-fifth  degree  of  east 
longitude,  reckoning  from  the  meridian  of  Greenwich,  including 
all  the  islands  adjacent  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  within  the  latitudes 
aforesaid  of  10°  37'  south  and  43°  39'  south,  and  that  it  is  your 



Majesty's  pleasure  we  should  grant  him  such  powers  as  have  been       1787 
usually  granted  to  the  Governors  of  your  Majesty's  colonies  in     -i  April. 
America ;  we  beg  leave  to  represent  to  your  Majesty  that  the 
powers  usually  granted  by  this  Board  to  the  Governors  of  your 
Majesty's  colonies  in  America  are  those  of  Vice- Admiral,  hut  that 
we  are  empowered  by  our  commission  to  constitute  Vice- Admirals 
at  such  places  only  where  Vice- Admirals  have  usually  been  ap- 
pointed by  the  High  Admiral.     We  do,  therefore,  beg  leave  to 
submit  to  your  Majesty  whether  it  may  not  be  necessary  that  we 
should  be  empowered  to  appoint  a  Vice- Admiral  and  also  a  Judge  ][j?®'.   . 
and  other  officers  requisite  for  a  Court  of  Vice- Admiralty  within 
the  territory  called  New  South  Wales. 

His  Majesty,  taking  the  said  memorial  into  consideration,  was 
pleased,  with  the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  approve  of  what 
is  therein  proposed,  and  to  order,  as  it  is  hereby  ordered,  that  a 
commission  be  passed  under  the  great  seal  granting  authority  to 
the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admii'alty  to  appoint  a  Vice- 
Admiral,  and  also  a  Judge  and  other  officers  requisite  to  form  a 
Court  of  Vice-Achniralty  within  the  said  territory  called  New  vife- 
South  Wales  ;  and  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Sydney,  one  of  his  court. 
Majesty's  Principal  Secretaries  of  State,  is  to  cause  a  warrant  to 
be  prepared  for  his  Majesty's  royal  signature,  in  order  to  pass  a 
commission  under  the  great  seal  accordingly.* 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

My  Dear  Sir,  [London]  April  11th,  1787.         ^^-'^P'""- 

When  you  find  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  be  so  good  as  to  give 
me  a  line  to  the  Navy  Board,  sufficiently  explicit  to  prevent  any 
further  delays  with  respect  to  the  ordinary  caps  for  the  convicts ; 
one  hhd.  of  porter  in  bottles,  as  a  present  to  the  connnanding  More  stores 
officer  in  the  island  from  which  we  ai'e  to  procure  stock,  and  ducats  ^^^^'^  ■ 
U)  the  value  of  thirty  pounds  for  the  same  ])urpuse.  The  l)eer  may 
be  bought  at  Portsmouth,  and  I  will  tind  room  for  it  on  board 
the  Sirius. 

A  line  likewise  is  necessary  to  the  Admiralty,  that  1  may  have  The  Com- 
an  order   to   receive  on  board  the  Sirius  the   Conmiissary  and  n"^**^'^^- 
the  servant  to  the  Judge- Advocate  ;  likewise  for  victualling  the 
40  marines'  wives,  and  to  desire   that  sour  krout  and  portable 
soup  may  be  oi-dered  for  the  convicts'  that  may  be  sick.     There  is 
some  krout  in  store  at  the  Victualling  Office.        I  am.  &c., 


P.S. — By  some  mistake  109  women  and  chikli-en  are  nut  on  Overcrowd- 
board  the  Lady  Penrhyn,   tho'  that  ship  was  only  intended  to 
carry   102,  and  with  propi'iety  should  not  have  more  than  j  of 
that  number. 

*  Letters  Patent   constituting    the  Vicc-Aclniiralty  Court  were  issued  5th  May,    1787. 
Post,  p.  ito. 




13  April. 

amoni^  the 

The  cause. 


Fears  for 
the  future. 

No  remedj*. 

Reduction  of 

No  rations 
for  the 

A  hard  case. 

Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sir,  Portsmouth,  13th  April,  1787. 

I  have  to  request  you  will  please  to  inform  their  Lordships 
that  the  sickness  which  has,  and  still  does  prevail  among  the 
marine  detachment  embarked  on  board  the  Alexander,  transport, 
gives  me  a  great  degree  of  concern.  Since  the  time  of  their  first 
embarkation  no  less  than  one  serjeant,  one  drummer,  and  fourteen 
privates  have  been  sent  sick  on  shore  from  her,  some  of  whom,  I 
am  informed,  are  since  dead. 

How  far  the  cause  of  this  sickness  may  be  of  a  malignant  kind 
is  not  for  me  to  say,  but  I  am  apt  to  suppose  that  the  situation  in 
which  the  marines  are  placed  in  that  ship  is  of  itself  sufficient  to 
cause  the  disorder  with  which  they  are  afflicted. 

T  beg  leave  to  observe,  for  their  Lordships'  information,  that  the 
place  allotted  for  the  marines  on  board  the  Alexander  is  upon  a 
deck,  and  immediately  under  where  the  seamen  are  birthed.  In 
this  place  they  are  excluded  from  all  air,  but  what  passes  through 
the  hatchway  leading  from  the  seamen's  birth,  which  must  in  some 
degree  render  it  putrid  before  it  reaches  the  others. 

Should  what  is  above  hinted  at  be  the  cause  of  the  present 
sickness  on  board  of  her,  how  much  more  have  we  to  dread  the 
fatal  effeects  of  it  in  the  more  southern  latitudes. 

I  have  conversed  with  the  agent  for  the  transports  on  this 
subject,  who  is  perfectly  of  my  way  of  thinking ;  but  in  the 
present  state  of  that  ship  does  not  see  how  the  evil  can  be 

He  this  morning  proposed,  if  it  could  possibly  be  done,  to  have 
the  convicts  on  board  the  Alexander  reduced  in  numbers,  so  as  to 
pei'mit  a  sufficient  space  in  the  fore  part  of  the  ship  to  be  taken 
away  from  what  was  allotted  for  them,  and  converted  into  a 
birth  for  the  seamen,  the  marines  then  removed  to  where  the 
seamen  now  are,  and  the  present  birth  of  the  marines  converted 
into  the  only  thing  it  is  fit  for,  the  stowing  away  provisions. 

You  will  likewise  please  to  inform  their  Lordships  how  much 
I  am  concerned  at  finding  myself  under  a  necessity  of  mention- 
ing again  to  them  the  children  of  the  marines  embarked  in  the 
transports,  which  have  not  yet  been  ordered  to  be  victualled. 
What  leads  me  to  trouble  their  Lordships  with  it  at  this  time  is  a 
scene  of  distress  that  I  was  witness  to  yesterday  when  visiting  the 
transports  at  the  Motherbank.  In  one  of  them  I  found  a  marine, 
his  wife,  and  two  children  living  upon  a  ration  and  a  half  of 
provisions.  I  feel  myself  the  more  hurt  at  this  from  my  having 
when  last  at  Plymouth,  and  thinking  myself  authorized  to  do  so, 
informed  that  part  of  the  detachment  that  their  wives  and 
children  were  to  be  victualled  in  a  certain  proportion. 

I  am,  &c., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 


Returx  of  the  Botany  Bay  detachment  of  Marines,  the  number  1787 
of  wives  and  children,  and  tlio  names  of  the  ships  on  board  of  is  April 
which  they  are  embarked,  with  the  number  on  board  of  each  The  First 
ship.     April,  the  15th,  1787.  Fieet.^^ 

Ships'  Names. 






























"  5 























H.M.  ship  Sirius 
Alexander,  transport. 
Charlotte  do.     . 

Scarborough       do.     . 
Friendship  do. 

Prince  of  Wales  do. 
Lady  Penrhyn  do. 
Sick  on  shore    . . 

General  Total 

1     2 









Eeturx  of  the  male,  female,  and  children  convicts  embarked  ^— The- 
for  Botany  Bay,  distinguishing  the  number  of  each  on  board  ''°"^°  • 
each  transport.     April,  the  15th,  1789. 

Ships'  Names. 





each  Ship. 

Alexander,  transport 
Cliarlotte            do. 
Scarborough        do. 
Friendship          do. 
Prince  of  VVales  do. 
Lady  Penrhyn    do. 

General  Total 

















Under  Secretary  Nepean  to  Sir  C.  Middleton.* 
Dear  Sir,  "Whitehall,  18th  April,  1787.         is  April. 

I  send  you  enclosed  copies  of  two  letters!  from  Major  Ross, 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  new  intended  settlement,  representing 
the  unhealthy  state  of  the  party  of  marines  embarked  on  board  The  sick 
the  Alexander,  transport,  and  the  distressed  state  of  the  wives  ^armes. 
and  children  of  the  detachment  intended  to  proceed  in  the  trans- 
port ships  to  Botany  Bay.  Lord  Sydney  will  be  obliged  to  you 
if  you  will  take  any  measures  which  you  may  think  advisable  for 
the  better  accommodation  of  the  Alexander's  party,  and  that  you 
will  be  so  good  as  to  crive  orders  that  the  women  and  children  of  Women  and 

'^  °  children. 

*  A  private  letter, 
t  One  of  these  letters  will  be  found  on  page  78  ;  the  other  is  not  recorded. 




IS  April. 


Wants  to  be 

A  perplexing 


for  children. 



20  April. 

the  marines  may  be  supplied  with  the  same  proportion  of  provisions 
as  hath  been  usually  allowed  to  the  women  and  children  of  troops 
during  their  passage,  which  Major  Ross  states  in  one  of  his  letters.* 

I  lind  from  Captain  Phillip  that  some  of  the  convicts  are  almost 
destitute  of  cloathmg,  and  that  it  will  be  necessary  to  supply  them 
with  such  ai'ticles  as  are  needful  immediately. 

Captain  Hunter  and  Lieutenant  Shortland  have  been  desired 
to  inquire  into  their  wants  and  to  supply  them,  and  Lord  Sydney 
will  be  glad  if  the  quantity  which  they  may  issue  out  of  the 
general  stock  be  replaced,  and  that  such  a  number  of  worsted 
nightcaps  be  also  issued  as  may  be  requisite  for  the  supply  of  such 
of  the  convicts  whose  hair  it  may  be  necessary  to  cut  off. 

I  must  beg  of  you  to  give  me  credit  for  official  representation 
through  the  proper  channel  upon  these  points,  which  you  shall 
have  as  soon  as  the  business  is  finished.  I  hope  this  will  be  the 
last  letter,  except  the  general  sweeping  one,  which  I  may  have 
occasion  to  trouble  you  with  upon  this  business,  which  I  must 
suppose  has  given  you  nearly  as  much  perplexity  as  it  has  your 
faithful  humble  servant. 

I  hope  Phillip  will  get  away  on  Saturday ;  all  his  civil  com- 
missions, I  expect,  will  pass  the  Great  Seal  on  Friday. 

The  childi-en  of  the  women  convicts.  Lord  Sydney  thinks,  should 
have  a  small  proportion  of  provisions,  which  his  Lordship  begs 
you  will  order  ;  there  are  not  above  ten. 

I  omitted  to  mention  that  about  £30,  in  ducates,  will  be  neces- 
sary for  Captain  Phillip  to  purchase  stock,  and  which  Loi'd  Sydney 
wishes  may  be  supplied  to  him  ;  and  also  that  he  may  be  allowed 
to  purchase  a  hhd.  of  strong  beer,  in  bottles — the  latter  he  can 
easily  procure  at  Portsmouth ;  these  articles  will  be  requisite  for 
the  obtaining  stock  at  some  of  the  islands  he  may  have  occasion 
to  have  recourse  to.  There  is  no  oatmeal  on  board  the  convict 
ships  to  make  gruel  for  the  sick  ;  it  is  a  very  necessary  article, 
and  Lord  Sydney  thinks  that  a  couple  of  casks  should  be  put  on 
board  each  of  the  convict  ships  for  that  purpose,  to  be  considered 

as  surgeon  s  necessaries. 

I  am,  tfec, 

Evan  Nepeax. 

Trial  of  Pirates. 

At  the  Court  of  St.  James's,  the  20th  of  April,  1787. 

Present : — 

The  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty. 

Lord  Chancellor.  Duke  of  Richmond. 

Lord  President.  Lord  Sydney. 

Lord  Privy  Seal.  John  Chas.  Villiers,  Esq. 

Whereas  there  was  this  day  read  at  the  Board  a  report  from  the 

Right  Honourable  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of   Council  ap- 

^  Note  by  transcriber.— ^ajov  Uoss  acknowledged  this  attention  to  his  request  in  letter* 
to  Mr.  Nepean. 

TRIAL    OE    PIRATES.  81 

pointed  for  the  consideration  of  all  matters  relating  to  trade  and       1787 
foreign  plantations,  dated  the  1 3th  of  this  instant,  proposing  that     20  April, 
the  draught  of  a  commission  should  be  prepared  for  the  tryal  of 
pirates  within  tlie  Govenuiient  of  New  South  Wales,  the  descrip- 
tion of  which  government  is  herewith  annexed,  marked  A.     His  Territory, 
^lajesty,  taking  the  said  report  into  consideration,  was  pleased, 
with   the  ad^-ice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  approve  thereof,  and 
accordingly  to  order,  as  "it  is  hereby  ordered,  that  his  Majesty's 
Advocate-General,  with  the  Advocate  of  the  Admiralty,  do  forth- 
with prepare  and  lay  before  his  Majesty  at  this  Board  the  draught 
of  a  commission,    in  order  to   be  passed  under  the  seal  of  his  Commission. 
Majesty's  High   Court  of    Admiralty,   for   the  tryal  of  pirates 
within  the  said  new  Government,  under  the  act  of  the  11th  and 
1:2th  of  King  William  the  Tliird  ;  and  that  they  do  insert  therein 
the  names  of  the  persons  contained  in  the  annexed  list  marked  B, 
as  commissioners  for  carrying  the  said  commission  into  execution,  ^lone"-'^ 


The  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  extending  from  the  New  South 
Northern  Cape  or  extremity  of  the  coast,  called  Cape  York,  in  the  ^^''^'*^''- 
latitiifle  of  ten  degrees  thirty-seven  minutes  south,  to  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  said  territory  of  New  South  Wales  or  South 
Cape,  in  the  latitude  of  forty-three  degrees  thirty-nine  minutes 
south,  and  of  all  the  country  inland  to  the  westward  as  far  as 
the  one  hundred  and  thirty-fifth  degree  of  east  longitude,  reckon- 
ing from  the  meiidian  of  Greenwich,  including  all  islands  adjacent 
in  the  Pacific  Ocean  within  the  latitudes  aforesaid  of  10°  37'  south 
and  43°  39'  south. 


List  of  names  to  be  inserted  in  the  Commission  for  the  Trial  of 

Pirates  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales. 

Arthur  Phillip,  Esq.,  Governor,  or  the  Governor  for  the  time  Members  of 
bein*'.  '-''c  eomt. 

Robert  Ross,   Esq.,  Lieutenant-Governor,  or  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor  for  the  time  beintr. 

Andi-CAV  Miller,  Esq.,  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Provisions,  or 
the  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Provisions  fur  the  time  being. 

Augustus  Alt,   Esq.,  Surveyor  of  Lands,   or  the  Surveyor  of 
Lands  for  the  time  being. 

John  Hunter,  Esq.,  Captain  of  the  Sirius. 

William  Bradley,  Esq.,  1st  Lieutenant. 

Philip  Gidley  King,  Esq.,  2\\(\  Lieutenant. 

Geo.  William  Maxwell,  Esq.,  3rd  Lieutenant. 

Henry  Lidgbird  Ball,  Esq.,  Lieutenant  and  Commander  of  the 
Supply,  armed  tender. 

And  all  other  captains  and  commanders  of  his  ^Majesty's  ships 
who  are   or  shall    be  witliin   tlie   Admiralty  jurisdiction   of  the 
territory  of  New  South  Wales. 




20  April. 









Lord  Sydney  to  Governor  Phillip.* 

Sir,  Whitehall,  20th  April,  1787. 

Your  letter  to  Mr.  Nepean,  of  the  1st  of  March,  inclosing 
a  copy  of  a  letter  to  you  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty  in 
answer  to  certain  queries  which  you  had  desired  might  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  consideration  of  the  Lord  Commissioners  of  that 
Board,  have  been  laid  before  me,  together  with  your  observations 
upon  the  instructions,  which  have  been  prepared  to  pass  under 
the  Royal  Sign  Manual  for  your  guidance  in  the  exercise  of  the 
government  of  New  South  Wales. 

With  regard  to  the  1st  and  2nd  queries,  to  which  the  Admiralty 
have  declined  to  give  any  answer,  and  referred  you  to  the  Treasury 
Board,  I  am  to  acquaint  you  that  their  Lordships  have  caused 
contracts  to  be  entered  into  for  the  victualling  of  the  marines, 
their  wives  and  children,  as  well  as  the  convicts,  who  are  to  take 
their  passage  in  the  transport  ships  ;  and  that  any  supplies  which 
it  may  be  necessary  to  provide  for  their  maintenance  during  the 
voyage  will  be  obtained  and  paid  for  by  the  contractor  or  his  agent. 

The  3rd,  4th,  5th,  and  6th  queries  are,  I  observe,  fully  answered 
in  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty's  letter  to  you ;  and  the  7th 
query  is  answered  in  the  lirst  paragraph  of  this  letter. 

8th.  In  case  any  of  the  convicts  should  be  seized  with  an  in- 
fectious distemper,  a  proper  place  is  to  be  set  apart  in  the  ship  on 
board  of  which  they  may  be  embarked  for  their  accommodation, 
and  if  the  disease  should  so  spread  itself  as  to  render  it  absolutely 
necessary  that  the  infected  people  should  be  removed  away  from 
the  other  convicts,  one  of  the  transport  ships  may  be  converted 
into  an  hospital  ship.  But  this  step,  you  will  observe,  is  not  to 
be  taken  except  upon  urgent  necessity. 

9th.  If  any  dithculties  should  be  found  by  the  masters  of  the 
transports  in  procuring  supplies  either  of  stores  or  provisions 
which  they  may  stand  in  need  of  at  places  where  the  convoy  may 
touch,  the  agent  appointed  by  the  Navy  Board  is  instructed  in 
what  manner  to  proceed  on  such  occasions. 

The  10th  query  appears  to  be  fully  replied  to  by  the  Secretary 
to  the  Admiralty. 

11th.  Your  instructions  vinder  the  Royal  Sign  Manual  point 
out  in  what  manner  the  emoluments  which  would  arise  to  you 
from  the  Sirius  are,  in  case  you  should  be  able  to  send  her  home, 
to  be  paid  to  you. 

12th  and  13th.  The  Lords  of  the  Admiralty  will  authorize  any 
number,  not  exceeding  forty,  of  the  petty  officers  and  men  belong- 
ing to  the  Sirius  who  may  be  desirous  of  remaining  at  New 
South  Wales,  upon  that  ship's  return  to  Europe. 

The  14th  query  is  answered  ])y  the  Secretary  of  the  Admiralty. 
All  the  queries  which  you  submitted  to  the  Admiralty  being  now 
fully  explained,  I  am  to  acquaint  you,  in  reply  to  your  letter  of 

*  See  letter  from  Secretary  Stephens.    Ante,  p.  4S. 


Phillip's  questions  answered.  83 

the  1st  March,  and  your  observations  upon  your  instructions,*  that       1787 

it  is  not  thought  advisable  under  the  present  circumstances  of    20  April. 

the   service  that  you   should  wear  any  distinguishing  pendant ;  ^^  J~r 

but  during  the  absence  of  the  Sirius  from  the  seat  of  government,  tinguishing 

o  _,  •      i         j_  •  -111-  pendant, 

or  upon  her  return  to  Europe,  proper  instructions  will   be  given 

to  the  commander  of  the  tender,  or  of  any  other  ship  or  vessel 

which  may  arrive  at  the  settlement,  junior  to  you  in  rank,  to 

obey  such  orders  and  directions  as  they  may  from  time  to  time 

receive  from  you  for  their  future  proceedings. 

Upon  the  death  or  suspension  of  any  civil  officers  of  the 
Government  you  are  at  liberty  to  appoint  any  proper  person  for  the  Power  to 
execution  of  the  duties  of  such  office  until  his  Majesty's  pleasure  ^^^^^rs. 
he  known,  and  to  send  such  suspended  officer  to  England  by  the 
tirst  convenient  opportunity  which  may  offer,  with  your  reasons 
for  such  suspension ;  and  also  to  exchange  marines  from  the  gar- 
rison and  the  Sirius,  or  Supply,  tender,  if  you  should  judge  it  for 
the  good  of  the  service  so  to  do. 

There  can  be  no  objection  to  your  establishing  any  part  of  the  choice  of 
territory  or  islands  upon  the  coast  of  New  South  AVales,  in  the  ^^^^  ®°-'^"  ' 
neighbourhood  of  Botany  Bay,  which  you  may  consider  as  more 
advantageously  situated  for  the  principal  settlement ;  but  at  the 
same  time  you  must  understand  that  you  are  not  allowed  to  delay 
the  disembarkation  of  the  estal)lishment  upon  your  arrival  on  the 
coast  upon  the  pretence  of  searching  after  a  more  eligible  place 
than  Botany  Bay. 

It  will  be  proposed  to  Parliament  in  a  few  days  to  fix  your  The 
salary  as  Governor  at  £1,000  per  annum  nett,  which,  with  the  pay  ^°ary?°''^ 
of  the  Sirius,  is  judged  to  be  a  proper  allowance  for  the  support 
of  the  stations  you  are  appointed  to  fill.     You  will  also  be  allowed 
a  contingent  charge  of  5/-  per  diem  for  the  pay  of  a  secretary,  and 
£20  per  annum  for  stationery. 

With  regard  to  the  compensation  you  solicit  by  way  of  table  No  table- 
money,  I  am  to  inf<jrm  you  that  no  allowance  whatever  of  that      "^^' 
sort  can  be  granted  to  you. 

You  will  receive  herewith  a  copy  of  a  letter  from  the  Secretary  The 
of  the  Treasury  with  respect  to  the  dispatch  of  the  transport  ships 
after  their  ai'i-ival  at  Botany  Bay,  the  purport  of  which  you  will 
use  your  utmost  endea\'our  to  comply  with.  I  am,  iV'c, 


Major  Ross  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.! 

My  Dear  Sir,  Portsmouth,  22nd  April,  1787.         22  April. 

I  understand  from  Captain  Phillip  that  I  am  a})p()inted 
H  Judge  in  the  Vice-Admiralty  Court  for  our  new  settlement.     I 

Ross  and 

have  to  return  you  my  best  thanks  for  this  appointment ;  but  I,  his  friend. 

*  Ante,  p.  54.  t  A  private  letter. 


1787       at  the  same  time,  cannot  but  sincerely  lament  that  something 
22  April,     could  not  have   l^een  hit  upon  in  all  the  late  appointments  for 
James  Campbell.* 

The  late  honour  confer'd  upon  me  would  have  been  well 
bestow'd  upon  him,  and  tho'  I  have  not  a  wish  to  resigne  it  on 
any  other  terms  than  the  puting  him  in  possession  of  something, 
tho'  without  emolument,  that  would  show  his  friends  he  was 
not  totally  neglected  in  this  business.  I  would  in  that  case  wish 
it  done.  I  am  sure  his  abilities  and  length  of  service  intitle  him 
to  a  share  in  such  things  as  are  to  be  given  in  a  new  settle- 
ment, where  it  is  probable  his  judgement  may  be  of  the  greatest 

An  appeal.  j£  ^j-^g  above  Cannot  possibly  be  done  for  him,  do,  for  God's  sake, 
endeavour  at  something  else  for  him.  You  know  Capt.  Gould's 
appointment  in  Nova  Scotia,  and  is  not  such  an  appointment 
absolutely  for  us  1  If  it  is,  is  there  no  such  thing  as  getting  him 
something  of  the  same  kind  t. 

noT^ain.  -^^^  addition  to  his  present  income  is  not,  I  am  convinced,  his 

principle  object.  What  I  myself  wish  for  him,  and  what  is  I  am 
sure  his  own  only  wish,  is  some  kind  of  appointment  that  would  give 
him  some  little  consequence  in  himself,  as  well  as  in  the  eyes  of 
his  brother-officers  going  with  him,  all  of  whom  with  respect  to 
length  of  service  are  but  of  yesterday. 

You,  my  dear  sir,  have  no  idea  how  much  I  am  interested  in 
this  atlair,  nor  how  very  severely  I  shall  feel  myself  mortified  if 
something  or  other  cannot  be  done  for  him  before  we  quit  this 
country.  I  am,  cfec, 

R.  Ross. 

Phillip's  Instructions. 
25  April  i^^  tl^g  Qo^j,^  .^^  gt.  James's,  the  25th  April,  1787. 

Present : — 
The  King's  Most  Excellent  Majesty. 

Lord  President.  Lord  Sydney. 

Marquis  of  Carmarthen.  William  Pitt,  Esq. 

Lord  Chamberlain.  Sir  George  Yonge. 

Lord  Onslow. 
Whereas  thei-e  was  this  day  read  at  the  Board  a  report  from 
the  Right  Honorable  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  Council, 
appointed  for  the  consideration  of  all .  matters  relating  to  Trade 
and  Foreign  Plantations,  upon  the  draught  of  instructions  for 
Captain  Arthur  Phillip,  whom  his  Majesty  has  been  pleased  to 
appoint  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-Chief  of  the  territory 
of  New  South  Wales.  His  Majesty  taking  the  said  report  and 
draught  of  instructions  into  consideration,  was  pleased,  with 
the  advice  of  his  Privy  Council,  to  approve  of  the  said  draught 
of  instructions,  and  to  order,  as  it  is  hereby  ordered,  that  the 

*  Cai^tain  of  Marines  in  Major  Hoss's  detachment 

Phillip's  ixstructioxs.  85 

Right  Honorable   Lord  Sydney,  one  of  his  Majesty's  Principal       1787 
Secretaries  of  State,  do  cause  the  said  draught  of  instructions,     25  April, 
wliich  are  herewith  annexed,  to   be  prepai-ed  for  his  Majesty's 


IxsTRrcTioxs  for  our  trusty  and  well-beloved  Arthur  Phillip,  Esq., 
our  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-Chief  in  and  over  our 
territory  of  New  South  Wales  and  its  dependencies,  or  to 
the  Lieutenant-Governor  or  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  said 
territory  for  the  time  being.  Given  at  our  Court  at  St.  James's, 
the  25th  day  of  April,   1787,  in  the  twenty-seventh  year  of 

our  reign. 

"With  these  our  instructions  you  will  receive   our  commission*  commission 
under  our  Great  Seal  constituting  and  appointing  you  to  be  our  ^  Governor. 
Captain-General    and  Governor-in-Chief    of    our  territory  called 
New  South  Wales,  extending  from  the  northern  cape  or  extremity 
of  the  coast,  called  Cape  York,  in  latitude  of  ten  degrees  thirty- 
seven    minutes    south,    to    the    southern    extremity  of    the  said 
territory  of  New  South  "Wales  or  South  Cape,  in  the  latitude  of 
forty-three  degrees   thirty-nine  minutes   south,   and   of   all    the 
country  inland  to  the  westward,  as  far  as  the  one  hundred  and  Territorj-. 
thirty-tifth  degree  of  east  longitude,  reckoning  from  the  meridian 
of  Greenwich,  including  all  the  islands  adjacent  in  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  within  the  latitudes  aforesaid,   10°  37'  south  and  43°  39' 
south  ;  and  of  all  towns,   garrisons,   castles,   forts,  and  all  other 
fortifications  or  other  military  works  which   may  be   hereafter 
erected  upon  the  said  territory,  or  any  of  the  said  islands,  with 
directions  to  obey  such  orders  and  instructions  as  shall  from  time  instrac- 
to  time  be  given  to  you,  under  our  signet  and  sign  manual,  or  t'<^»s- 
by  our  order  in  our  Privy  Council. 

You  are,  therefore,  to  fit  yourself  with  all  convenient  speed,  and 
to  hold  yourself  in  readiness  to  repair  to  your  said  command,  and 
being  arrived,  to  take  upon  you  the  execution  of  the  trust  we 
have  reposed  in  you,  as  soon  as  conveniently  may  be,  with  all  due 
solemnity  to  cause  our  said  Commission  under  our  Great  Seal  of  Commission 
Great  Britain  constituting  you  our  Governor  and  Coiiiiiiander-in-  pubfic?^'" 
Chief  as  afoi'esaid  to  be  read  and  puljlished. 

And  whereas  we  have  ordered  that  about  600  male  and  180  Order  for 
female  convicts  now  under  .sentence  or  order  of  ti-ansportation  tion.*^'^' 
whose  names  are  contained  in  the  list  hereunto  annexed  should 
be  removed  out  of  the  gaols  and  other  places  of  confinement  in 
this  our  kingdom,  and  be  put  on  board  of  the  several  transport 
ships  which  have  been  taken  up  for  their  reception,  it  is  our 
royal  will  and  pleasure  that  as  s(xm  as  the  said  convicts,  the 
several   persons    composing    the    civil    establishments,    and    the 

•  Ante,  p.  CI. 



25  April. 

Botany  Bay. 

■\Viiie  to  be 
taken  on 

Bills  to  be 

black  cattle, 
sheep,  &c. 

store.s,  provisions,  &c.,  provided  for  their  use,  shall  be  put  on 
board  the  Supply,  tender,  and  the  transport  ships  named  in  the 
margin,*  and  be  in  readiness  to  depart,  that  you  do  take  them 
under  your  protection  and  proceed  in  the  Sirius  with  the  said 
tender  and  transports  to  the  port  on  the  coast  of  New  South 
Wales,  situated  in  the  latitude  of  33°  41',  called  by  the  name  of 
Botany  Bay,  agreeably  to  the  instructions  with  which  you  will  ])e 
furnished  by  the  Commissioners  of  our  Admiralty,  in  pursuance 
of  our  royal  commands  already  signified  to  them. 

And  whereas  it  may  happen  upon  your  passage  to  New  South 
Wales  that  you  may  find  it  necessary  and  expedient  to  call  with 
the  ships  and  vessels  under  your  convoy  at  the  island  of  Tenerijffe, 
at  the  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and  also  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  for 
supplies  of  water  and  other  refreshments  for  the  voyage,  it  is  our 
further  will  and  pleasure  that  you  do  upon  your  arrival  at  the 
former  of  those  places  take  on  board  any  of  the  ships  of  the 
convoy  which  you  may  think  proper  such  quantities  of  Avine  as 
may  be  requisite  for  the  supply  of  the  said  settlement,  according 
to  the  instructions  with  which  the  Commissary  of  Stores  and 
Provisions  will  be  furnished  by  the  Commissioners  of  our  Treasury, 
taking  care  that  the  quantities  purchased  do  not  exceed  the 
proportions  to  be  issued  to  the  several  persons  composing  the 
said  settlement  entitled  thereto,  agreeably  to  the  said  instructions, 
for  the  time  to  which  they  have  confined  the  supply  of  that 
article  ;  and  for  the  amount  of  such  purchases  you  will  direct 
the  Commissary  to  draw  bills  of  exchange  upon  them  properly 
certified  by  you,  or  our  Lieut. -Governor  of  the  said  intended 
settlement,  with  the  other  usual  attestations  that  the  same  has 
been  obtained  at  the  most  reasonable  rates,  transmitting  at  the 
same  time  an  account  thereof  to  them,  in  order  that  you  may 
be  released  from  any  imprest  which  such  purchases  might  occa- 

Notwithstanding  there  is  already  a  considerable  quantity  of 
corn  and  other  seed-grain  put  on  board  the  ships  of  the  convoy, 
probably  more  than  may  be  immediately  necessary  for  raising 
supplies  for  the  settlement,  we  are  disposed  to  guard  as  much  as 
possible  against  accidents  which  may  happen,  or  injuries  which 
these  articles  might  sustain  during  the  passage  :  It  is,  therefore,, 
our  further  will  and  pleasure  that  you,  upon  your  arrival  at  any 
of  the  places  you  may  have  occasion  to  touch  at,  endeavour  to 
obtain  such  further  quantities  of  seed-grain  as  you  may  think 
requisite  for  the  tillage  of  the  land  at  the  place  of  your  des- 
tination :  And  also  that  you  do  take  on  board  any  number  of 
black  cattle,  sheep,  goats,  or  hogs  which  you  can  procure,  and  the 
.ships  of  the  convoy  can  contain,  in  order  to  propagate  the  breed 
of  these  animals  for  the  general  benefit  of  the  intended  settle- 
ment, causing  the  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Provisions  to  draAv 

*  Alexander,  Charlotte,  Scarborough,  Friendship,  Prince  of  Wales,  Lady  Penrhyn. 

Phillip's  instructions.  87 

bills  for  the  same  as  is  before  directed  for  such  supplies,  as  well       i"87 
as  for  any  fresh  provisions  which  it  may  be  requisite  to  procure     25  April, 
for   the  use  of  the  marines   or    convicts  at   those    places,    and 
transmitting  information  to  the  Commissioners  of  our  Treasury 
of  such  proceedings. 

And  whereas  it  is  intended  that  several  of  the  transport  ships  Transports 
and  victuallers  which  are  to  accompany  you  to  New  South  Wales  china 
should  be  employed  in  bringing  home  cargoes  of  tea  and  other 
merchandize,  from  China,  for  the  use  of  the  East  India  Company, 
provided  they  can  arrive  at  Canton  in  due  time,  whereby  a  very 
considerable  saving  would  arise  to  the  public  in  the  freight  of 
these  vessels :  It  is  our  royal  will  and  pleasure  that  ujjon  your 
arrival  at  Botany  Bay,  on  the  said  coast  of  New  South  Wales, 
vou  do  cause  every  possible  exertion  to  be  made  for  disembarking  to  be 
the  officers  and  men  composing  the  civil  and  military  establish-  u^'Jo"  jej, 
ments,  together  with  the  convicts,   stores,   provisions,   &c.,   and 
having  so  done,  you  ai'e  to  discharge  all  the  said  transports  or 
victuallers,  in  order  that  such  of  them  as  may  be  engaged  by  the 
East  India  Company  may  proceed  to  China,  and  that  the  rest  may 
return  home.      You   will,   however,  take   care,   before   the  said 
transport  ships  are  discharged,  to  obtain  an  assignment  to  you  or  Assijmmeiit 
the  Governor-in-Chief  for  the  time  being,  from  the  masters  of  ^  thV*"''*^ 
them,  of  the  servitude  of  the  several  convicts  for  the  remainder  Governor. 
of  the  times  or  terms  specified  in  their  sevei'al  sentences  or  oi'ders 
of  transportation. 

According  to  the  best  information  which  we  have  obtained, 
Botany  Bay  appears  to  be  the  most  eligible  situation  upon  the  Botany  Bay. 
said  coast  for  the  first  establishment,  possessing  a  commodious  har- 
bour and  other  advantages  which  no  part  of  the  coast  hitherto 
discovered  affords.     It  is  therefore  our  will  and  pleasure  that  you 
do   immediately   upon   your  landing,   after  taking  measures  for 
securing  yourself  and  the  people  who  accompany  you  as  much  as 
possible    from    any    attacks    or    interruptions  of    the  natives  of 
that  country,  as  well  as  for  the  preservation  and  safety  of  the 
public  stores,  proceed  to  the  cultivation  of  the  land,  disti'ibuting  cultivation 
the  convicts  for  that  purpose  in  such  manner,  and  under  such  °f  "^^^ '*'^'^- 
inspectors    or    overseers,    and    under    such    regulations    as    may 
appear  to  you  to  be  necessary  and  best  calculated  for  procuring 
supj)lies  of  grain  and  ground  provisions.     The  assortment  of  tools  Tools  and 
and  utensils  which  have  been  provided  for  the  use  of  the  convicts  "tensiis. 
and  other  persons  who  are  to  compose  the  intended  settlement  are 
to  l)e  distriV)uted  according  to  your  discretion,  and  according  to  the 
emplo}Tnent  assigned  to  the  several  persons.     In  the  distribution, 
liowever,  you  will  use  every  proper  degree  of  economy,  and  be  Economy, 
careful  that  the  Commissary  so  transmit  an  account  of  the  issues 
from  time  to  time  to  the  Commi.ssioners  of  our  Treasury,  to  enable 
them  to  judge  of  the  propriety  or  expediency  of  granting  further 


1787       supplies.     The  clothing  of  the  convicts  and  the  provisions  issued 
25  April,    to   them,   and   the  civil   and   military  establishments,   must  be 
accounted  for  in  the  same  manner. 

And  whereas   the  Commissioners  of  our  Admiralty  have  ap- 
The  sirius     pointed  Capt.  Hunter  to  repair  on  boai^d  the  Sirius,  to  assist  you 
aiu  supp  y    .^^  ^j_^^  execution  of  your  duty,  and  to  take  the  command  of  the 
ship  whenever  you  may  see  occasion  to  detach  her  from  the  settle- 
ment, and  also  to  station  the  Supply,  tender,  under  your  orders, 
and  to  be  assisting  to  you  upon  occasional  services  after  your 
arrival.      And  whereas  it  is   our  royal   intention  that  measures 
should  be  taken,  in  addition  to  those  which  are  specified  in  the 
to  go  to  the  article  of  these  our  instructions,  for  obtaining  supplies  of   live 

islands  for         ,,  •,,..  ri-j.^.-  i 

live  stock,  stock,  and  having,  m  consequence  or  such  intention,  caused  a 
quantity  of  arms  and  other  articles  of  merchandize  to  be  pro- 
vided and  sent  out  in  the  ships  under  your  convoy,  in  order  to 
barter  with  the  natives  either  on  the  territory  of  New  South 
Wales  or  the  islands  adjacent :  It  is  our  will  and  pleasure  that 
as  soon  as  either  of  these  vessels  can  be  spared  with  safety  from 
the  settlement  you  do  detach  one  or  both  of  them  for  that  pur- 
pose, confining  their  intercourse  as  much  as  possible  to  such  parts 
as  are  not  in  the  possession  or  under  the  jurisdiction  of  other 
Eui'opean  powers. 

The  increase  of  the  stock  of  animals  must  depend  entirely  upon 

the  measures  you  may  adopt  on  the  outset  for  their  preservation ; 

Amply  and  as  the  settlement  will   be  amply  supplied  with   vegetable 

with  "^         productions,  and  most  likely  with  fish,  fresh  provisions,  excepting 

vegetables,    f^,.  ^j^g  ^[q^  and  convalescents,  may  in  a  great  degree  be  dispensed 

with.     For  these  reasons  it  will   become  you   to  be  extremely 

Caution  as  to  cautious  in  permitting  any  cattle,  sheep,  hogs,   &c.,  intended  for 

stock*^*^^""^'  propagating  the  breed  of  such  animals  to  be  slaughtered  until  a 

competent  stock  may  be  acquired,  to  admit  of  your  supplying  the 

settlement  from   it  with    animal    food    without    having    further 

recourse  to  the  places  from  whence  such  stock  may  have  originally 

been  obtained. 

It  is  our  will  and  pleasure  that  the  productions  of  all  descriptions 

acquired  by  the  labour  of  the  convicts  should  be  considered  as  a 

Public  stock,  public  stock,  which  we  so  far  leave  to  your  disposal  that  such 

parts  thereof  as  may  be  requisite  for  the  subsistence  of  the  said 

convicts  and  their  families,   or  the  subsistence  of  the  civil  and 

military  establishments  of  the  settlement,  may  be  applied  by  you 

to  that  use.     The  remainder  of  such  productions  you  will  reserve 

More  as  a  provision  for  a  further  number  of  convicts,   which  you  may 

jonvicts        expect  will  shortly  follow  you  from  hence,  to  be  employed  under 

to  follow  ^       - .  .  .      ,  1  "^  .  1  .         ,  •       ,  i  • 

shortly.         your  direction  in  the  manner  pointed  out  m  these  our  instructions 
to  you. 

From  the  natural  increase  of  corn  and  other  vegetable  food  from 
a  common  industry,  after  the  ground  has  once  been  cultivated,  as 

Phillip's  ixsTRrcxiONS.  89 

well  as  of  animals,  it  cannot  be  expedient  that  all  the  convicts       l'^87 
which  accompany  you  should  be  employed  in  attending  only  to     25  AprU. 
the  object  of  provisions.     And,  as  it  has  been  humbly  represented 
to  us  that  advantages  may  be  derived  from  the  fiax-plant  which  Flax. 
is  found  in  the  islands  not  far  distant  from  the  intended  settle- 
ment, not  only  as  a  means  of  acqviiring  clothing  for  the  convicts 
and  other  persons  who  may  become  settlers,  but  from  its  superior 
excellence  for  a  variety   of  maritime   purposes,    and   as  it   may 
ultimately  become  an  article  of  export,  it  is,  therefore,  our  will  and 
pleasure  that  you  do  particularly  attend  to  its  cultivation,  and  that 
you  do  send  home  by  every  opportunity  which  may  offer  samples  Samples  to 
ui  this  article,  in  order  that  a  judgment  may  be  formed  whether  home! 
it  may  not  be  necessary  to  instruct  you  further  upon  this  subject. 

And  whereas  we  are  desirous  that  some  further  information  Exploration 
should  be  obtained   of  the  several  ports  or  harbours  upon  the  °^  ^^^  ^°^^' 
coast,  and  the  islands  contiguous  thereto,  within  the  limits  of  your 
government,  you  are,  whenever  the  8irius  or  the  Supply,  tender, 
can  conveniently  be  spared,   to  send  one,  or  both  of  them,  upon 
that  service. 

Norfolk  Island,  situated  in  the  lat.*  ,  and  long.*  east  Norfolk 

from  Greenwich  about*  ,  being  represented  as  a  spot  which  beTettied. 

may  hereafter  become  useful,  you  are,  as  soon  as  circumstances 
will  admit  of  it,  to  send  a  small  establishment  thither  to  secure 
the  same  to  us,  and  prevent  it  being  occupied  by  the  subjects  of 
any  other  European  power ;  and  you  will  cause  any  remarks  or 
observations  which  you  may  obtain  in  consequence  of  this  instruc- 
tion to  be  transmitted  to  our  Principal  Secretary  of  State  for 
Plantation  Affairs  for  our  information. 

And  whereas  it  may  happen,   when  the  settlement    shall  be 
Ijrought  into  some  state  of  regulation,  that  the  service  of  the 
Sirius  may  not  be  necessary  at  the  said  settlement,  and  as  we  are 
desirous  to  diminish  as  much  as  possible  the  expences  which  the 
intended  establishment  occasions,  you  will,  whenever  the  service 
of  the  said  ship  can  be  dispensed  with,  order  Capt.   Hunter  to 
return  with  her  to  England.  And  as  from  such  an  arrangement  the  sinus  to 
emoluments   of  your  station  will  be  diminished,  it  is  our  royal  E,*"i™nd* 
intention  that  the  same  shall  be  made  good  to  you  by  bills  to  be     ° 
drawn  by  you  upon  the  Commissioners  of  our  Treasury. 

You  are  to  endeavour  by  every  possible  means  to  open  an  inter- 
course with  the  natives,  and  to  conciliate  their  affections,  enjoin- 
ing all  our  subjects  to  live  in  amity  and  kindness  with  them. 
And  if  any  of  our  subjects  shall  wantonly  destroy  them,  or  give  Tiie  natnes 
them  any  unnecessary  interruption  in  the  exercise  of  their  several  tectedr*^ 
occupations,  it  is  our  will  and  pleasure  that  you  do  cause  such 
offenders  to  be  brought  to  punishment  according  to  the  degree  of 
the  offence.  You  will  endeavour  to  pi-ocure  an  account  of  the 
numbers  inhabiting  the   neighbourhood  of  the  intended  settle- 

*  Blanks  in  MS. 




25  April. 



Women  to 
be  brought 
from  tlie 


Grants  of 
land  to 
ted convicts. 

and  reser- 

Grants  to  be 

ment,  and  report  your  opinion  to  one  of  our  Secretaries  of  State 
in  what  manner  our  intercourse  with  these  people  may  be  turned 
to  the  advantage  of  this  colony. 

And  it  is  further  our  royal  will  and  pleasure  that  you  do  by 
all  proper  methods  enforce  a  due  observance  of  religion  and  good 
order  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  new  settlement,  and  that  you 
do  take  such  steps  for  the  due  celebration  of  publick  worship  as 
circumstances  will  permit. 

And  whereas,  as  from  the  great  disproportion  of  female  con- 
victs to  those  of  the  males  who  are  put  under  your  superinten- 
dance,  it  appears  advisable  that  a  further  number  of  the  latter 
should  be  introduced  into  the  new  intended  settlement,  you  are, 
whenever  the  Sirius  or  the  tender  shall  touch  at  any  of  the  islands 
in  those  seas,  to  instruct  their  commanders  to  take  on  board  any 
of  the  women  who  may  be  disposed  to  accompany  them  to  the 
said  settlement.*  ■  You  will,  however,  take  especial  care  that  the 
officers  who  may  happen  to  be  employed  upon  this  service  do 
not,  upon  any  account,  exercise  any  compulsive  measures,  or  make 
use  of  fallacious  pretences,  for  bringing  away  any  of  the  said 
women  from  the  places  of  their  present  residence. 

And  whereas  we  have  by  our  Commission,  bearing  date  [2nd 
April]  1787,  given  and  granted  upon  you  full  power  and  authority 
to  emancipate  and  discharge  from  their  servitude  any  of  the  convicts 
under  your  superintendance  who  shall,  from  their  good  conduct  and 
a  disposition  to  industry,  be  deserving  of  favour  :  It  is  our  will 
and  pleasure  that  in  every  such  case  you  do  issue  your  warrant  to 
the  Surveyor  of  Lands  to  make  surveys  of  and  mark  out  in  lot.s 
such  lands  upon  the  said  territory  as  may  be  necessary  for  their 
use  ;  and  when  that  shall  be  done,  that  yovi  do  pass  grants  thereof 
with  all  convenient  speed  to  any  of  the  said  convicts  so  emanci- 
pated, in  such  proportions  and  under  such  conditions  and  acknow- 
ledgments as  shall  hereafter  be  specified,  viz.  : — To  every  male 
shall  be  granted  30  acres  of  land,  and  in  case  he  shall  be  married, 
20  acres  more ;  and  for  every  child  who  may  be  with  them  at  the 
settlement  at  the  time  of  making  the  said  grant,  a  further 
quantity  of  10  acres,  free  of  all  fees,  taxes,  quit  rents,  or  other 
acknowledgments  whatsoever,  for  the  space  of  ten  years  :  Provided 
that  the  person  to  whom  the  said  land  shall  have  been  granted 
shall  reside  within  the  same  and  proceed  to  the  cultivation  and 
improvement  thereof ;  reserving  only  to  us  such  timber  as  may 
be  growing,  or  to  grow  hereafter,  upon  the  said  land  which  may  be 
fit  for  naval  purposes,  and  an  annual  quit  rent  of  f  after  the 

expiration  of  the  term  or  time  before  mentioned.  You  will  cause 
copies  of  such  grants  as  may  be  passed  to  be  preserved,  and  make 
a  regular  return  of  the  said  grants  to  the  Commissioners  of  our 
Treasury  and  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  our  Privy  Council 
for  Tx'ade  and  Plantations. 

*This  part  of  the  Instructions  was  not  carried  out. 

t  Blank  in  MS. 

Phillip's  instructions.  91 

And  whereas  it  is  likely  to  happen  that  the  convicts  who  may       1787 
after  their  emancipation,  in  consequence  of  this   instruction,    be     25  April, 
put  in  possession  of  lands  will  not  have  the  means  of  proceeding 
to  their  cultivation  without  the   public  aid  :  It  is  our   will  and 
pleasure  that  you  do  cause  every  such  j^ei'son  you  may  so  eman-  Emancipists 
cipate  to  be  sujjplied  with  such  a  quantity  of  provisions   as  may  ^°^^  |^P" 
])e  sufficient  for  the  subsistence  of  himself,  and  also  of  his  family,  for  twelve 
twelve  months,  together  with  an  assortment  of  tools  and  utensils,  ^ 
and  such  a  proportion  of  seed-grain,  cattle,   sheep,    hogs,    etc.,   as 
may  be  proper,  and  can  be  spared  from  the  general  stock   of  the 

And   whereas  many  of   our  suVjjects  employed  upon  military  in  view 
service  at  the  said  settlement,  and  others  who  may  resort  thither  settlement, 
upon  their  private  occupations,  may  hereafter  be  desirous  of  pro- 
ceeding to  the  cultivation  and  improvement  of  the   land,    and  as 
we  are  disposed  to   afford  them   every  reasonable  encouragement 
in  such  an  undertaking :  It  is  our  will  and  pleasure  that  you  do, 
with  all  convenient  speed,  transmit  a  report  of  the  actual  state  report  on 
and  quality  ( jf  the  soil  at  and  near  the  said   intended   settlement,  *  "^  =^1  • 
the  probable  and  most  effectual  means  of  improving  and  cultivating 
the  same,  and  of  the  mode,  and  upon  what  terms  and  conditions, 
according  to  the  best  of  your  judgement,  the  said  lands  should  be 
granted,  that  proper  instructions  and  authorities  may  be   given 
to  you  for  that  purpose. 

And  whereas  it  is  our  royal  intention  that  every  sort  of  inter-  All  inter- 
course between  the  intended  settlement  at  Botany  Bay,  or  other  fore^g^i  ports 
place  which  maybe  hereafter  established  on  the  coast  of  New  South  prohibited. 
Wales  and  its  dependencies,  and  the  settlements  of  our  East 
India  Company,  as  well  as  the  coast  of    China,    and   the  islands 
situated  in  that  part  of  the  world,  to  which   any  intercourse   has 
been   established  by  any  European  nation,    should  be   prevented 
by  every  possible  means  :   It  is  our  royal  will  and  pleasure  that 
you  do  not  on  any  account  allow  craft  of  any  sort  to  be  built  for  >'o  sailing 

''  vessels  to 

the  use  of  private  individuals  which  might  enable  them  to  effect  be  built, 
such  intercourse,  and  that  you  do  prevent  any  vessels  which  may 
at  any  time  hereafter  arrive  at  the  said  settlement   from  any  of 
the  ports  before  mentioned  frf)m  having  communication  with  any  No  com- 
of  the  inhaljitants  residing  within  your  Government,  without  lirst  from  ship 
receiving  especial  permission  from  you  for  that  pux'pose.  *°  shore. 


Siu  Charles  Middletox  to  Under  Secretary  Nepeax.* 

Dear  Sir, 

The  Navy  Board,  in  contracting  for  the  victualling  of  the  yictuaiiingr 
convicts  on  their  passage,  have  observed  the  same  rule  that  has 

*  No  date  or  address ;  the  letter,  a  i)rivate  one,  was  sent,  apparently,  in  April,  1787,  to 
Under  Secretarj-  Nepean. 





No  altera- 

&c.,  for  the 

Two  years' 

been  always  followed  with  soldiers  onboard  of  transports — that  is, 
two-thirds  of  what  is  allowed  to  the  troops  serving  in  the  West 
Indies,  spirits  excepted. 

When  it  is  considered  that  the  confinement  on  shipboard  will 
not  admit  of  much  exercise,  this  allowance  will  be  found  more 
advantageous  to  the  health  of  the  convicts  than  full  allowance, 
and  when  compared  to  bread  and  water,  which  I  take  for  granted 
is  the  prison  allowance,  may  be  termed  abundance. 

For  these  reasons,  and  tlie  impossibility  of  altering  the  contracts 
without  adding  considerably  and  unnecessarily  to  the  expence  of 
the  public,  and  probably  increasing  the  mortality  by  detaining  the 
transports  in  this  climate,  I  am  of  opinion  no  alteration  should 
take  place. 

In  consequence  of  a  letter  lately  received  from  the  Treasury,  the 
contractor  proceeds  to  Portsmouth  on  Saturday  to  furnish  the  sick 
with  fresh  provisions  and  vegetables,  and  which  may  be  extended 
to  ye  convicts  and  marines  in  general  if  an  order  is  sent  from  the 
Treasury  for  that  purpose,  as  also  wine  for  ye  sick ;  and  if  flower 
is  preferred  to  rice.  Captain  Philips  may  direct  a  preference  on  ye 
passage,  and  repay  it  out  of  the  storeships  on  their  arrival,  but  the 
substitute  of  r-ice  for  flower  is  agreable  to  ye  Army  contract,  and 
so  paid  by  the  Treasury. 

In  short,  the  convicts  cannot  suffer  from  short  allowance,  as  they 
are  provided  with  two  years'  stock  of  provisions,  independent  of 
what  is  laid  in  for  their  j^assage.  I  am,  &c., 

Chas.  Middletox. 

Lord  Sydney  to  Governor  Phillip. 
27  April.        Sir,  Whitehall,  27th  April,  1787. 

I  transmit  you  herewith  his  Majesty's  commission*  under 

the  Great  Seal  appointing  you  Captain-Genei'al  and  Governor-in- 

Chief  of  the   territory  of  New   South  Wales,  together  with  a 

Com-  commission,  also  passed  under  the  Great  Seal,  for  establishing  a 

instructions!  ^ourt  of  civil  jurisdictionf  within  the  said  territory,  and  instructions 

under  the  Royal  Sign  Manual  |  for  your  guidance  in  the  execution 

of  the  affairs  of  the  territory  to  which  you  are  appointed  Governor. 

The  commission  for  the  trial  of  pirates,  and  that  appointing 

you  Vice- Admiral,  and  for  other  officers  to  form  an  Admiralty 

Court,  I  find  are  not  yet  compleated,  but  those  commissions  will 

be  sent  to  you.  I  am,  &c., 


Major  Ross  to  Under  Secretary  NEPEAN.g 
Dear  Sir,  Portsmouth,  27th  April,  1787. 

Anxieties.  Before  I  bid  a  long  farewell  to  you  and  home,  will  you  give 

me  leave  to  remind  you  of  my  being  about  to  leave  Mrs.  Ross  and 
very  small  tho'  numerous  family  behind  me. 

'Ante,  p.  61. 

t  Ante,  pp.  70-70.  J  Ante,  pp.  85-91. 

§  A  private  letter. 

MAJOR   ROSS    AND    HIS    FAMILY.  93 

I  believe  that  you  are  no  stranger  to  my  circumstances  in  life ;       1787 
and  that  you  know  my  daily  pay  to  be  the  whole  of  the  fortune     27  AjJi-ii. 
I  am  possessed  of,  to  support  and  educate   them,  as  well  as  to 
maintain  myself. 

But  do  not,  my  dear  sir,  be  alarmed,  and  suppose  me  about  to 
solicit  your  assistance  for  an  addition  to  this  income,  for,  in  truth, 
that  is  not  my  design. 

3Iy  only  view  in  mentioning  the  situation  in  which  cruel  necessity  Provision  for 
compels  me  to  leave  Mrs.  lloss  and  my  young  family  is,  that  in 
case  any  accident  should  deprive  them  of  their  all,  in  depriving  them 
of  me,  you  will  then  permit  me  to  hope  that  your  friendly  assist- 
ance and  interest  shall  be  employ'd  in  endeavoui'ing  to  procure  for 
the  widow  and  fatherless  some  compensation  from  the  public. 

As  you  are  yourself  both  a  husband  and  a  father — both  of 
which  may  you  long  continue  to  be  in  peace,  health,  and  happi- 
ness— you  will  the  more  readily  enter  my  present  feelings,  and  the 
more  easily  excuse  this  application.  Could  I  but  be  assured  that 
INIrs.  Ross  and  little  ones  would  have  your  friendship  to  plead 
their  cause  in  support  of  their  claim,  my  oppress'd  mind  would 
then  be  reliev'd  in  some  measure  from  a  weighty  load  of  the  care 
and  anxiety  which  you  must  naturally  suppose  me,  at  this  time,  a  load 
to  suffer  on  their  account.  of  care. 

I  have  now  only  to  add  that  this  is  the  first  instance  in  which 
the  cordis  of  marines  has  been  employ'd  in  any  way  out'  of  the  An  oppor- 
usual  line  of  duty,  and  as  I  firmly  believe  that  any  part  of  it  being  the  marine 
so  employ'd  is  entirely  owing  to  your  friendly  wish  of  drawing 
the  coi'ps  forth  from  that  subordinate  obscurity  in  which  it  has 
hitherto  moved, — impress'd  with  this  belief,  permit  me  to  offer 
you  my  own  as  well  as  the  sincerest  thanks  of  the  ofiicers  of  the 
detachment  under  my  command,  for  the  generous  opinion  you 
have  shown  in  favour  of  the  corps,  and  to  assure  you  that  every 
nerve  shall  be  strain'd  in  the  faithful  and  diligent  discharge  of 
oui-  duty,  and  I  entertain  not  a  doubt  but  that  the  conduct  of 
the  whole  will  be  such  as  will  not  only  do  credit  to  your  recom- 
mendation, but  give  satisfaction  to  the  Administration.  These 
much-wished-for  objects  obtain'd,  I  shall  then  ardently  hope  that 
what  you  once  hinted  to  me  might  be  the  consequence,  will,  with 
your  assistance,  take  place,  and  that  we  shall  no  moi'e  return  to  our 
original  obscurity,  but  become  an  active  corps  of  your  own  creation,  ^.n  active 

Adieu,  my  dear  sir,  and  with  real  esteem  and  regard,   believe  ''^"i'*- 

me,  Arc,  11,  Ross. 

Lord  Sydney  to  Goveunor  Puilup. 

Sir,  Whitehall   28th  April,  1787. 

The  King  judging  it  necessary,  in  case  of  your  death  or 
absence  from  your  Govei'imieut  of  the  territory  of  New  South     ^s  April. 
Wales,  that  an  officer  properly  qualified  to  execute  that  trust 
shall  be  appointed  to  succeed  you,  and  that  a  dormant  commission 




27  April. 


3  May. 

orders  for 
Botany  Bay. 

5  Maj'. 

Phillip  may 
leave  tlie 

5  May. 

Spirits  for 
the  marines. 

for  that  purpose  should  be  in  your  possession,  his  Majesty  has 
been  pleased  to  name  Captain  John  Hunter,  second  captain  of 
his  Majesty's  ship  the  Sirius,  to  be  Governor  of  the  said  territory 
in  either  of  those  events,  and  to  sign  a  commission  for  that 
purpose,  which  I  herewith  send  you.*  I  am,  &c., 

,  Sydxey. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 
Sir,  [London]  May  3d,  1787. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Lords 
Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  I  have  received  their  Lord- 
ships' order  for  the  Hytiena's  going  one  hundred  leagues  to  the 
westward  with  his  Majesty's  ship  under  my  command,  and  the 
order  respecting  the  Supply,  tender,  as  likewise  their  Lordships 
order  to  proceed  to  Botany  Bay,  on  the  coast  of  New  South 
Wales,  which  orders  I  shall  carry  into  execution  with  all  possible 
expedition.  I  have,  (fee, 

A.  Phillip. 

Lord  Sydney  to  the  Lords  op  The  Admiralty.! 
My  Lords,  Whitehall,  5th  May,  1787. 

As  it  may  be  expedient  for  Capt.  Phillip  to  arrive  upon 
the  coast  of  New  South  Wales  previous  to  the  convoy  under  his 
protection,  in  order  to  fix  upon  an  eligible  spot  for  their  settle- 
ment, and  to  make  proper  arrangements  for  the  landing  of  the 
marines  and  convicts,  I  am  commanded  to  signify  to  your  Lord- 
ships the  King's  pleasure  that  you  do  authorize  Captain  Phillip, 
upon  his  leaving  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  to  proceed,  if  he  thiiiks 
fit,  to  the  said  coast  of  New  South  Wales  in  the  Supply,  tender  J, 
leaving  the  convoy  to  be  escorted  by  the  Sirius  to  the  rendezvous 
which  he  may  fix  upon.  [No  signature.] 

Lord  Sydney  to  Governor  Phillip. 
Sir,  Whitehall,  5th  May,  1787. 

It  has  not  been  thought  advisable  that  the  detachment  of 
marines  intended  to  be  landed  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales 
shall  be  constantly  supplied  with  wine  or  spirits,  but  as  it  may 
happen  that  the  service  upon  which  they  may  be  employed 
may  require  such  an  addition  to  the  ration  with  which  they  are 
directed  to  be  supplied,  I  am  commanded  to  acquaint  you  that 
upon  your  arrival  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  or  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope,  you  have  permission  to  order  the  Commissary  to  purchase 
such  a  quantity  of  spirits  or  wine  for  their  use  as  he  can  obtain 

*  Not  recorded. 

t  This  letter  is  not  signed,  but  it  is  obviously  from  Lord  Sydney. 

X  This  proposal  was  carried  out  by  Phillip,  but  owing  to  the  bad  sailing  of  the  Supply  he 
arrived  at  Botany  Bay  only  one  day  before  the  Alexander,  Scarborough,  and  Friendship,  and 
two  days  before  the  Sirius,  Charlotte,  Prince  of  Wales,  and  Ladj'  Penrhyn.  See  Phillip's 
letter  to  Lord  Sydney,  post,  p.  121. 


for  ,£200.     You  will  order  him  to  draw  bills  upon  the  Ti'easury       1787 
for  that  sum,  and  cause  the  said  wine  or  spii'its  to  be  issued  to      siiay. 
the  said  marines  at  such  times  and  in  such  proportions  as  you 
may  judge  requisite ;  you  will,  however,  observe  that  no  further 
quantity  of  wine  or  spirits  will  hereafter  be  allowed  for  that 

purpose.  I  am,  etc., 


Lord  Sy'^dxey'  to  Goverxor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Whitehall,  5th  May,  1787. 

By  your  instructions  under  the  Royal  Sign  Manual,  you 
are  referred  to  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  for 
permission  to  discharge  forty  of  the  petty  officers  and  men  l^e- 
longing  to  the  Sirius,  in  case  you  should  hereafter  have  it  in  your 
power  to  dispense  with  the  service  of  that  ship,  but  it  has  since 
been  determined  that  after  your  arrival  at  New  South  Wales  Seamen 
your  proceedings  should  be  regulated  by  the  Secretary  of  State,  Slgcharfed 
and  I  am  in  consequence  to  signify  to  you  that  you  have  jjer- 
mission  to  discharge  as  many  of  the  said  forty  petty  officers  and 
seamen  from  the  Sirius  as  you  may  think  proper,  whenever  you 
may  determine  to  send  that  ship  to  England,  and  also  to  discharge 
twenty  petty  officers  and  men  from  the  Supply,  tender,  in  like 
manner,  in  case  you  should  order  the  said  tender  to  return  home, 
provided  that  there  be  left  on  board  the  said  ship  and  tender  a 
sufficient  number  of  men  to  navigate  them  during  the  voyage. 

You  have  also  permission,  if  you  should  tind  it  necessary,  to 
<lischarge  from  time  to  time  from  the  Sirius  or  the  Supply,  tender, 
any  of  the  marines  belonging  to  the  detachment  appointed  to 
serve  on  shore  whenever  any  event  shall  take  place  to  reduce 
the  number  of  which  the  said  detachment  now  consists. 

I  am,  &c., 

Letters  Patent  Constituting  the  Vice-Admiralty  Court. 
(Ieoroe  the  Third  by  the  Grace  of  God  of  Great  Britain  France  commission 
and  Ireland  King  Defender  of  the  Faith.     To  our  trusty  and  well-  to  form  a 
beloved  Arthur  Phillip  Esquire  our  Captain-General  and  Governor-  Admiralty 
in-Chief  of  the  territory  called  New  South  Wales  extending  from  *^'°""' 
the  Northern  Cape  or  extremity  of  the  coast  called  Cape  York  in  the 
latitude  of  ten  degrees  thirty-seven  minutes  south  to  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  said  territory  of  New  South  Wales  or  South  Cape 
in  the  latitude  of  forty-three  degrees  thirty-nine  minutes  south 
and  of  all  the  country  inland  to  the  westward  as  far  as  the  one 
hundred  and  thirty-fifth  degree  of  east  longitude  reckoning  from 
the  meridian  of  Greenwich  including  all  the  islands  adjacent  in  the 
Pacific  Ocean  within  the  latitude  aforesaid  of  10"  37'  south  and 
43^  39'  south  and  our  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-Chief  of 
the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales  for  the  time  being, 



5  May. 

Act  of 
recited,  11  & 
12  Win.  Ill, 
c.  7. 

Trial  by 


Power  to 


and  to 
assemble  a 
Court  of 

or  three, 
who  should 
have  power 
to  summon 
four  more. 

Robert  Ross  Esquire,  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  said  territory 
called  New  South  Wales  and  the  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  said 
territory  for  the  time  being, 

Andrew  Miller  Esquire,  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Provisions  in 
the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  and  the  Commissary 
of  Stores  in  the  said  territory  for  the  time  being, 

Augustus  Alt  Esquire,  Surveyor  of  Lands  in  the  said  territory 
called  New  South  Wales,  and  the  Surveyor  of  Lands  in  the  said 
territory  for  the  time  being, 

John  Hunter  Esquire,  second  Captain  of  our  ship  Sirius,  William 
Bradley  Esquire,  first  Lieutenant,  Philip  Gidley  King  Esquire, 
second  Lieutenant,  and  George  William  Maxwell,  third  Lieutenant 
of  the  said  ship  Sirius,  Henry  Lidgbird  Ball  Esquire,  Lieutenant 
and  Commander  of  the  Supply,  armed  tender,  and  ail  other  Captains 
and  Commanders  of  our  ships  who  are  or  shall  be  within  the  Ad- 
miralty jurisdiction  of  the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales, 

Greeting : 

Whereas  by  an  Act  of  Parliament  made  in  the  eleventh  and 
twelfth  year  of  the  reign  of  our  late  Royal  Predecessor  King 
William  tlie  Third  intituled  an  Act  for  the  more  effectual  suppres- 
sing of  Piracy  (reciting  as  therein  recited)  it  is  amongst  other 
things  enacted  that  all  piracies,  felonies  or  robberies  committed 
in  or  upon  the  sea  or  in  any  haven,  river,  creek  or  place  where  the 
Admiral  or  Admirals  have  power  authority  or  jurisdiction  may  be 
examined,  enquired  of,  tryed,  heard,  and  determined  and  adjudged 
according  to  the  directions  of  the  said  Act  in  any  place  at  sea  or 
upon  the  land  in  any  of  his  said  late  Majesty's  islands,  plantations, 
colonies,  dominions,  forts  or  factories  to  be  appointed  for  that 
purpose  by  his  said  late  Majesty's  Commission  or  Commissions 
under  the  Great  Seal  of  England,  or  the  Seal  of  the  Admiralty  of 
England,  directed  to  all  or  any  of  the  Admirals,  Vice-Admirals, 
Rear- Admirals,  Judges  of  Vice- Admiralties  or  Commanders  of 
his  said  late  Majesty's  ships-of-war,  and  also  to  all  or  any  such 
person  or  persons  officer  or  officers  by  name  or  for  the  time  being 
as  his  said  late  Majesty  should  think  lit  to  ajipoint  : 

Which  said  Commissioners  should  have  full  power  jointly  or 
severally  by  warrant  under  the  hand  or  seal  of  them  or  any  one 
of  them  to  commit  to  safe  custody  any  person  or  persons  against 
whom  information  of  piracy,  robbery  or  felony  upon  the  sea  should 
be  given  upon  oath  and  to  call  and  to  assemble  a  Court  of 
Admiralty  on  ship-board  or  upon  the  land  when  and  as  often  as 
occasion  should  require,  which  Court  should  consist  of  seven 
persons  at  the  least : 

And  it  is  thereby  further  enacted  that  if  so  many  of  the  persons 
aforesaid  could  not  conveniently  be  assembled,  any  three  of  the 
aforesaid  persons,  whereof  the  president  or  chief  of  some  English 
factory  or  the  Governor,  Lieutenant-Governor  or  member  of  his 


said  late  jNIajesty's  Council  in  any  of  the  plantations  or  colonies       ^"^^^ 
aforesaid  or  Commander  of  one  of  his  late  Majesty's   ships  was      5  May. 
always  to  be   one  (should  be   one),  should   have   full   power  and 
authority  by  virtue  of   the   said  Act  to  call  and  assemble  any 
other  persons  on  ship-board  or  upon  the  land  to  make  up   the 
number  of  seven : 

And  it  is  thereby  also  provided  that  no  persons  but  such  as  were 
known  merchants,  factors  or  planters  or  such  as  were  captains 
lieutenants  or  warrant  officers  in  any  of  his  late  Majesty's  ships-of-  Qualifi- 
war  or  captains,  masters  or  mates  of  some  English  ship  should  be  ^"'^^^°"^- 
capable  of  being  so  called  and   sitting  and  voting  in  the  said 
Court : 

And  it  is  thereljy  further  enacted  that  such  persons,  called  and 
assembled    as   aforesaid,   should   have   full  power  and  authority  power  to 
according  to  the  course  of  the  Admiralty  to  issue  warrants  for  '^^".'^  ^f" 

!••  ir.-iiTn.  rants  of 

bringmg  up  any  persons  accused  or  piracy  or  robbery  before  them  arrest,  to 
to  be  tryed  heard  and  adjudged,  and  to  summon  witnesses  and  take  witnesses, 
informations  and  examinations  of  witnesses  xipon  their  oath,  and  to  take 
to  do  all  things  necessary  for  the  hearing  and  tinal  determination  and  to°^' 
of  any  case  of  piracy  robbery  and  felony,  and  to  give  sentence  and  rro"o™ce 
judgement  of  death,  and  to  award  execution  of  the  offenders  con- 
victed and  attainted  as  aforesaid  according  to  the  civil  law  and 
the  methods  and  rules  of  the  Admiralty,  and  that  all  and  every 
person  and  persons  so  convicted  and  attainted  of  piracy  and  rob- 
bery should  have  and  suffer  such  losses  of  lands,  goods,  and  chattels 
as  if  they  had  been  attainted  and  convicted  of  any  piracies,  felonies, 
and   robberies  according  to  a  statute  made  in  the  twenty-eighth 
year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  the  Eightli  for  tryals  of  treasons,  2s  Hen. 
felonies,  robberies,  murthers  and  confederacies  commited  upon  the  ^^^^'  '^-  ^^• 
sea : 

Which  said  first-recited  Act  by  another  Act  made  in  the  fifth 
year  of  the  reign  of  our  late  Royal  Predecessor  Queen  Anne,  was 
continued  from  the  expiration  thereof  for  the  further  term  of  seven 
years  and  from  then  to  the  end  of  the  then  next  session  of  Parlia- 
ment which  by  another  Act  made  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of 
our  late  Royal  Ancestor  King  George  the  First  was  revived  from 
the  twenty-ninth  day  of  September  1715  and  was  to  be  in  force 
during  the  continuance  of  that  Act  which  was  to  continue  for  five  soco.  i, 
years  and  from  then  to  the  end  of  the  next  session  of  Parliam,cnt  '';e,'t;tuai'° 
and  which  1  )y  an  Act  made  in  the  sixth  year  of  the  reign  of  our  said 
late  Royal  Ancestor  King  George  the  First  was  made  perpetual  : 

And  whereas  by  one  other  Act  of  Parliament  made  in  tlie  eighth 
year  of  the  reign  of  our  said  late  Royal  Ancestor  King  George  the 
First  entituled  an  Act  for  the  more  effectual  suppression  of  Piracy 
(i-eciting  as  therein  is  recited)  It  is  amongst  other  tilings  thereby 
enacted  that  all  and  every  person  and  persons  therein  and  thei-eby 
declared  to  be  guilty  of  or  accessory  or  accessories  to  any  piracy 


1787       felony  or  robbery  sliall  and  may  be  enqnired  of,  heai'd,  determined 

5  May.      and  adjudged  of  and  for  all  or  any  the  matters  contained  in  the 

Procedure     ^^^^  last-recited  Act  according  to  the  said   statute  made  in  the 

eleventh  and  twelfth  years  of  his  late  Majesty  King  William  the 

Third  and  that  all  and  every  person  being  thereupon  attainted  and 

convicted  should  have  and  sutFer   such  pain  of  death  and  loss  of 

Punishment  lands  goods  and  chattels  as  pirates  and  robbers  ought  by  the  said 

tk)n.°""'^      Act  of  the  eleventh  and  twelfth  years  of  his  late  Majesty  King 

William  the  Third  to  suffer  : 

Now  know  ye  that  in  pursuance  of  the  said  recited  Act  of  the 
eleventh  and  twelfth  year  of  the  reign  of  his  said  late  Majesty 
King  William  the  Third  and  of  the  eighth  year  of  our  said  late 
Royal  Ancestor  King  George  the  First,  of  our  special  grace  certain 
knowledge  and  meer  motion  have  made  constituted  and  appointed 
Commis-  and  by  these  presents  do  hereby  constitute  and  appoint  you  the 
appoi"ted.  ^^^^  Arthur  Phillip  Esquire,  and  our  Captain-Genei-al  and  Gover- 
nor-in-Chief  of  the  said  territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the 
time  being, 

Robert  Ross  Esquire,  and  our  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  said 
territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the  time  being, 

Andrew  Miller  Esquire,  and  the  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Pro- 
visions of  the  said  territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the  time 

Augustus  Alt  Esquire  and  the  Surveyor  of  Lands  in  the  said 
territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the  time  being, 

John  Hunter,  William  Bradley,  Philip  Gidley  King,  George 
William  Maxwell  and  Henry  Lidgbird  Ball  Esquire  and  the  Captain 
and  Commander  of  our  ships  who  are  or  shall  be  within  the  Admi- 
ralty jurisdiction  of  the  said  territory  called  Xew  South  Wales 

To  be  our  Commissioners  at  the  said  territory  called  Xew  South 

Wales  for  the  examining,  enquiring  of,  trying,  hearing  and  deter- 

Jurisdiction'  mining  and  adjudging  according  to  the  directions  of  the  same  Acts 

of  the  Court.  -^^  ^^^  place  at  sea  or  upon  the  land  at  the  said  territory  called 

Xew    South  Wales,  all  piracies,   felonies  and  robberies   and  all 

assessories  thereunto  committed  or  which  shall  be  committed  in  or 

upon  the  sea  or  within  any  haven,  river,  creek  or  place  where  the 

Admiral  or  Admirals  have  power  authority  or  jurisdiction  : 

Commis-  And  you  the  said  Arthur   Phillip  Esquire  and   our   Captain- 

sioners.         General  and  Governor-in-Chief  of  the  said  territory  called  Xew 

South  Wales  for  the  time  being  : 

Robert  Ross  Esquire  and  our  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  said 
territoiy  called  Xew  South  Wales,  for  the  time  being, 

Andrew  Miller  Esquire  and  the  Commissary  of  Stores  and 
Provisions  of  the  said  territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the 
time  being, 

Augustus  Alt  Esquire  and  the  Surveyor  of  Lands  in  the  said 
territory  called  Xew  South  Wales  for  the  time  being, 


John   Hunter,  William  Bi'adley,   Philip   Gidley  King,  George       1787 
William  Maxwell  and  Henry  LidgV)ird  Ball  Esquire  and  the  Cap-      5  May. 
tains  and  Commanders  of  our  ships  who  are  or  shall  be  within  the 
Admiralty  jurisdiction  of  the  said   tei-ritory   called   New  South 

Our  Commissioners  at  the  said  territory  called  New  South 
Wales  for  the  purposes  hereinbefore  mentioned  We  do  make, 
ordain  and  constitute  by  these  presents,  hereby  giving  and  granting 
unto  you  our  said  Commissionors  jointly  or  severally  by  warrant 
under  the  hand  and  seal  of  you  or  any  one  of  you  full  power  and  empowered 
autliority  to  commit  to  safe  custody  any  person  or  persons  against  °  '^"■^^^  > 
whom  information  of  piracy,  robbery  or  felony  upon  the  sea  as 
accessory  or  accessories  thereto  shall  be  given  upon  oath  (which 
cath  you  or  any  one  of  you  shall  have  full  power  and  are  hereby 
authorised  to  administer)  : 

And  to  call  and  assemble  a  Court  of  Admiralty  on  shipboard  or  and  to 
upon  the  land  when  and  as  often  as  occasion  shall  require,  which  assemble 
Court  our  will  and  pleasure  is  shall  consist  of  seven  persons  at  the 
least  and  if  so  many  of  you  our  said  Commissioners  cannot  conveni- 
ently be  assembled  any  three  or  more  of  you  whereof  you  the  said 
Arthur  Phillip  Esquire,  our  Captain-General  and  Governor-in-Chief  Commis- 
of  tlie  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  or  the  Captain-General 
and  Governor-in-Chief  of  the  said  territory  for  the  time  being. 

Or  you  the  said  Robert  Ross  Esquire,  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  or  the  Lieutenant- 
Governor  of  the  said  territory,  for  the  time  being. 

Or  you  the  said  Andrew  Miller  Esquire,  Commissary  of  Stores 
and  Provisions  in  the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  or 
the  Commissary  of  Stores  and  Provisions  for  the  time  being, 

Or  you  the  said  Augustus  Alt  Esquire,  Surveyor  of  Lauds  in 
the  said  territory  called  New  South  Wales,  or  the  Surveyor  of 
Lands  in  the  said  territory  for  the  time  being, 

Or  you  the  said  John  Hunter  Esquire,  second  Captain  of  our 
ship  Sirius,  William  Bradley  Esquire,  first  Lieutenant,  Philip 
Gidley  King  Esquire,  second  Lieutenant,  and  George  William 
Maxwell  Esquire,  third  Lieutenant,  of  the  said  ship  Sirius,  or  you 
the  said  Henry  Lidgljird  Ball  Esquire,  Lieutenant  and  Commander 
of  the  Supply,  armed  tender,  or  a  commander  of  one  of  our  ships 
(as  the  place  of  tryall  shall  appear)  to  be  always  one, 

Shall  have  full  power  and  authoi-ity  by  virtue  of  the  said  recited  empowered 
Acts  and  these  presents  to  call  and  assemble  any  other  persons  on  l?J^^^  '^ 
shipboard  or  upon  the  land  to  make  up  the  number  of  seven. 

Provided  that  no  persons  but  such  as  are  known  mercliants, 
factors,  or  planters  or  such  as  are  captains,  lieutenants  or  warrant 
officers  in  any  of  our  ships-of-war  or  captains  masters  or  mates  of  Qualiflca- 
some  English  ship  shall  be  capable  of  being  so  called  sitting  and  t'ons. 
acting  in  the  said  Court. 



5  Ma^•. 

Power  of 

Effect  of 


to  be  read  in 
open  Court. 


Court  to  be 
fruided  by 
statutes  and 

to  act. 

And  our  further  pleasure  is,  and  We  do  hereby  expressly  declare 
find  command,  that  such  persons  called  and  such  other  persons 
liereby  authorised  and  assembled  as  aforesaid,  shall  have  full  power 
and  authority  according  to  the  course  of  Admiralty  to  issue  war- 
rants for  bringing  any  persons  accused  of  such  piracy,  robbery,  or 
felony  or  as  accessory  thereto,  and  to  give  sentence  and  judgment 
of  death  and  to  award  execution  of  the  offenders  convicted  and 
attainted  as  aforesaid  according  to  the  civil  law  and  the  methods 
and  rules  of  the  Admiralty  : 

And  that  all  and  every  person  and  persons  so  convicted  and 
attainted  of  piracy,  robbery,  or  felony  or  as  accessoiy  thereto,  shall 
have  and  suffer  such  losses  of  lands  goods  and  chattels  as  if  they 
had  been  attainted  and  convicted  of  any  piracies,  felonies,  and 
robberies  according  to  the  aforementioned  statute  made  in  the 
reign  of  King  Henry  the  Eighth. 

And  our  express  will  and  pleasure  is,  and  We  do  hereby  direct 
and  command  that  so  soon  as  any  Court  shall  be  assembled  as  afore- 
said, either  on  shipboard  or  upon  the  land,  this  our  Commission 
shall  first  be  openly  read  and  the  said  Court  then  and  there  shall 
be  solemnly  and  publicly  called  and  proclaimed,  and  then  the  Pre- 
sident of  such  Court  shall  in  the  first  place  publicly  in  open  Court 
take  the  oath  mentioned  and  appointed  to  be  taken  by  the  said 
recited  Act  of  the  eleventh  and  twelfth  years  of  the  reign  of  his 
said  late  Majesty  KingWilliam the  Third, and  such  President  having 
taken  the  oath  in  manner  aforesaid  shall  immediately  administer  the 
same  to  every  person  who  shall  sit  and  have  a  vote  in  the  said 
Court  upon  the  tryaUof  such  prisoner  or  prisoners  as  aforesaid. 

And  lastly  We  do  hereby  direct  empower  and  require  you  our 
said  Commissioners  to  proceed  act  adjudge  and  determine  in  all 
things  according  to  the  powers  authorities  and  directions  of  the 
above-recited  Acts  and  of  these  presents. 

And  these  presents  or  the  entry  or  registering  thereof  in  our 
High  Court  of  Admiralty  shall  be  unto  you  and  each  and  every 
one  of  you  for  so  doing  a  sufficient  warrant  and  discharge. 

In  witness  whereof  we  have  caused  the  Great  Seal  of  our  High 
Court  of  Admiralty  of  England  to  be  hei^eunto  affixed. 

Given  at  London  the  fifth  day  of  May  in  the  year  of  our 
Lord  one  thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-seven  and 
of  our  reign  the  twenty-seventh. 

GoDF.  Lee  Farrant, 

7  May 

Memorial  prom  the  Marines. "^ 

Scarborough,  transport.  May  7th,  1787. 
We,  the  marines  embarked  on  board  the  Scarborough,  who  have 
voluntarily  entered  on  a  dangerous  expedition  replete  with  num- 

*  The  memorial  is  not  addressed  ;  it  was  intended,  apparently,  for  the  officer  commanding 
the  detachment. 


herless  difficulties,  which  in  the  faithful  discharge  of  our  duty  1787 
we  must  necessarily  be  exposed  to,  and  supposing  ourselves  5  May. 
to  be  on  the  same  footing  as  if  embarked  on  board  any  of  his 
]\laj's  ships  of  war,  or  as  the  seamen  and  marines  on  the  same 
expedition  with  us,  we  hope  to  receive  the  same  indulgence,  now 
conceive  ourselves  sorely  aggrieved  by  finding  the  intentions  of 
Government  to  make  no  allowance  of  spiritous  liquor  or  wine 
nfter  our  arrival  at  the  intended  colony  in  New  South  Wales.* 
A  moderate  distribution  of  the  above-ment'd  article  being  spirits, 
indispensibly  requisite  for  the  preservation  of  our  lives,  which  "^cessary. 
change  of  climate  and  the  extreme  fatigue  we  shall  be  necessarily 
exposed  to  may  probably  endanger,  we  therefore  humbly  entreat 
you  will  be  pleased  to  convey  these  our  sentiments  to  Major 
Ross.  Presuming,  sir,  that  you  will  not  only  be  satisfied  that 
our  demand  is  reasonable,  but  will  also  perceive  the  urgent 
necessity  there  is  for  a  compliance  with  our  request,  flatter 
ourselves  you  will  also  use  your  influence  to  cause  a  removal  of 
the  uneasiness  we  experience  under  the  idea  of  being  restricted 
in  the  supply  of  one  of  the  jirincipal  necessaiys  of  life,  without 
which,  for  the  reasons  above  stated,  we  cannot  expect  to  survive 
the  hardships  incident  to  our  situation.  You  may  depend  on  a  Hardships 
chearful  and  ready  discharge  of  the  public  duties  that  may  be 
onjoyned  us.  The  design  of  Government  is,  we  hope,  to  have  a 
feeling  for  the  calamities  we  must  encounter.  So  as  to  induce 
them  to  provide  in  a  moderate  and  reasonable  degree  for  our 
maintenance  and  preservation,  we  beg  leave  to  tender  our  most 
dutiful  assurances  of  executing  to  the  utmost  of  our  power  our 
several  abilities  in  the  duty  assign'd,  so  that  we  remain  in  every 
respect  loyal  subjects  to  our  King  and  worthy  members  of  society 

[Signed  by  the  Detachment.] 

GovERXOR  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Sir,  Portsmouth,  8th  May,  1787.  8  May. 

Since  my  coming  down  I  am  informed  by  Major  Ross  that 
the  marines  who  were  embai'ked  at  Plymouth  were  told  by  huu 
that  they  were  to  be  victualled  in  the  usual  manner  after  they 
were  landed  in  New  South  Wales,  and  that   they  all  in  general 
expected  the  usual  allowance  of  wine  or  spirits.     He  likewise  in-  Spirits  for 
forms  me  that  he  understood  from  Lord  Howe  that  they  were  to  *'"= '"''■''"^s- 
have  such  an  allowance,  as  they  have  no  market  to  go  to,   and   I 
fear  mucli  discontent  amongst  the  garrison.     I  wish  such  an  allow- 
ance could  be  granted  them  ;  indeed,  I  fear  very  disagreeable  con-  Disagreeable 
sequences  if  they  have  not  tlie  same  allowance  of  spirits  in  the  ^^g^fj^g  ^j 
garrison  as  the  marines  and  seamen  are  allowetl  on  board  the  refusal. 

*  The  allowance  was  granted  for  three  years.      See  letter  from  Under  Secretary  Nepean, 
post,  p.  102. 




8  May. 

10  May. 

The  liquor 


Sirius,  and  they  certainly  were  told  they  should  be  victualled  in 
the  same  manner.     Spirits  may  be  purchased  in  the  Brazil. 

The  contractor  promises  that  everything  shall  be  on  board  next 
Thursday  ;  if  so,  I  shall  be  ready  to  sail  the  day  after. 

I  have  not  yet  received  either  the  character  of  the  convicts,  or 
the  letter  to  the  Vice-King.*  You  will  be  so  good  as  to  favor  me 
with  Lord  Sydney's  final  determination  respecting  the  allowance 
of  spirits.  Major  Ross  has  received  some  letters  from  the  marines, 
which  he  sends  to  the  Admiralty  by  this  day's  post. 

I  have,  &c., 
A.  Phillip. 

Under  Secretary  Nepean  to  Goverxor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Whitehall,  10th  May,  1787. 

It  never  was  intended  that  the  marines,  after  landing  in  New 
South  Wales,  should  be  allowed  either  wine  or  spirits,  and  I  am 
rather  inclined  to  think  that  Major  Ross  must  have  mistaken  Lord 
Howe  upon  that  point,  for  in  the  estimate  of  victualling,  which  was 
delivered  in  with  the  original  plan,  it  was  particularly  expressed 
that  "the  usual  rations  should  be  given,  excepting  wine  and  spirits." 

Lord  Sydney  wishing,  however,  to  i*emove  every  possible  cause 
of  dissatisfaction,  has  desired  me  to  acquaint  you  that  he  shall 
recommend  it  to  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury  to  pay  such  bills  as 
you  may  authorise  the  Commissary  to  draw  at  the  places  you  may 
touch  at  during  your  passage,  for  a  portion  of  wine  or  spirits 
sufficient  to  serve  the  marines  for  the  space  of  three  years,  at 
the  expiration  of  which  time  it  must  be  understood  that  no 
further  supplies  of  that  sort  will  be  allowed.     I  am,  &c., 

Evan  Nepean. 

11  May. 


Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sirius,  on  the  Motherbank, 
Dear  Sir,  11th  May,  1787. 

Since  my  letter  of  this  morning  I  have  seen  the  bread  which 
the  contractoi's  offered  for  the  convicts,  in  the  room  of  what  was 
to  be  baked,  and  which  could  not  have  been  ready  before  Monday. 
It  is  good,  tho'  coarse,  and  I  have  ordered  it  to  be  sent  on  board 
this  evening. 

The  order  Major  Ross  received  from  the  Admiralty  i-especting 
the  marines  has  the  following  words  :  To  be  properly  victualled 
by  a  Commissary.  On  this  they  grounded  their  letters  of  com- 
The  marines  plaint.  But  this  business  is  now  settled.  All  are  satisfied.  I 
satisfied.  return  you  Lord  Sydney's  letter,  and  hope  we  shall  not  give  you 
any  further  trouble.  Had  I  sailed  when  first  I  came  down  some 
of  the  ships  must  have  gone  short  of  water,  which  is  not  yet 
compleat,  but  will,  I  hope,  this  evening ;  and  we  must  likewise 

*  The  Portuguese  Governor  of  Rio  de  Janeiro,  at  which  port  the  fleet  was  to  put  in  for 


have  left  all  the  necessaries  for   the  sick  behind  us  (they  not       1767 
coming  down  before  last  night),  as  well  as  a  great  deal  of  pro-     ii  May. 
visions.     In  fact,  it  was  not  possible  to  sail  before  this  day,  and  pgig^ 
now,  unfortunately,  the  wind  is  westerly,  and  blows  fresh.      The  shipping 
reason  the  contractor  assigns  for  not  having  the  provisions  on  i^'''^^^"^'^^- 
board  sooner  was  having  only  three  ovens  to  bake  the  bread,  and 
in  doing  which  he  has  lost  no  time  since  he  received  the  Navy 
Board's  order.     I  shall  not  lose  a  moment  after  there  is  the  least 
chance  of  getting  down  channel ;  on  that  you  may  depend. 

No  spirits  can  be  received  at  present  on  board  any  of  the  ships.  Spirits  to  be 
but  the  greatest  economy  will  be  used  in  purchasing  as  much  as  a^EnSi! 
the  ships  can  stow  when  in  the  Brazil,  where  it  is  reasonable. 

I  have  received  the  warrant  for  appointing  courts-martial,  the 
articles  of  war,  and  the  order  for  the  Commissary's  purchasing 
three  years'  spirits.  The  two  letters  for  the  Vice-King  and  the 
Governor  of  the  Cape  are  not  yet  received ;  but  I  must  beg  of 
you,  my  dear  sir,  to  point  out  to  the  Navy  Board  that  for 
women's  cloathes  I  have  no  resource,  and  desire  them  to  order  The  women's 
that  they  may  be  sent  down.  The  agent  for  the  transports,  who  clothing. 
has  corresponded  with  that  Board  on  this  subject,  says  he  has 
expected  them  for  some  time.  Be  assured  that  I  shall  not  wait 
a  single  hour  for  them  after  it  is  possible  to  sail.  I  had  desired 
that  the  Sirius  and  Supply,  armed  tender,  might  not  be  paid 
the  two  months'  advance  till  the  day  before  I  intended  to  sail, 
and  that  was  done  yesterday. 

It  is  not  in  my  power  to  send  you  my  lists  at  present  more 
correct  than  those  you  have  received  from  Major  Ross,  but  you 
shall  have  one  by  the  return  of  the  "  Hysena,"  for  I  hope  we 
shall  not  remain  here  long  enough  to  make  it  out,  as  it  will  take 
some  days  to  examine  the  different  ships. 

Once  more  I  take  my  leave  of  you,  fully  sensible  of  the  trouble  prospective 
you  have  had  in  this  business,  for  which  at  present  I  can  only  advantages, 
thank  you  ;  but  at  a  future  period,  when  this   country  feels  the 
advantages  that  are  to  be  drawn  from  our  intended  settlement, 
you  will  enjoy  a  satisfaction  that   will,  I   am  sure,   make  you 
ample  amends. 

Wishing  you  health, — •  I  remain,  (tc, 

■ A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Puillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 
Sir,  Sirius,  May  ll'th,  1787.  12  May. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Honorable  the  Lords 
Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  the  transports  having  on 
Friday  evening  compleated  their  pro\isions,  and  the  wind  this 
morning  coming  round  to  the  south-east,  I  made  the  signal  and 
got  under  weigh,  but  the  seamen  on  board  several  of  the  trans-  ^^  ^^^^ 
ports  refusing  to  get  their  ships  under  sail,  put  me  under  the  under  weigh. 




11  Mav. 





Clothing  left 



disagreeable  necessity  of  ordering  eight  men  to  be  taken  out  of 
the  Fishburn ;  and  the  seamen  on  board  the  Alexander  refusing 
to  pi'oceed  to  sea  unless  they  were  paid  what  wages  were  then 
due  and  had  permission  to  go  on  shore,  and  that  when  I  was 
under  sail,  I  ordered  Capt.  de  Courcey  to  take  out  the  boatswain 
and  ten  men  from  that  ship,  and  replace  them  with  men  from  the 
Hya?na,  but  when  I  was  proceeding  to  St.  Hellen's,  finding  that 
two  of  the  ships  that  had  got  under  sail  anchored  at  Spithead, 
and  that  several  remained  at  anchor  on  the  Motherbank,  where  I 
had  desired  Capt.  de  Courcey  to  remain  till  they  were  all  under 
sail,  I  judged  it  necessary  to  anchor  between  the  buoys,  and 
this  morning  (Sunday)  having  a  fresh  breeze  at  S.E.  am  again 
under  sail,  and  hope  the  transports  will  follow,  but  they  ha^•e 
hitherto  behaved  very  ill. 

It  may  be  necessary  to  inform  their  Lordships  that  the  pro- 
visions and  water  on  board  the  transports  was  not  compleated 
till  yesterday,  which  jDrevented  our  sailing  sooner,  and  now  we 
leave  a  considerable  part  of  the  women's  cloathing  behind  us. 

Inclosed  is  the  state  and  condition  of  his  Majesty's  ship  under 
my  command.  I  have,  kc, 

A.  Phillip. 

Ma.tor  Koss  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

His  Maj's.  ship  Sirius,  Mother  Bank, 

Sir,  12th  May,  1787. 

You  will  please  to  inform  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty  that  the  shijis  are  now  getting  under  sail,  with  a  fair 
wind,  and  that  I  have  not  time  to  comply  with  their  order  for  an 
effective  list  to  be  sent  in  the  correct  manner  I  wish  it,  but  that 
it  shall  be  sent  by  the  Hysena,  on  her  return*;  and  as  I  have 
discharged  from  the  detachment  all  the  non-commissioned  officers 
and  private  men  who  are  not  sufficiently  recovered  to  be  received 
again,  and  the  commanding  officer  thinks  the  mode  correct  and 
proper,  all  of  them  belong  to  this  division,  and  have  not  contracted 
any  additional  debt  since  they  embarked,  I  hope  their  Lordships  will 
find  that  [the  list]  answer  the  purpose  untill  the  other  can  be  sent. 

I  have  likewise,  in  the  name  of-  the  whole  of  the  detachment, 
to  offer  to  their  Lordships  their  most  sincere  and  grateful  acknow- 
ledgments for  their  wonted  goodness  and  attention  to  everything 
that  could  I'ender  their  situation  comfortable,  and,  at  the  same 
time,  am  desired  to  assure  their  Lordships  that  if  a  most  strict 
and  faithful  discharge  of  their  duty  will  evince  their  gratitude 
they  shall  still  hope  for  a  continuance  of  their  protection. 

I  feel  myself  particularly  fortunate  in  joining  with  the  officers 
in  expressing  their  sense  of  the  honour  their  Lordships  hav6  done 
us  by  the  very  particular  and  flattering  attention  which  they  have 
been  pleased  to  pay  to  us  on  all  occasions.     I  am,  ifec, 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

*  Post,  p.  T06. 

SAILING   OF    THE    PIllST    FLEET.  105 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens.*  1787 

Sirius  ;  latitude,  47°  57';  longitude,  12^  14'  30", 

►^ii',  May  20th,  1787.         20  May. 

You  will  please  to  inform  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the 
Admiralty  that  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius,  under  my  command, 
with  the  Supply,  armed  tender,  and  the  transports  intended  for 
the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  being  nearly  one  hundred  leagues 
distant  from  the  entrance  of  the  English  Channel,  I  have,  pur- 
suant to  their  Lordships'  orders,  directed  Capt.  de  Courcey  to 
return  to  Plymouth,  sending  dispatches  by  him  for  the  Right  Despatches; 
Hon'ble  Lord  Sydney. 

And  you  will,  sir,  inform  their  Loixlships  that  the  Fishburn 
having  left  five  of  her  people  on  shore,  and  Caj^t.  de  Courcey 
having  assisted  her  with  three  men,  who  the  master  has  requested  Transfers. 
may  remain,  I  have  given  Capt.  de  Courcey  orders  to  discharge 
them  from  the  Hyaena,  it  being  with  his  consent  and  that  of  the 
people's  that  the  master  of  the  Fishburn  has  made  this  request. 

Nothing  particular  has  happened  since  we  sailed  from  Ports- 

Inclosed  you  will  receive  the  state  and  condition  of  his  Majesty's 
ship  Sirius,  but  there  is  too  much  sea  to  send  on  Ijoard  the  Supply  Sirius. 
for  her  weekly  account,  or  to  get  any  return  of  the  marines  or 
convicts  from  the  diiFerent  transports.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  ISTepean.I 
Dear  Sir,  Sirius,  May  20th,  1787. 

As  we  are  now  nearly  one  hundred  leagues  clear  of  the 
Channel,  the  Hyaena  leaves  us  this  evening  to  return  to  Plymouth,  The  Channel 
Jjut  the  sea  runs  too  high  to  send  on  board  the  different  tians-  '■'''^'■'^''• 
ports  to  get  any  particular  account  of  the  state  of  the  convicts. 
r  have,  therefore,  only  to  repeat  what  I  said  in  my  last  from  the 
Motherbank,  that  a  great  joart  of  the  women's  cloathing  was  not  ciothintr 
come  down  from  London  when  we  sailed,  nor  did  I  receive  the  '*""  ''ehind. 
letters  for  the  Vice-King.     The  Provost-Martial,  who  had  not  been  a  nu.ssin- 
.since  seen  for  a  considerable  time  before  we  sailed,  is  left  behind.  Mai^hai. 
As  it  will  be  very  necessary  to  have  such  an  officer  on  the  spot, 
I  have  ordered  Mr.  Henry  Brewer  to  act  as  such,  and  shall  be 
glad  if  he  is  approved  of.     I  enclose  a  copy  of  the  last  returns, 
and  shall  send  you  a  more  particular  account  fi-ctm  TenerifF.     At 
present  our  motion  is  such  that  I  find  it  very  difficult  to  sit  at 
tal)le,  but  the  weather  is  good,  and  tho'  the  Charlotte  and  Lady 
Penrhyii  sail  very  badly,  the  clearing  the  Channel  is  one  great  All  ditti- 
point  gained,  and  with  which   I  look   on   all  our  difficultys   as  ".fj.ui.'''' 
<'iided.  T  am,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 
Latt.,  47°  57'.     Long.,  12°  14'  30".     AVind,  W.  by  N. 

*  Sent  by  the  Hyccna.  t  A  private  letter,  sent  by  the  Hya;na. 




20  May. 

A  convict 

Return  by  Major  Ross.* 

One  Major,  2  Captains,  2  Captain-Lieutenants,  9  First  Lieuten- 
ants, 3  Second  Lieutenants,  1  Adjutant,  1  Quarter-master,  1  Judge- 
Advocate,  12  sergeants,  12  corporals,  8  drummers,  160  privates. 

Major  C ominanding  : — Robert  Ross. 

Captains  : — James  Campbell  and  John  Sliea. 

Captain- Lieutenants  : — James  Meredith  and  Watkin  Tench. 

First  Lieutenants: — James  Maxwell,  John  Creswell,  John 
Poulden,  John  Johnstone,  James  Maitland  Shairp,  George  Johnston, 
Robert  Kellow,  Thomas  Davey,  Thomas  Timins. 

Second  Lieutenants : — Ralph  Clarke,  William  Faddy,  William 
Adjutant  Second  Lieutenant : — John  Long. 

Quarter-master  First  Lieutenant : — James  Furzer. 

Judge-Advocate : — David  Collins. 

Total,  20. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.I 
My  Dear  Sir,  Sirius,  May  20th,  1787. 

Since  I  sealed  my  letters  I  have  received  a  report  from  the 
officers  on  board  the  Scarborough  respecting  the  convicts,  who,  it  is 
said,  have  formed  a  scheme  for  taking  possession  of  the  ship.  J  I  have 
order'd  the  ringleaders  on  b'd  the  Sirius,  and  should  not  mention 
the  affair  at  this  moment,  as  I  have  no  time  to  enter  into  par- 
ticulars, but  that  I  suppose  it  will  be  mention'd  in  letters  from 
that  ship.  I  did  intend  to  write  to  Lord  Sydney,  but  it  is  late, 
and  I  wish  the  boats  on  board  the  different  ships.  You  may 
assure  his  Lordship  of  my  respects,  and  tell  him  the  reason  that 
prevents  my  writing  to  him.  I  am,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Compliments  and  good  wishes  to  Mr.  T.  Townshend.§ 

5  June. 

At  Santa 

health  of  the 


Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.|| 

Sirius,  at  S'ta  Crux  [Teneriffe], 
My  Lord,  June  5th,  1787. 

I  have  the  honor  to  inform  your  LordshijD  that  I  anchored 
here  the  3rd  inst.,  with  his  Majesty's  ship  under  my  command, 
the  Supply  tender,  store-ships,  and  transports.  By  the  inclosed 
list  your  Lordship  will  see  that  the  convicts  are  not  so  sickly  as 
when  we  sailed,  and  while  we  remain  here  the  Commissary  will  be 
able  to  procure  them  fresh  meat  at  a  very  moderate  expence. 

I  understood  when  the  marines,  who  were  to  form  the  garrison, 
were  embarked  that  they  would  be  furnished  with  ammunition  : 

*  Sent  by  the  Hysena.ante,  p.  104. 
t  A  private  letter,  sent  by  the  Hyaena. 
i  See  letter  from  Pliillip  to  Nepeaii.     Post,  p.  108. 

§  The  Hon.  John  Thomas  Townshend,  Lord  Sydney's  son.     At  the  time  this  letter  was 
■written  he  was  one  of  the  Under  Secretaries  of  the  Home  Department. 
II  A  similar  despatch  was  sent  to  the  Admiralty. 



but  since  we  sailed  find  that  they  were  only  supplied  with  what       1787 
was  necessary  for  immediate  service  while  in  port,  and  we  have      5  june. 
neither  musquet  balls  noi-  paper  for  musquet  cartridges,  nor  have 
we  any  armourer's  tools  to  keep  small  arms  in  repair. 

I  am  therefore  to  request  that  your  Lordship  will  be  pleased  to  The  women's 
give  orders  that  those  articles  may  be  sent  out  by  the  first  ship,  again.  " 
and  for  which,  as  well  as  for  the  women's  cloathing  that  was  left 
behind,  we  shall  be  much  distressed.     I  hope  the  transports  will 
be  able  to  compleat  their  water  by  the  9th,  and  shall  not  lose  an 
hour  after  that  is  done.  I  have,  ifec, 

A.  Phillip. 
State  of  the  Sick  Convicts  and  Marines,  June  4,  1787. 





















Charlotte — 


•  •  • 

• .  • 




• .  • 


.  * . 










Alexander — 


•  •  t 

>  >  * 



*  ,  , 

• .  • 



•  •  < 







Scarl)oroiigh  — 



•  ■• 

. .  ■ 

.  .  . 





. . . 

. .  • 


*.  . 


Friendship — 






. . . 

. . . 




Lady  Penrhyn — • 








Prince  of  Wales — 



. . . 



















Total  number  sick,  81.     *  Since  May  13, 

John  White. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

My  Dear  Sir,  Sta.  Crux,  5th  June,  1787. 

I  have  the  pleasure  of  informing  you  that  I  anchored  hero 

the  third,  late  in  the  evening,  and  by  the  returns,  made  to  Lord 

Sydney,  you  will  see  that  the  convicts  are  in  a  bettei'  state  than 

when  we  sailed. 

The   procuring   fresh    meat    being  al)solutely    necessary,    and  purchase  ot 
wishing  that  it  should  be  done  with  as  little  expence  to  Govern-  fresh  meat. 


1787       ment  as  possible,  I  have  ordered  bread  to  be  issued  to  the  marines 
G  June,     and  convicts  from  the  store-ships,  for  it  could  not  be  got  here 
but  at  a  very  high  price.     The  butter  intended  for  the  use  of  the 
garrison  will  be  good  for  very  little,  and  much  wasted  before  we 
Butter.         land,  from  being  in  single  firkins.     A  proportion  of  butter  I  have 
therefore  ordered  also  to  be  served  while  Ave  remain  here,  and  by 
which  means  the  marines  and  convicts  will  have  fresh  provisions 
at  a  less  expense  to  Government  (including  the  value  of  the  biscuit 
and  butter)  than  if  they  had  continvied  on  salt  provisions. 
No  As  we  have  sailed  without  either  musquet  cartridges  for  the 

lepaiiiny       use  of  the  garrison,  or  paper  or  ball  to  make  them,  we  shall  have 
tools.  none  but  what  little  the  Sirius  can  supply.     This  I  have  men- 

tioned in  my  letter  to  Lord  Sydney.  Nor  have  we  any  tools  to 
keep  the  small  arms  in  repair,  the  want  of  which  will  put  us  to 
many  inconveniences. 

In  my  letters  by  the  Hytena  I  mentioned  the  apprehensions 
the  officers  on  board  the  tScarborough  were  under,  and  tho'  I 
did  not  then  think  they  had  reason  to  be  seriously  alarmed.  As 
some  of  the  convicts  had  behaved  very  ill,  two  of  the  supposed 
ringleaders  were  ordered  on  board  the  Sirius,  punished,  and 
then  sent  on  board  tho  Prince  of  Wales,  where  they  still  remain. 
Good  Iii  general,  the  convicts  have  behaved  well.    I  saw  them  all  yester- 

behaviour  of  jg^y  f^j,  ^]^p  fjj.y^  time.     They  are  quiet  and  contented,  tho'  there 

the  convicts.         J  -^  -,  \,-,    . 

are  amongst  them  some  compleat  villains. 

I  shall  sail  the  moment  the  transports  have  compleated  their 
water,  and  hope  that  will  be  done  by  Saturday  or  Sunday.  The 
Sj^auish  packet  that  sails  this  afternoon  gives  me  this  oppoi'tunity 
of  writing,  and  I  shall  leave  duplicates  to  be  forwarded  by  the 
next  conveyance,  as  it  will  be  a  very  considerable  time  after  this 
before  I  shall  have  an  opportunity  of  writing  again. 

As  the  store-ships  cannot  receive  any  more  wine  for  the  gar- 
rison, spirits  will  be  procured  for  them  at  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

I  have,  &c., 
A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
^'^J""«-  Sir,  Sta.  Crux,  10th  June,  1787. 

I  enclose  duplicates  of  my  letters  of  the  5th  inst.,  since 
which  nothing  has  occurred  that  merits  notice.  The  marines  and 
A  week's  convicts  have  had  six  days'  fresh  provisions,  and  a  bill  has  been 
drawn  on  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury  for  the  expence,  which 
amounted  to  seventy-six  pounds  one  shilling  and  nine-pence.  The 
marines  received  every  day  one  pound  of  bread,  one  pound  of 
beef,  and  a  pint  of  wine.  The  convicts  every  day  three-quarters 
of  a  pound  of  beef  and  three-quarters  of  a  pound  of  bread. 
The  list  enclosed  will  show  the  numbers  victualled. 




As  the  transports  will  have  all  their  water  compleat  this  eve- 
ning, I  shall  sail  in  the  morning,  and  have  the  honour  to  be  with 
great  esteem,  A.  Phillip. 

P.S. — Three  firkins  of  butter  were  issued  in  the  six  days  to  the 
marines  and  convicts. 


State  of  the  Garrison  and  Convicts  that  are  on  board  the 

ti'ansports,  June  10th,  1787, 

Marines,  including  officers 

Mai-ines'  wives     

Do.       children 
Chaplain  and  wife 
Surgeon  and  assistants 
Servants  ... 
Men  convicts 
Women  convicts 
Children  ... 

10  June. 

Number  victualled 

Convicts  dead  since  they  were  embarked 

Convict  children  do.  do. 

llecd.  .H.  M.  's  jjardon  before  the  ship  left  England 












LlEUTEKAXT  Bligh  TO  SiR  JosEPii  Banks. — (Banks  Papers.) 
No.  4,  Broad-street,  St.  George's,  East, 
Sir,  August  6,  1787.  6  Aug-. 

I  arrived  yesterday  from  Jamaica,  and  should  have  in- 
stantly paid  my  respects  to  you  had  not  Mr.  Campbell  told  me  you 
were  not  to  return  from  the  country  untill  Thursday.  I  have  heard 
the  flattering  news  of  your  great  goodness  to  me,  intending  to 
lionor  me  with  the  command  of  the  vessel  which  you  propose  to  go  Captain 
to  the  South  Seas,*  for  which,  after  offering  you  my  most  grateful  the^Bouiity. 
thanks,  I  can  oidy  assure  you  I  shall  endeavour,  and  I  hope 
succeed,  in  deserving  such  a  trust.  I  await  your  conmiands,  and 
am,  with  the  sincerest  respect,  Yours,  &c., 

Wm.  Bligii. 

GovERxoR  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

My  Lord,  Rio  de  Janeiro,  2d  September,  1787.  2  Sept. 

Having  sailed  from  TenerifFo  the  lOtli  of  June,  T  anchored  The  Fleet 
off  this  harbour  the  5th  of  this  month,!  of  which  I  had  the  honour  '^^  ^^'"■ 
of  informing  your  Lordship  by  a  ship  that  past  us,  and  the  6th 
in  the  evening  anchored  in  the  harbour  with  the  tender,  store- 
ships,  and  transports. 

I  inclose  returns  of  the  detachment  and  of  the  convicts,  who,  as 
well  as  the  officers  and  seamen  belonging  to  the  ship,  continue 
very  healthy. 

•  The  Bounty. 

t  As  in  MS.    The  correct  date  s  5th  Aug  st. 




2  Sept. 



In  my  letter  to  Mr.  Nepean  I  have  mentioned  particulars  respect- 
ing the  provisions,  spirits,  &c.,  procured  here,  and  I  have  the  honour 
Kindness  of  ^^  assuring  your  Lordship  that  every  little  assistance  we  have 
the  Vice-      wanted  in  this  port  has  been  most  readily  granted  by  the  Vice- 
Iving,*and  to  whomlfeel  myself  under  particularobligations  forthe 
attention  he  has  shown  to  me  and  the  officers  under  my  command. 
The  convicts  have  been  very  plentifully  supply'd  with  fresh 
provisions,  and  that  at  a  small  expense,  three-pence  three-farths. 
a  head  pr.  day,  all  expenses  included.     The  allowance  of  meat  to 
The  convicts  the  convicts  has  been  twenty  ounces  every  day,  and  they  are 
much  healthier  than  when  we  left  England.     Only  fifteen  convicts 
and  one  marine's  child  have  died  since  we  sailed  from  Spithead. 
I  hope  to  sail  to-morrow,  and  have  the  honour  to  be,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 


General  Return  of  the  four  Companies  of  Marines  detach'd  to 
serve  in  the  settlement  in  New  South  Wales,  September  the  1st, 
1787  :— 

Fit  for  Duty : — 1  Major-Commandant,  2  Captains,  2  Captain- 
Lieutenants,  9  First  Lieutenants,  3  Second  Lieutenants,  1  Qr.- 
master,  1  Judge- Advocate,  12  Serjeants,  12  Corporals,  8  Drum- 
mers, 160  Privates. 

Major-Commandant : — Robert  Ross. 

Ca'ptains  : — James  Campbell  and  John  Shea. 

Captain-Lieutenants  : — James  Meredith,  Watkin  Tench,  James 
Maxwell,  George  Johnstone,  John  Cresswell,  and  Robert  Kellow. 

First  Lieutenants : — John  Poulden,  John  Johnstone,  James 
Maitland  Shairp,  Thomas  Davey,  Thomas  Timins. 

Second  Lieutenants : — William  Faddy  and  William  Collins. 

Assistant  Second  Lieutenant : — John  Long. 

Qr. -master  First  Lieutenant : — James  Furzer. 

Judge-Advocate  : — David  Collins. 

R.  Ross,  Major. 


Return  of  the  male  and  female  convicts   and   their  children. 
Convicts.  September  the  1st,  1787  :— 

1  Sept. 





Number  on  board  the 








*  Don  Luis  de  Varconcellos,  the  Portuguese  Governor. 

THE    FLEET    AT    llIO    DE    JANEIRO. 


Report  of  Sick,  30tli  August.,  1787, 


30  Aug. 









■•5  » 












Convicts  ... 

Alexander — 
Marines     .. 


Con\-icts  ... 

Marines   ... 
Convicts  ... 

Lady  Penrhyn — 
ilarines   ... 
Convicts  ... 

Prince  of  Wales — 
Marines   ... 


.       1 

'.       l 
























child  1 


Total  sick,  81.                    Total  dead  since  13th  of  May,  1787     ... 


John  White. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  >Secretary  ISTepean. 

Siriu.s,  2nd  September,  1787,  2  Sept. 

Dear  Sir,  Rio  Janeiro. 

By  my  letters  of  the  5th  and  10th  of  June  from  Sta.  Recapitula- 
Crux  I  liad  the  honor  of  informing  you  of  the  impossibility  of 
receiving  any  wine  on  board  fur  the  use  of  the  garrison,  that 
the  marines  and  convicts  received  six  days'  fresh  provisions,  and 
that  the  Commissary  had  drawn  for  £76  Is.  9d.,  the  expences  at 
that  port.      I  likewise  mentioned  the  slops  for  the  women  not 
being  sent  down  before  we  sailed,  and  the  want  of  musket-balLs  Anununi- 
and  paper  cartridges  for  the  use  of  the  garrison,  as  likewise  tools  tools!'" 
to  keep  the  small  arms  in  repair ;  those  articles  will,  I  hope,  be 
sent  out  in  the  ship  that  goes  for  the  bi"ead-fruit.* 

The   Provost-Martial   havinsr   remained  in  England,  I  recom-  Provost- 
mended  Mr.  Henry  Brewer  as  a  proper  person  to  fill  that  post,       ""^  *" 
and  I  shall  order  him  to  do  the  duty  till  I  receive  instructions  on 
that  head. 

With  respect  to  the  women's  cloathing,  it  was  made  of  very  Defective 
slight  material,  most  too  small,  and  in  general  came  to  pieces  in  a  clothing. 

*  The  Bounty. 




2  Sept. 

Port  Praj'ii 


Purchase  of 







The  price  of 


A  suhstitute 
for  bread. 


few  weeks.     If  materials  are  sent  out,  it  will  be  much  cheaper  to 
Government,  and  the  cloaths  will  be  better  made. 

A  few  vegetables  could  be  procured  at  Sta.  Crux.  I  should 
have  stop'd  for  twenty-four  hours  at  Port  Priiya,  but  when  off 
that  port  light  airs  of  wind  and  a  strong  current  making  it 
probable  some  of  the  ships  might  not  get  in,  I  did  not  think  it 
prudent  to  attempt  it. 

We  anchored  off  Rio  Janeiro  the  5th  of  this  month  [August], 
of  which  I  had  an  opportunity  of  informing  you  by  a  ship  that 
past  us,  and  the  6th  in  the  evening  got  into  the  harbour  with  the 
Supply  tender,  store-ships,  and  transports. 

I  have  the  pleasure  of  saying  that  every  assistance  we  have 
wanted  in  this  port  has  been  most  readily  granted. 

One  hundred  and  fifteen  pipes  of  rum  has  been  purchased  for 
the  use  of  the  garrison,  when  landed,  and  for  the  use  of  the 
detachment  at  this  port. 

The  marines  and  convicts  have  had  fresh  provisions  since  in 
port,  and  as  I  found  at  Teneriffe  that  three-quarters  of  a  pound 
of  beef  was  not  sufficient  for  a  convict  for  the  day,  and  that  no 
butter  or  cheese  could  be  procured  here,  the  beef  being  exceeding 
good  and  very  cheap,  I  ordered  each  person  victualled  by  the 
Commissary  a  pound  and  a  quarter  of  beef  and  a  pound  of  rice, 
and  to  the  children  of  the  marines  and  convicts  three-quarters  of 
a  pound  of  meat  and  a  pound  of  rice,  with  vegetables,  every  day. 

The  marines  and  their  wives  have  had  the  usual  quantity  of 
spirits.  The  allowance  for  the  convicts  when  at  sea  being  so  small 
was  the  reason  I  ordered  them  while  in  port  the  same  allowance 
as  the  officers  and  men  belonging  to  the  garrison,  spirits  excepted. 
The  victualling  all  those  who  ai-e  under  the  inspection  of  the  Com- 
missary, including  fixing  and  every  other  expense,  amounts  to  no 
more  than  3|d.  a  head  per  day. 

Wine  is  not  to  be  bought  at  present  but  from  those  who  retail 
it,  there  being  none  in  store,  consequently  is  dearer  than  in  general  ; 
and  the  rum  on  our  coming  in,  there  being  little  in  the  place,  rose 
more  than  five-and-twenty  per  cent. 

Thirty  pipes  of  wiiae  is  the  quantity  that  was  ordered  for  the  hos- 
pital, but  for  the  above  reasons  only  15  pipes  have  been  purchased. 

One  hundred  sacks  of  casada  has  been  purchased,  which  will  be 
issued  to  the  convicts  when  the  bread  is  expended,  and  will  be 
cheaper  to  Government ;  it  costs  only  1  ff  0  20  —  5s.  8|d.,  and  the 
sacks  being  of  strong  Russia,  will  be  used  hereafter  in  cloathing 
the  convicts,  many  of  whom  are  nearly  naked. 

As  the  Vice-King  offered  anything  the  King's  stores  furnished 
that  might  be  wanted,  ten  thousand  musquet-balls  has  been  pur- 
chased from  the  arsenal,  the  Sirius  not  being  able  to  supply  the 
garrison  with  a  sufficient  quantity  to  serve  till  ball  might  be  sent 
from  England. 

THE    FLEET   AT   RIO    DE    JANEIRO.  113 

Befoi'e  we  sailed  from  Portsmouth  two  medicine-chests  were       1787 
titted  for  the  transports  that  had  none,  and  at  TeneriiFe  soap  was      2  Sept. 
bought  to  repay  what  the  convicts  had  received  before  we  sailed  Medicine- 
frora  England  from  the  marines.     These  articles  and  some  few  chests  and 
others  were  too  trifling  to  draw  for  on  the  Treasury,  and  were  paid  ^°^^' 
by  me. 

Some  expenses  have  now  attended  the  procuring  seeds  and  plants 
that  could  not  be  purchased,  and  it  will  be  necessary  to  satisfy 
those  people  whose  store  we  have  occupied  with  some  tents  that  Expenses  on 
have  been  damaged  and  sent  on  shore  to  air,  and  where  we  have  ^^°'^*^' 
had  officers  and  men  since  we  have  been  here,  with  the  timekeeper 
and  the  necessary  instruments  to  determine  its   rate  of  going, 
as  likewise  the  captain  of  the  port,  with  his  boat's  crew,  who,  the 
day  we  came  in,  attended  to  give  any  assistance  the  transports 
might  want,  we  then  having  only  a  light  air  of  wind,  and  this  I 
do  having  refused  the  paying  the  customary  fees,  which  are  paid 
by  their  own  merchant's  ships,  as  well  as  strangers.     It  is  three 
pounds  twelve  shillings  on  coming  in,  the  same  on  going  out,  and  Port 
five  shillings  and  sixpence  a  day  while  they  remain  at  anchor  in  the  ''^^'"S'^^- 
port.     This  was  demanded  for  the  transports,  but  never  insisted  on, 
after  I  had  said  it  could  not  be  paid,  as  the  ships  had  King's  stores 
on  board.     And  as  these  are  such  as  do  not  permit  vouchers,  I 
have  not  thought  it  right  to  order  the  Commissary  to  pay  them, 
Imt  have  drawn  on  the  Treasury  for  £135,  which  will  besutficient 
for  the  whole.     It  is  little  more  than  half  the  sum  that  must  have 
been  paid  for  the  store,  had  it  been  hired. 

With  respect  to  the  convicts,  they  have  been  all  allowed  the  Convicts 
liberty  of  the  deck  in  the  day,   and  many  of  them  during  the  deck^*^*^"" 
night,  which  has  kept  them  much  healthier  than  could  have  been 

It  has  been  necessary  that  the  store-ships  might  receive  the 
spirits  to  move  part  of  the  pi'ovisions  from  them  into  the  trans- 
ports, and  I  am  sorry  to  say  that  what  with  some  of  the  provisions 
l)eing  in  very  slight  casks,  and  very  little  attention  having  been  paid 
to  the  stowage,  we  have  had  much  trouble  in  moving  the  casks,  and  provisions 
some  tents  and  slops  that  were  only  in  wrappers  were  damaged,  'iii'iased. 
I  fear  many  articles  will  be  destroyed  before  they  are  landed,  and 
which  it  is  not  now  possible  to  prevent. 

Ojily  fifteen  convicts  and  one  marine's  child  have  died  since  we  Deaths, 
left  England. 

I  have  been  able  to  procure  all  such  fruits  and  plants  as  I  Fniitiices 
think  likely  to  thrive  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  particu-  '"'^* ''''*"'''• 
larly  the  coffee,  Indigo,  cotton,  and  cochineal. 

I  hope  to  sail  to-morrow,  as  I  only  wait  for  the  accounts  to  be 
settled  with  the  contractor,  and  ha\  e,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 


1787  Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.* 

2  Sept.  Dear  Nepean,  R,io  Janeiro,  Sept.  2nd,  1787. 

Proposed  This  is  my  last  letter,  as  I  hope  to  sail  to-morrow.     You 

a^aTnst^""     know  how  much  I  was  interested  in  the  intended  expedition 
Monte  against  Monte  Vedio,  and  that  it  was  said  that  the  Spaniards 

'  ^"^  had  more  troops  than  I  supposed.      The  following  account  I  have 

from  a  person  who  was  there  all  the  war,  and  I  am  certain  that 
the  account  is  exact : — 

One  Regiment  under         ...  ...  ...  700 

Four  Companys  of  Artillery  ...  ...  400 

Dragoons      ...           ..         ...  ...  ...  400 

Two  Battalions  of  Infantry  ...  ...  700 

These  were  divided  on  the  north  and  south  shores,   and  in 
different  towns.     Monte  Vedio  would  not  have  been  defended,  as 
half  these  troops  could  not  have  been  drawn  together.     Of  this 
you  will  be  so  good  as  to  inform  the  Lords  Sydney  and  Lands- 
down  ;  it  will  corroborate  what  I  mentioned  before  I  left  town. 
Exchange  of       The  2 1st  being  the  Prince  of  Portugal's  birthday,  and  theVice- 
coinpii-         King  receiving  the  compliments  of  all  the  officers,   I  waited  on 
him  with  those   I  had  presented  to  him  on  our  arrival.     The 
Sirius  fired  21  guns,  having  the  flag  of  Portugal  hoisted  at  the 
fore-topmast-head,  and  the  Union  at  the  mizen.     He  seemed  much 
pleased  with  this  compliment,  and  we  part  perfectly  satisfied  with 
Earthquake,  each  other.     Three  slight  shocks  of  an  earthquiake  have  been  felt 
at  Trinadade,  where  the  Portuguese  still  keep  a  small  garrison. 

T  did  intend  to  send  you  your  wine  and  Lord  Sydney's  by  this 
ship,  but  now  think  it  will  be  better  to  let  it  go  the  voyage  and 
send  it  by  Shortland. 

You  will,  my  dear  sir,  remember  me  to  your  colleagues,  and 
believe  me,  &c.,  A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sirius,  2nd  September,  1787. 
Sir,  Rio  Janeiro. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Plight  Hon'ble  the  Lords 

i^i"-  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  I  sailed  iv(»n  Sta.  Crux  the 

1 0th  of  June,  and  when  off  Port  Praya  intended  to  have  anchored 
for  twenty-four  hours  in  order  to  procure  vegetables  for  the  people, 
but  light  airs  of  wind,  and  a  strong  current  setting  to  the  S.W., 
making  it  doubtful  if  all  the  ships  would  be  able  to  get  in,  I  bore 
away,  and  the  5th  of  August  anchored  off  this  harbour  with  the 
Supply,  tender,  store-ships,  and  transports,  of  which  I  had  the 
honor  of  informing  their  Lordships  by  a  ship  that  past  us  for 
Lisbon.      We  got  into  the  harbour  the  6th. 

Repairs.  The  Sirius,  since  we  came  in,  has  had  the  spar  and  gun  decks 

caulked,  and  which  was  absolutely  necessary,,  the  spar  deck  having 
never  been  caulked  more  than  once,  and  both  decks  leaked  very  badly. 

*  A  private  letter. 

THE    FLEET    AT    RIO   X)E    JANEIRO.  115 

Lieutenant  Ball  having  reported  the  Supply  as  having  too  much       1787 
head  sail,  and  requested  that  two  feet  might  he  taken  from  the      2  Sept. 
fore  yard,  and  a  cloth  out  of  the  fore  sail,  and  that  a  reef  might 
be  taken  from  the  fore  topsail,   and  the  topmast  shortened,    I 
haA'e  ordered  it  to  be  done.     The  foretop,  which  was  rotten,  has 
been  repaired,   and  the  main  deck  caulked.     The  master  of  the  The  master 
Sirius,   Mr.  Micah  Morton,   having  unfortunately  been  ruptured  disabled. 
from  an  accident  he  met  with  in  unmooring  the  ship  at  Sta.  Crux, 
has  never  been  able  to  do  any  duty  since  we  left  that  port,  and 
the  surgeon  having  repi^esented  to  me  that  there  did  not  appear 
any  probability  of  his  being  able  to  return  to  his  duty,  I  ordered 
the  surgeons  of  the  Sirius  and  Supply,  with  the  surgeon  of  the  in- 
tended settlement,  to  survey  him  ;  by  their  report,  which  I  inclose, 
their  Lordships  will  see  the  necessity  of  sending  him  home,  and  I 
beg  leave  to  assure  their  Lordships  that  I  have  always  found  him 
a  very  sober  diligent  officer. 

Mr.  James  Keltie.a  master  in  the  Navy,  who  left  England  as  mate  His 
of  the  Fishburn,  has  replaced  Mr.  Morton  as  master  of  the  Sirius. 

A  midshipman,  likewise,  in  the  course  of  the  voyage  having  met  a  midship- 
with  a  similar  accident,  and  the  surgeon  thinking  by  his  returning  hJf^e!*^" 
to  England  he  might  be  cured,  I  have  discharged  him  from  the 
Sirius,  and  he  returns  with  the  master  in  a  ship  that  has  been  to  the 
southward  on  the  whale  fishery  and  has  put  into  this  port  to  repair. 

I  likewise  discharge  a  midshipman,  and  who  returns  to  England 
in  the  same  ship,  on  account  of  a  venereal  complaint  which  being  Another 

11.,.,,,  ^  *  (lischaiged. 

long  neglected  is  not  likely  to  be  cured  at  sea. 

The  time-keeper  has  been  put  on  shore  under  the  care  of  Lieu-  Xme- 
tenaut  Dawes  with  the  instruments  necessary  to  detei'mine  its  rate    '^^P^''" 
of  going,  which  since  we  left  England  appears  to  have  been  very 
regular;  it  loses  at  present  only  0.95"  more  in  the  twenty -four  hours 
than  it  did  at  Portsmouth,  when  it  lost  1.35"  in  that  time. 

Rum  has  been  purchased  here  for  the  garrison  when  landed.  Rum. 
The  transports  are  now  ready  for  sea,   and   I  intend  sailing  to- 
morrow.    I  inclose  the  state  and  condition  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Sirius  and  the  Supply,  tender,  with  retuins  of  the  detachment  and 
convicts,  and  I  think  it  my  duty  to  inform  their  Lordships,  that 
every  assistance  we  wanted  has  been  most  readily  granted  by  the 
Vice-King.    You  will,  sir,  likewise  inform  their  Lordships  that  the 
port  charges,  which  is  three  pounds  twelve  shillings,  paid  by  all 
merchant  ships  coming  in,   and  the  same  going  out  of  port,   with 
five  shillings  and  sixpence   a  day  while  they   remain  here,   was  port 
demanded  for  the  store-ships  and  transports,  but  not  insisted  on  '-•harfe'es. 
when  I  objected  to  its  being  paid  as  they  were  ships  employed  by 

Only  fifteen  convicts  and  one  marine's  child  have  died  since  we  Deaths, 
left  England.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 



3  Sept. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.* 

on  the 

My  Dear  Nepean,  Rio,  September  3,  1787. 

I  have  been  prevented  sailing  this  morn'g  from  the  accounts 
not  being  yet  finally  settled,  that  is,  the  vouchers  not  yet  sent  off. 
I  sail  to-morrow,  and  at  the  Cape  shall  have  more  time,  for  here, 
as  the  only  one  that  understands  the  language,  I  have  been  obliged 
to  be  linguist  and  Commissary.  By  the  master  of  the  Sirivis  you 
will  have  some  private  as  well  as  public  letters  ;  and  by  a  ship 
going  to  Lisbon  you  will  receive  this  and  copies  of  my  public 
letters  sent  by  the  master,  who,  as  he  met  with  his  accident  in 
doing  his  duty  on  board  the  ship,  will,  I  hope,  get  some  little 
Politeness  of  provision.  I  have  told  you  in  one  of  my  letters  how  far  the  V.- 
yr^  K-  cr  King  (the  same  who  was  here  when  I  past  for  India)  has  carried 
"'  his  politeness,  and  that  tho'  I  desired  much  to  be  reed,  here  as 
the  capt.  of  the  Sirius  only,  and  for  which  I  had  a  particular 
reason,  he  refused  my  request,  and  gave  it  out  in  orders  that  I 
reed,  the  same  honor  as  himself,  that  is,  as  Capt.-General.  This 
has  prevented  my  having  any  house  on  shore,  and  that  for  obvious 
reasons.  I  have  endeavoured  to  explain  to  Mr.  Rose  why  I  have 
drawn  on  the  Treasury  for  ,£135.  The  little  matters  paid  by  me 
when  the  ships  were  at  Portsmouth,  and  the  expences  here  in 
procuring  seeds  and  plants  that  are  not  publicly  sold,  could  not 
be  paid  for  by  the  Commissary,  nor  would  any  satisfaction  have 
been  received  from  him  for  the  island,  as  the  Patrao  Mor  and  his 
people.!  To  have  hired  a  store  on  the  island  would  have  been 
more  than  the  whole  sum.  The  things  have  been  granted  as 
favors,  but  returns  expected,  and  I  made  them  first  at  my  own 
expence,  till  I  found  I  was  a  hundred  pounds  out  of  pocket,  and 
then  thought  that  Government  had  not  been  so  very  liberal  to 
me  as  to  make  it  necessary  to  pay  such  a  compliment.  I  have 
been  very  unwilling  to  send  Wrotten  home,  but  the  young  man 
since  he  met  with  the  accident  has  been  anxious  to  return,  and  is 
not  so  steady  as  might  be  expected  for  his  age.  Powell  |  is  a  very 
good  young  man,  and  improves  very  much.  If  I  can  preserve 
the  seeds  and  plants  procured  here,  I  shall  be  very  indifFereni. 
about  those  articles  at  the  Cape.  Sir  Joseph  Banks  will  receive 
from  the  master  a  small  box  that  contains  some  plants  he  was 
very  anxious  to  procure.  The  rams  are  in  good  health,  and  my 
breeding  sows,  as  well  as  the  ladys,  seem  well  calculated  for  the 
end  proposed.  I  intend  making  a  very  short  stay  at  the  Cape,  as 
the  ships  are  now  in  much  better  order  than  when  they  left 
Adieu,  my  dear  friend ;  health  and  happiness  attend 



The  live 


*  A  private  letter. 

t  The  letter  at  this  point  is  not  clear.  The  island  referred  to  is  Enchados,  a  small 
island  in  the  harbour,  upon  which  Lieutenant  Dawes  and  two  assistants  landed  for  the 
purpose  of  checking  the  chronometer  and  making:  astronomical  observations.  Collins, 
vol.  i,  p.  xxii.     "Patrao  Mor"  signifies  the  intendant  or  captain  of  the  port. 

J  Lieut.  Fowell,  of  H.M.S.  Sirius 

THE    BOUNTY.  117 

you  and  your  good  little  woman  and  child.     Tell  Pollock  this  is       1787 
not  a  country  for  shells,  and  remember  me  to  that  family.  3  Sept. 

Yours,  &c., 
A.  Phillip. 

Lieutenant  Bligii  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks.   (Banks  Papers.) 
Sir,  Bounty,  Spithead,  Monday,  5th  Nov.,  1787.  5  Nov. 

I  have  been  very  anxious  to  acquaint  you  of  my  arrival 
here,  which  I  have  now  accomplished  with  some  risk.      I  anchored 
here  last  night,  after  being  drove  on  the  coast  of  France  in  a  very 
heavy  gale.      However,  by  persevering,  I  am  now  in  readyness,  or 
will  be  in  three  days,  to  receive  my  final  orders.     I  once  before    , 
made  an  attempt  to  get  here,*  but  was  glad  to  go  into  the  Downs  Bounty, 
again,  altho'  of  all  other  places  it  is  one  of  the   most   disagree- 
able to   be  in.      I  think   I  cannot  have  much  worse  weather  in 
going  round  Cape  Horn,  and  it  is  with  pleasure  I  tell  you  I  think 
the  ship  very  capable,  f     This  also  is  another  consolation  to  me,  for  ^ ,.  eapable" 
iny  ideas  of  making  a  ship  fit  for   sea  and  of  those  above  were  ship. 
very  different,  and  my  conduct  in  troubling  the  Navy  Board  for 
alterations  cannot  be  reprehensible,  for  had  I  not  got  ye   masts, 
yai"ds,  and  tops  all  altered  I  should  now  be   getting  ready  to  go 
into  the  harbour.      The  master  is  a  very  good  man,  and  gives  me 
every  sati.sfaction,  and  I  think  between  this  and  the  latitude  of 
GO"  south  I  shall  have  tliem  all  in  very  good  order.     The  conduct 
of  Nelson  J  and  the  gardener  is  very  satisfactory,  and  Ave  all  seem 
erabark'd  heartily  in  one  cause,  which  I  shall  cherish  as  much  as 
possible.      I  shall  take  IS  months'  provisions,  which,  with  other  Arran--e- 
supplies,  will  do  very  well,  and  my  present  intention  is  that,  as  I  '"ents  for 
.shall  be  late  round  Cape  Horn,  not  to  depend  on  touching  there, 
but  complete  my  water,  if  convenient,  at  Falkland  Islands,  for  if 
T  get  the  least  slant  round  the  Cape  I  must  make  the  most  of  it. 
Lord  Howe,  when  I  took  leave  of  him,  behaved  very  flatteringly 
to  me,  but  he  took  from  me  a  Mr.  Brown  you  recommended,  and 
was  the  best  uncommissioned  officer  I  had.      He  was   sent   to  the 
Ariel,  commanded  by  a  Lieut.  Moorsom,  designed  for  some  private 
service,  who,  I  am  infoi-med,  is  to  be  made  a  master  and  com- 
mander.    My  surgeon,  I  Ijelieve,  may  be  a  very  capable  man,  but 
liis   indolence  and  corpulency  render    him    rather    unfit   for  the 
voyage.     I  wish  I  may  get  him  to  change.     The  wind  and  weather 
is  now  very  bad,  and  I  fear  will  continue  so  for  some  days ;  but  I 
assure  you,  sir,  T  will  loose  no  time  in  pi'oceeding  on  my  voyage. 
As  we  have  effectually  got   rid   of  that  troublesome  application 
about  Mr.  Lockhead,  and  if  T  liud  no  possibility  of  getting  rid  of  my 

*  The  Bounty  was  ordered  from  Lon?  Reach  to  Spithead,  1.5  October. 

t  The  Bounty  was  unable  to  weather  Cape  Horn,  and  was  taken  round  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  instead.     Vide  Blif^h's  letter  to  Banks,  post,  p.  -209. 

t  The  Bounty  had  been  fitted  out  for  tlie  purpose  of  convcyin},'  tlic  bread-fruit  tree  from 
Otalieite  to  llie  West  Indies.     Nelson  was  the  botanist  in  eliarge  of  the  plants. 




5  Nov. 


surgeon,  I  think  it  would  be  very  proper  for  me  to  endeavour  to  get 
some  young  man  as  surgeon's  mate,  and  enter  him  as  A.B.,  for  I  am 
A  fresh  aware  how  improper  any  application  for  one  publickly  would  be  at 
surgeon  or  a  this  crisis.  I  have  just  now  waited  on  Lord  Hood,*  who  has  not 
yet  received  any  orders  concerning  me.  The  Commissioner  pro- 
mises me  every  assistance,  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  the  trifles  I 
have  to  do  here  will  be  soon  accomplished.  I  shall  take  a  pleasure 
of  informing  you  of  my  progress  as  I  go  on,  and  I  hope  by  the 
time  my  business  is  over  here  the  wind  will  turn  favorable.  At 
present  I  could  not  move  with  it.  I  am  particularly  happy  at 
receiving  your  letter  of  the  25th,  and  I  trust  nothing  can  pre- 
vent me  from  completing  my  voyage  much  to  your  satisfaction. 
Difficulties  I  laugh  at  whilst  I  have  your  countenance,  and  shall 
be  always  sutficiently  repaid  whilst  I  am  admitted  to  subscribe 
myself,  Yours,  &g., 

Wm.  Bligh. 

[At  the  foot  of  this  letter  is  written  in  Sir  Joseph  Banks's 
hand  :  "  I  offered  my  interest  to  any  surgeon's  mate  who  would  go 
out  as  able  with  C  Bligh. "] 

10  Nov. 

The  fleet  at 
the  Cape. 


Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 
Sir,  Sirius,  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  ISTov.  10,  1787. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Lords 
Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  I  sailed  from  Rio  de 
Janeii'o  the  4th  of  September,  and  anchored  here  the  13th  of 
October,  with  the  ships  under  my  command.  Having  immediately 
on  my  arrival  requested  permission  to  procure  refreshments,  and 
such  provisions  as  were  waiited  for  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius 
and  the  Supply,  tender,  I  was  informed  that  the  crops  of  corn 
having  failed  the  year  before  last  the  inhabitants  had  been 
reduced  to  the  greatest  distress,  and  that  I  could  not  be  per- 
mitted to  purchase  any  flour  or  bread.  I,  however,  obtained  an 
order  for  three  days'  bread  for  all  the  ships,  and  as  I  found  on 
enquiry  that  the  last  year's  crops  had  been  very  good,  I  requested 
by  letter  to  the  Governor  and  Council  permission  to  purchase 
what  provisions  were  wanted  for  the  Sirius  and  Supply,  as 
likewise  corn  for  seed,  and  what  was  necessary  for  the  live  stock 
intended  to  be  embarked  at  this  place.  The  three  days  granted 
for  the  bread,  being  expired,  leave  was  given  for  three  days 
longer,  and  which  permission  was  afterwards  continued  till 
23rd,  when  I  received  an  answer  from  the  Council,  who  had 
taken  that  time  to  deliberate  on  my  letter  of  the  15th,  granting 
permission  to  receive  bread  daily  for  the  use  of  the  ships  while 
we  remained  in  this  port,  and  the  same  evening  I  received  a  letter 
from  the  Governor  granting  all  my  demands. 

*  Viscount  Hood,  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty. 

THE    FLEET   AT   THE    CAPE.  1191 

Our  passage  from  Rio  de  Janeiro  was  very  favourable.     The       1787 
number  of  sick  on  our  arrival    here  was    twenty   marines    and     loNov.    • 
ninety-three  convicts.      The  Sirius  and  Supply  had  only  eiaht  ™  • 

Sick  on  board ;  and  as  all  the  ships  were  very  amply  supplied  from  Rio. 
with  soft  bread,  vegetables,   and  fresh  meat,   I  did   not  think 
it  necessary  to  land  any  of  the  sick.     Their  Lordships  will  see  by  Tiie  sick  not 
the  returns  that  there  are  few  sick   at  present.     We  are  now  nu™e™u«- 
ready  for  sea.      What  live  cattle  the  ships  can  stow  are  now  cattie, 
getting  on  board,  with  such  grain  and  seeds  as  was  wanted,  and  ^'n^'g'eed 
I  shall  sail  imnlediately.      The  remaining  so  long  before  I  could 
obtain  leave  to  procure  the  necessaries  we  wanted  has  detained 
me  longer  in  this  port  than  I  wished,  but  it  will,  I  hope,  be  the 
means  of  keeping  the  people  in  health  for  the  rest  of  the  passage. 

I  inclose  a  weekly  account  Mdth  the  state  and  condition  of  the 
Sirius  and  Supply,  as  likewise  returns  of   the  detachment  and 

convicts.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

The  Rev.  Thomas  Walshe  to  Lord  Sydney.* 

My  Lord, 

You  have  been  apprized  of  the  desire  of  two  clergymen  of  Catholic 
the  Catholick  persuasion  which  they  have  to  instruct  the  convicts  'clergymen. 
who  are  of  their  faith  who  are  destined  for  Botany  Bay.      I  beg 
leave  to  inform  your  Lordship  of  my  sentiments  concerning  their 
request.     There  are  not  less,  probably,  than  .300,  ignorant,  you  may 
imagine,  of  every  piinciple  of  duty  to  God  and  man.     The  number 
is  great,  and  consequently  constitutes  an  object  of  consequence  to 
every  man  who  has  the   happiness   of  his   neighbour  at  heart. 
That  the  Catholicks  of  this  country  are  not  only  of  inoffensive 
principles,  but  that  they  are  zealously  attached  to  the  constitution 
of  it,  I  may  presume  is  well  known  to  your  Lordship.     For  my 
part,  who  am  one  of  those  clergymen  who  wish  to  take  care  of 
the  convicts  of  my  persuasion,  I  beg  to  acquaint  your  Lordship  xiie 
that  if  I  be  so  happy  as  to  be  permitted  to  go  that  I  trust  my  ^'''^^°\''^ 
endeavours  to  bring  these  unhappy  people  to  a  proper  sense  of 
their  duty  as  subjects  and  citizens  may  be  attended  with  some 
salutary  coiLsequences.      They  earnestly  desire   some    Catholick  Desire  of  ti.e 
clergyman  may  go  with  them,  and  I  trust  to  the  known  humanity  '^°""^*^- 
of  Government  that  a  request  whicli  seems  to  promise  some  hopes 
of  their  reformation  will  not  be  denied.     It  is  well  known  that  people  will  not  pay  the  attention  to  other  ministers  which  Value  of 
they  do  to  their  own.      Perhaps,  also,  the  presence  of  such  may  "^""sters. 
be  of  great  use  to  make  them  readily  obey  every  order  of  their 
governors,  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  our  conduct  will  meet  the 
approbation  of  them. 

I  sincerely  pity  these  poor  people,  not  so  mucli  for  the  dis- 
agreeable situation  into  which  they  have  brought  themselves, 
as  for  the  misdeameanours  which  have  made  them  deserving  of  it. 

*  This  letter  is  not  dated,  but  it  was  written  apparently  in  the  year  1787. 



1787       Yet,  I  trust,  if  their  ignorance  be  removed,  and  their  obligations 
The  priests'  as  men  and  Christians  be  forcibly  inculcated  to  them,  that  this 
mission.        may  be  a  means,  under  Providence,  of  their  becoming  useful  to 
themselves,  and  perhaps  afterwards  to  their  country. 

At  least  this  I  sincerely  wish,  nor  do  I  think  I  can  ever  be  as 
happy  elsewhere  as  in  the  place  of  their  destination,  employed  in 
using  my  endeavours  to  bring  them  out  of  the  wretched  state  of 
depravity  into  which  they  have  fallen.  I  entreat,  therefore,  most 
humbly  that  this,  our  request,  may  be  granted."*  Those  poor 
people  will  bless  and  thank  you.  I  shall  take  care  that  they  be 
not  forgetful  of  their  obligations  to  Government  and  Lord  Sydney. 

I  have,  (fee. 
My  Lord,  Thomas  Walshe,  Priest. 

We  are  not  so  presumptuous  as  to  wish  support  from 
Government.  "We  offer  our  voluntary  services.  We  hope,  how 
ever,  not  to  offend  in  entreating  for  our  passage. 

An  appeal. 

asked  for. 

3  Dec 

bound at 



26  April. 


Captain  Bligh  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks.    (Banks  Papers.) 
Sir,  Bounty,  at  Spithead,  Deci".  3rd,  1787. 

Having  met  with  contrary  winds  and  bad  weather  since  my 
I  was  not  able  to  get  farther  than  7  leagues  Avest  of  the 
Isle  of  Wight.  The  weather  being  very  thick  and  the  Avind  at 
west,  I  thought  it  not  consistent  with  the  good  of  the  voyage  to 
persist  in  keeping  any  longer  at  sea  at  this  hazardous  period  of 
the  year,  and  therefore  came  through  the  Needles  and  anchored. 
The  wind  blows  still  fresh  at  W.S.W.,  which  gives  me  much 
uneasyness,  knowing  how  late  I  am,  which,  if  I  was  ever  so 
negligent,  would  be  a  severe  spur  to  get  me  clear  of  the  channel, 
where  one  unfortunate  gale  may  render  all  our  plans  abortive, 
but  if  there  is  any  possibility  of  my  getting  away  you  may  rely 
on  my  utmost  exertion. f  I  am,  <tc., 

Wm.  Bligii. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Head-quarters,  Sydney  Cove, 
Sir,  26th  April,  1788. 

As  the  surgeon  volunteer  who  was  put  on  board  the  Lady 
Penrhyn  transport  to  attend  the  convicts  was  found  to  be  very 
unequal  to  the  task,  I  was  under  the  necessity  of  desiring  Mi-. 
Arthur  Bowes,  surgeon  of  that  transport,  to  take  chai'ge  of  the 
medicines,  and  attend  to  the  sick,  which  he  did  with  great  atten- 
tion. I  therefore  beg  leave  to  recommend  him  to  your  notice,  as 
he  has  not  received  any  recompense  for  his  troulile. 

I  have,  (fee, 

A.  Phillip. 

*  No  reply  to  this  letter  has  been  found  amongst  the  records,  but  the  proposal  was  not 
f  The  Bounty  did  not  clear  the  Channel  until  the  23rd  December. 


THE    FLEET    IN   BOTANY   BAY.  121 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.*  1788 

Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales,  is  May. 

My  Lord,  May  15th,  1788. 

I  had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship,  by  Captain 
Cox,  who  was  returning  to  Europe  from  ^Madrass,  that  I  was  ready 
to  sail  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  which  I  did  with  the 
ships  under  my  command  the  12th  of  November.  The  25th,  being 
eighty  leagues  to  the  eastward  of  the  Cape,  I  left  the  Sirius, 
and  went  on  board  the  Supply,  tender,  in  hopes,  by  leaving  the  Oii  board 
convoy,  to  gain  sufficient  time  to  examine  the  country  round 
Botany  Bay,  and  fix  on  the  most  eligible  situation  for  the  colony 
before  the  transports  arrived.  At  the  same  time  I  ordered  the 
agent  for  the  transport  in  the  Alexander  to  separate  from  the 
convoy  with  that  ship,  the  Scarborough  and  Friendship,  they 
sailing  better  than  the  others.  I  had  reason  to  expect  their 
arrival  soon  after  the  Supply's,  and  by  having  the  labour  of  the 
convicts  they  had  on  board  much  might  be  done  in  preparing  for 
the  landing  the  stores  and  provisions. 

Major  Ross  now  left  the  Sirius,  and  went  on  board  the  Scar-  ''^^'^'^h^"^^ 
borough,  that  he  might  be  with  that  part  of  the  detachment,  which  scar-  ■ 
would  probably  be  the  first  landed.  borou-h. 

Captain  Hunter  in  the  Sirius  was  to  follow  with  the  storeships  Captain 
and  the  remainder  of  the  transports,   and  he  had  the  necessary  the  Sirius. 
instructions  for  his  futui'e  proceedings,   should  the  Supply  meet 
with  any  accident. 

The  westerly  winds  we  now  had  continued  till  the  3rd  of  gi„j,tin"  the 
January,  when  we  saw  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  but  the  Austraiiau 
winds,  which  had  been  so  favourable,  having  seldom  been  to  the 
eastward,  and  then  for  a  few  hours  only,  blowing  from  the  N.W. 
to  the  S.W.,  generally  very  strong  gales,  now  left  us,  and  we  had 
variable  winds,  with  a  current  that  at  times  set  very  strong  to  the 
southward,  so  that  we  did  not  arrive  at  Botany  Bay  before  the  18th.  Arrival  at 

The  Alexander,  Scarborough,  and  Friendship  came  in  the  next    "     ' 
day,  and  the  Sirius,  with  the  rest  of  the  sliips,   the  day  after. 
Those  ships  had  continued  veiy  healthy. 

The  Supply,  sailing  very  badly,  had  not  permitted  my  gain- 
ing the  advantage  hoped  for,  but  I  began  to  examine  the  bay  as 
so(ni  as  we  anchored,  and  found,  that  tho'  extensive,  "it  did  not  ^'«  shelter 
afford  shelter  to  ships  from  the  eastei'ly  winds  ;  the  greater  part 
of  the  bay  being  so  shoal  that  ships  of  even  a  moderate  draught 
of  water  are  obliged  to  anchor  with  the  entrance  of  the  bay  open, 
and  are  exposed  to  a  heavy  sea  that  rolls  in  when  it  blows  hard 
from  the  eastward. 

Several  small  runs  of  fresh  water  were  found  in  different  parts  rnsatisfac- 
of  the  bay,  but  1  did  not  see  any  situation  to  which  there  was 
not  some  very  strong  objection.     The  small  creek  that  is  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  bay  runs  a  considerable  way  into  the  country, 

•  The  first  despatch  sent  from  Sj'dney. 




15  May. 


Port  Jack- 
son to  be 




finest  har- 
bour in  tlie 



The  fleet  in 
Port  Jack- 

but  it  had  only  water  for  a  boat.  The  sides  of  this  creek  are 
frequently  overflowed,  and  the  lowlands  a  swamp.  The  western 
branch  runs  up  for  a  considerable  distance,  but  the  officers  I  sent 
to  examine  it  could  not  find  any  water,  except  in  very  small  drains. 

The  best  situation  that  offered  was  near  Point  Sutherland, 
where  there  was  a  small  run  of  good  water ;  but  the  ground  near 
it,  as  well  as  a  considerable  part  of  the  higher  ground,  was  spongy, 
and  the  ships  could  not  approach  this  part  of  the  bay. 

Several  good  situations  offered  for  a  small  number  of  people, 
but  none  that  appeared  calculated  for  our  numbers,  and  where 
the  stores  and  provisions  could  be  landed  without  a  great  loss  of 
time.  When  I  considered  the  bay's  being  so  very  open,  and  the 
probability  of  the  swamps  rendering  the  most  eligil)le  situation 
unhealthy,  I  judged  it  advisable  to  examine  Port  Jackson ;  but 
that  no  time  might  be  lost  if  I  did  not  succeed  in  finding  a  better 
harbour,  and  a  proper  situation  for  the  settlement,  the  ground 
near  Point  Sutherland  was  in  the  meantime  to  be  cleared  and  pre- 
parations made  for  landing  under  the  direction  of  the  Lieutenant- 

As  the  time  in  which  I  might  be  absent,  if  I  went  in  the  Supply, 
must  have  been  very  uncertain,  I  went  round  with  three  boats, 
taking  with  me  Captain  Hunter  and  several  officers,  that  by 
examining  different  parts  of  the  port  at  the  same  time  less  time 
might  be  lost. 

We  got  into  Port  Jackson  early  in  the  afternoon,  and  had  the 
satisfaction  of  finding  the  finest  harbour  in  the  world,  in  which  a 
thousand  sail  of  the  line  may  ride  in  the  most  perfect  security, 
and  of  which  a  rough  survey,  made  by  Captain  Hunter  and  the 
officers  of  the  Sirius  after  the  ships  came  round,  may  give  your 
Lordship  some  idea. 

The  different  coves  were  examined  with  all  possible  expedition. 
I  fixed  on  the  one  that  had  the  best  spring  of  water,  and  in  which 
the  ships  can  anchor  so  close  to  the  shore  that  at  a  very  small 
expence  quays  may  be  made  at  which  the  largest  ships  may  unload. 

This  cove,  which  I  honoured  with  the  name  of  Sydney,*  is  about 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  across  at  the  entrance,  and  half  a  mile  in  length. 

We  returned  to  Botany  Bay  the  third  day,  where  I  received  a 
very  unfavourable  account  of  the  ground  that  was  clearing. 

The  ships  immediately  prepared  to  go  round,  and  the  25th — 
seven  days  after  I  arrived  in  the  Supply — I  sailed  in  her  for 
Port  Jackson,  leaving  Captain  Hunter  to  follow  with  the  trans- 
ports, it  then  blowing  too  strong  for  them  to  work  out  of  the 
bay.  They  joined  me  the  next  evening,  and  all  the  transports 
were  moored  in  the  cove.f 

*  After  Lord  Sydne.y,  Secretary  of  State. 

t  This  was  the  2()th  January,  the  day  now  observed  as  Anniversary  Day.  The  British  flag 
was  unfurled  at  the  head  of  Sydney  Cove,  toasts  were  drunk,  and  volleys  of  musketry  fired, 
but  the  formal  proclamation  of  the  Colony  did  not  take  place  till  the  7th  February. 


THE    PLEET   IN    SYDNEY    COVE.  123 

Two  sail  had  appeared  off  Botany  Bay  the  24th,  under  French       1V88 
colours,  and  anchored  there  before  the  Sirius  left  it — the  Bous-     15  May. 
sole  and  the  Astrolabe.     These  ships  were  commanded  by  Monsr.  ^^  r^use 
La  Perouse,   who,  having   exprest    a  desire    of   sending    letters  i^'^^^otany 
to  Europe,   I   sent   an  officer   over,   it   being   only  eight   miles,    ''^' 
to  tell  him  in  what  time  it  was  probable  the  ships  might  sail.  ^j^^J^^^^^j^^^^j^ 
Captain  Clonard  had  left  the  ship  in  one  of  their  boats  the  same  a„d  the*^" 
morning,  and  Lieut.  Shortland,  the  agent  for  the  transports,  is  Astrolabe. 
charged  with  the  letters  he  brought.     They  are  addressed  to  the 
French  Ambassador.     The  officer  I  sent  over  was  informed  that 
Monsr.  La  Perouse  sailed  from  France  in  June,  1785  ;  that  he 
had  been  to  Sta.  Catherina,  had  run  along  the  coast  of  Chili  and 
California,  and  had  been  at  Easter  Island,  Noatka  Sound,  Cook's 
River,  Kamtschatka,  Manilla,  Isles  des  Navigateurs,  Sandwich, 
and  the  Friendly  Islands.     He  had,  likewise,  anchored  off  Norfolk 
Island,  but  could  not  land  on  account  of  the  surf.      In  this  voyage 
he  had  not  lost  any  of  his  people  by  sickness,  but  had  lost  two 
boats'  crews  in  a  surf  on  the  north-west  part  of  America,  and  at 
Maouna  (one  of  the  Isles  des  jSTavigateurs)  Monsr.  De  Langle,  Misfortunes 
capt.  of  the  Astrolabe,  was  cut  off  by  the  natives,  with  twelve  p^gnch. " 
officers  and  men.      Many  were  wounded,  and  two  long-boats  he 
had  on  shore  destroyed.     The  ships  were  then  under  sail,  and 
De  Langle  went  on  shore  to  fill  some  water-casks.     The  boats 
were  suffered  to  ground,  and  the  natives,  with  whom  they  had 
been  on  the  most  friendly  terms,  and  who  had  supply'd  them 
with  refreshments  in  the  greatest  abundance,  attacked  them  when 
they  were  endeavouring  to  get  them  afloat.     He  had  forty  officers 
and  men  with  him,  and  the  ships,  being  round  a  point  of  land, 
knew  nothing  of  the  accident  till  the  small  boats  returned.     These 
ships,  while  in  Botany  Bay,  set  up  two  long-boats,  the  frames  of 
which  they  had  brought  from  Europe.     They  sailed  the   10th  of  {^^7^^*^^^°* 
March,  I  believe  to  return  to  the  northward. 

The  clearing  the  gi'ound  for  the  people  and  for  erecting  store-  clearing  the 
houses  was  begun  as  soon  as  the  ships  got  round,  a  lalxmi'  of  yrou"d. 
which  it  will  be  hardly  possil)le  to  give  your  Lordship  a  just  idea. 

The  necks  of  land  that  form  the  different  coves,  and  near  the  slow 
water  for  some  distance,  are  in  general  so  rocky  that  it  is  sur-  progress. 
prizing  such  large  trees  should  find  sufficient  nourishment,  but 
the  soil  between  the  rocks  is  good,  and  the  summits  of  the  i-ocks, 
as  well  as  the  whole  country  round  us,  with  few  exceptions,  are 
covered  with  trees,  most  of  which  are  so  large  that  the  removing 
them  off  the  ground  after  they  are  cut  down  is  the  greatest  part 
of  the  labour  ;  and  the  convicts,  naturally  indolent,  having  none  to 
attend  them  but  overseers  drawn  from  amongst  themselves,  ;ind  who 
fear  to  exert  any  authority,  makes  this  work  go  on  very  slowly. 

Your  Lordship  will  permit  me  to  observe  that  our  situation  The  best 
tho'  so  very  different  from  what  might  be  expected,  is  neverthe-  available. 



15  May. 

No  large 


Outbreak  of 

of  Norfolk 

King  as 

Broken  Baj', 

less  the  best  that  offered.  My  instructions  did  not  permit  me 
to  detain  the  transports  a  sufficient  length  of  time,  to  examine 
the  coast  to  any  considerable  distance,  it  was  absolutely  necessary 
to  be  certain  of  a  sufficient  quantity  of  fresh  water,  in  a  situation 
that  was  healthy,  and  which  the  ships  might  approach  within  a 
reasonable  distance  for  the  conveniency  of  landing  the  stores  and 
provisions,  and  I  am  fully  persuaded  that  we  should  never  have 
succeeded  had  it  been  attempted  to  move  them  only  one  mile 
from  where  they  were  landed.  There  are  some  parts  of  this 
harbour  where  the  trees  stand  at  a  considerable  distance  from 
each  other,  and  where  there  are  small  runs  of  water,  which  shall 
be  cultivated  when  our  numbers  permit,  and  when  the  country 
inland  can  be  examined.  I  make  no  doubt  but  some  good 
situations  will  be  found  that  have  water,  which  I  have  never  yet 
been  able  to  find,  either  in  Botany  Bay  or  in  this  harbour,  but  in 
very  small  streams. 

Some  land  that  is  near,  and  where  the  trees  stand  at  a  con- 
siderable distance  from  each  other,  will,  as  soon  as  convicts  can 
be  spared,  be  cultivated  by  the  officers  for  raising  a  little  corn 
for  their  stock ;  and  this  I  have  endeavoured  to  promote  as  much 
as  possible,  for  I  fear  the  consequences  if  a  ship  should  be  lost 
in  her  passage  out  with  provisions. 

As  there  are  only  twelve  convicts  who  are  carpenters,  as  many 
as  could  Ije  procured  from  the  ships  have  been  hired  to  work  on 
the  hospital  and  store-houses.  The  people  were  healthy  when 
landed,  but  the  scurvy  has,  for  some  time,  appeared  amongst 
them,  and  now  rages  in  a  most  extraordinary  manner.  Only 
sixteen  carpenters  could  be  hired  from  the  ships,  and  several  of 
the  convict  carpenters  were  sick.  It  was  now  the  middle  of 
February ;  the  rains  began  to  fall  very  heavy,  and  pointed  out 
the  necessity  of  hutting  the  people  ;  convicts  were  therefore  aj)- 
jDointed  to  assist  the  detachment  in  this  work. 

February  the  14th  the  Supply  sailed  for  Norfolk  Island,  with 
Philip  Gidley  King,  second  lieutenant  of  his  Majesty's  ship 
Sirius,  for  the  purpose  of  settling  that  island.  He  only  cari'ied 
M^th  him  a  petty  officer,  surgeon's  mate,  two  marines,  two  men 
who  understood  the  cultivation  of  flax,  with  nine  men  and  six 
women  convicts.  Their  number  shall  be  increased  when  a  small 
detachment  of  marines  can  be  spared.  I  have  the  honour  of 
transmitting  your  Lordship  a  copy  of  the  order  and  instructions 
given  to  that  officer,*  and  I  beg  leave  to  I'ecommend  him  as  an 
officer  of  merit,  and  whose  perseverance  in  that  or  any  other 
service  may  be  depended  upon. 

The  2d  of  March  I  went  with  a  long-boat  and  cutter  to 
examine  the  broken  land  mentioned    by   Captain    Cook,  about 

*  Post,  pp.  136-138.  King  was  Superintendent  and  Commandant  of  Norfolk  Island  from 
Jlax'ch,  1788,  to  March,  1790 ;  Lieutenant-Governor  from  November,  1791,  to  October, 
1796  ;  Governor  of  New  South  Wales,  from  September,  1800,  to  August,  1806. 



ight  miles  to  the  northward  of  Port  Jackson.  We  slept  in  the  ^"^®^ 
1  )oat  that  night  within  a  rocky  point,  in  the  north-west  part  of  15  May 
the  bay  (which  is  very  extensive),  as  the  natives,  tho'  very 
friendly,  appeared  to  be  numerous ;  and  the  next  day,  after 
passing  a  bar  that  had  only  water  for  small  vessels,  entered  a 
very  extensive  branch,  from  which  the  ebb  tide  came  out  so 
stronfj  that  the  boats  could  not  row  against  it  in  the  stream  ;  Brisbane 

o  Water 

and  here  was  deep  water.  It  appeared  to  end  in  several  small 
branches,  and  in  a  large  lagoon  that  we  could  not  examine  for 
want  of  time  to  search  for  a  channel  for  the  boats  amongst  the 
banks  of  sand  and  mud.  Most  of  the  land  on  the  upper  part  of 
this  branch  was  low  and  full  of  swamps.  Pelicans  and  variety 
of  birds  were  here  seen  in  great  numbers.  Leaving  this  branch, 
which  I  called  the  north-west  branch,  we  proceeded  across  the 
bay  and  went  into  the  south-west  branch,  which  is  very  exten- 
sive, and  from  which  a  second  branch  runs  to  the  westward.  The 
affording  shelter  for  any  number  of  ships,  and  as  far  as  we  ij^ry,  ^^' 
examined  there  is  water  for  the  largest  ships,  having  seven 
fathoms  at  the  entrance,  and  deep  water  as  you  go  up.  But  the 
almost  continual  rains  pi-evented  any  kind  of  survey.  Here  the 
land  is  much  higher  than  at  Port  Jackson,  more  rocky,  and 
equally  covered  with  timber,  large  trees  growing  on  the  summits 
of  mountains  that  appear  to  be  accessible  to  birds  only. 

Immediately  round  the  headland  that  forms  the  southern 
entrance  into  the  bay  there  is  a  third  branch,  which  I  think  the 
finest  piece  of  water  I  ever  saw,  and  which  I  honoui'ed  with  the 
name  of  Pitt  Water.*  It  is,  as  well  as  the  south-west  l^ranch,  of  Pittwator. 
sufficient  extent  to  contain  all  the  Xavy  of  Great  Britain,  but 
has  only  eighteen  feet  at  low  water  on  a  narrow  bar  which  runs 
across  the  entrance.  Within  the  bar  there  are  from  seven  to 
fifteen  fathom  water.  The  land  here  is  not  so  high  as  in  the 
south-west  branch,  and  there  are  some  good  situations  where  the 
land  might  be  cultivated.  We  found  small  springs  of  water  in 
most  of  the  co^'es,  and  saw  three  cascades  falling  from  a  height  Return  to 
which  the  rains  then  rendered  inaccessible.  I  returned  to  Port  j^kgon 
Jackson  after  being  absent  eight  days  in  the  boats.  Some  of  the 
people  feeling  the  effects  f)f  the  rain,  which  had  been  almost 
constant-,  prevented  my  returning  by  land,  as  I  intended,  in  order 
to  examine  a  part  of  the  country  which  appeared  open  and  free 
from  timber. 

Lieutenant  Ball,  who  commands  the  Supply,  arrived  the  19th  Ne\vsfroni 
of  March.  He  made  Norfolk  Island  on  the  29th  of  Fel)ruary,  island. 
and  was  five  days  Vjefore  a  place  could  be  found  at  which  it 
was  possiljle  to  land  the  pnjvisicjns,  and  saw  very  few  places  at 
which  it  was  possil>le  to  land  a  man,  so  comjileatly  do  the 
rocks  surround  that  island.  They  succeeded,  however,  having 
found  a  small  opening  in  a  reef  that  runs  across  a  bay  that  is  at 

*  In  honor  of  the  Prime  Minister. 



15  May. 

The  whole 
island  a 


Lord  Howe 

Diseharg-e  of 

The  first 




Loss  of  live 

the  south  end  of  the  island,  and  the  six  months'  provisions  were 
all  safely  landed.  Lieut.  King  describes  this  island  as  one  intire 
wood,  without  a  single  acre  of  clear  land  that  had  been  found 
when  the  Supply  left  them,  and  says  that  the  pine-trees  rise 
fifty  and  sixty  feet  before  they  shoot  out  any  branches.  There 
are  several  other  kinds  of  timber  on  the  island,  which,  as  far  as 
he  could  examine  it,  was  a  rich  black  mould,  with  great  quantities 
of  pumice-stone.  The  trees  are  so  bound  together  Ijy  a  kind  of 
supple-jack  that  the  penetrating  into  the  interior  parts  of  the 
island  was  very  difficult.  Several  good  springs  of  water  were 
found,  and  I  apprehend  his  Majesty's  ships  in  the  East  Indies 
may  be  supplied  from  this  island  with  masts  and  yards,  which 
will  render  it  a  very  valuable  acquisition.  The  cultivation  of 
the  flax-plant  will  be  attended  to  when  people  can  be  sent  to 
clear  the  ground. 

A  small  island  being  seen  on  the  passage  to  Norfolk  Island, 
Xieutenant  Ball  examined  it  on  his  return,  and  says  it  abounds 
in  turtle,  but  unfortunately  has  no  good  anchoring-ground.  He 
named  it  after  Lord  Howe.*  It  is  in  31°  36'  south  latitude,  and 
159°  east  longitude.  Part  of  this  island  may  be  seen  sixteen 
leagues,  and  a  rock  that  is  five  leagues  to  the  southward  and 
eastward  of  the  island  may  be  seen  eighteen  leagues. 

The  Charlotte,  Scarborough,  and  Lady  Penrhyn,  transports,  were 
cleared  of  all  their  stores  and  discharged  from  Government  employ 
the  O-ith  and  25th  of  March,  and  left  at  liberty  to  proceed  to 
China  when  they  judged  proper.  The  other  ships  remain  till 
store-houses  can  be  finished. 

Your  Lordship  will  not  be  surprized  that  I  have  been  under  the 
necessity  of  assembling  a  Criminal  Court.  Six  men  were  condemned 
to  death.  One,  who  was  the  head  of  the  gang,  was  executed  the 
same  day  ;  the  others  I  reprieved.  They  are  to  be  exiled  fi'om 
the  settlement,  and  when  the  season  permits  I  intend  they  shall 
be  landed  near  the  South  Cape,  where,  by  their  forming  connexions 
with  the  natives,  some  benefit  may  accrue  to  the  public.  These 
men  had  frequently  robbed  the  stores  and  the  other  convicts. 
The  one  who  suffered  and  two  others  were  condemned  for  rolDbing 
the  stores  of  provisions  the  very  day  they  received  a  week's 
provisions,  and  at  which  time  their  allowance,  as  settled  by  the 
Navy  Board,  was  the  same  as  the  soldiers,  spirits  excepted ;  the 
others  for  robbing  a  tent,  and  for  stealing  provisions  from  other 
convicts.  , 

The  great  labour  in  clearing  the  ground  will  not  permit  more 
than  eight  acres  to  he  sown  this  year  with  wheat  and  barley.  At 
the  same  time  the  immense  number  of  ants  and  field-mice  will 
render  our  crops  very  uncertain. 

Part  of  the  live  stock  brought  from  the  Cape,  small  as  it  was, 
has  been  lost,  and  our  resource  in  fish  is  also  uncertain.  Some  days 

*  Admiral  Howe,  First  Lord  of  the  Aduiiraltj-. 


great  quantities  are  caught,  but  never  sufficient  to  save  any  part       1788 
of  the  provisions  ;  and  at  times  tish  ai*e  scarce.  is  May. 

Your  Lordship  will,   I  presume,  see  the  necessity  of  a  regular  pro^^i^ns 
supply  of  provisions  for  four  or  five  years,  and  of  clothing,  shoes,  and  clothing 
and  frocks  in  the  greatest  proportion.     The  necessary  implements  four  or  five 
for  husbandry  and  for  clearing  the  ground  brought  out  will  with  years, 
difficulty  be  made  to  serve  the  time  that  is  necessary  for  sending 
out  a  fresh  supply. 

The  labour  of  the  convicts  shall  be,  as  is  directed,  for  the  public  Convict 
stock,  but  it  is  necessary  to  permit  a  part  of  the  convicts  to  work  ^  ""'^' 
for  the  officers,  who,  in  our  present  situation,  would  otherwise  find 
it  impossible  to  clear  a  sufficient  quantity  of  ground  to  raise  what 
is  absolutely  necessary  to  support  the  little  stock  they  have ;  and 
I  am  to  request  that  your  Lordship  will  be  pleased  to  direct  me 
to  what  extent  that  indulgence  may  be  granted  the  officers  of  the 

The  Sirius  shall  be  sent  to  the  northward  to  barter  for  stock,  The  sinus  to 
and  which  shall  be  employed  solely  for  the  purpose  of  increasing  five"stock^°"^ 
the  breed  of  such  cattle  as  she  may  procure.     The  Supply  is  no 
ways  calculated  for  this  service,  as  in  the  least  sea  her  decks  are 
full  of  water. 

The  very  small  proportion  of  females  makes  the  sending  out  an  store  women 
additional  number  absolutely  necessary,  for  I  am  certain  your  ''''i'^""^ 
Lordship  will  think  that  to  send  for  women  from  the  Islands,  in 
our  present  situation,  would  answer  no  other  purpose  than  that 
of  bringing  them  to  pine  away  in  misery. 

I  have  had  the  honor  of  informing    your  Lordship  that  this  Advantages 

.  of  Port 

harbour  is,  in  extent  and  security,  very  superior  to  any  other  that  jaciison. 
I  have  ever  seen — containing  a  considerable  number  of  coves, 
formed  by  narrow  necks  of  land,  mostly  rocks,  covered  with 
timber,  and  the  face  of  the  country,  when  viewed  from  the 
harbour,  is  the  same,  with  few  exceptions.  The  neck  of  land 
l)etween  the  harbour  and  the  coast  is  mostly  sand.  Between  that 
part  of  the  harbour  in  wliich  the  settlement  is  made  and  Botany 
Bay,  after  you  pass  the  wood  which  surrounds  us,  and  which  in 
some  parts  is  a  mile  and  a  half,  in  othei-s  three  miles  across,  the 
country  is  a  poor  sandy  heath,  full  of  swamps. 

The  country  towards  the  head  of  the  bay*  is  covered  with  timber, 
and  liere  the  land  appears  less  rocky,  and  the  trees  stand  in  some 
parts  at  a  greater  distance  ;  but  the  head  of  the  bay  being  left  dry 
in  several  pai'ts  at  low  water,  and  the  winds  being  obstructed  l)y  the 
woods  and  the  different  windings  of  the  channel,  must,  I  conceive,  Country 
render  this  part  of  the  harl)oui'  unhealthy  till  the  country  can  be  clearing. 
cleared.  As  far  as  the  eye  can  reach  to  the  westward  the  country 
appears  to  be  one  continued  wood. 

The  timber  is  well  described  in  Captain  Cook's  voyage,  but  RpfnM>tory 
unfortunately  it  has  one  very  bad  quality,  which  puts  us  to  great 

♦  Port  Jackson. 




15  May. 



Botanist  and 



and  t-lay 
for  bricks. 

The  natives 

upon  them. 


inconvenience;  I  mean  the  large  gum-tree,  which  splits  and  warps 
in  such  a  manner  when  used  green,  and  to  which  necessity  obliged 
us,  that  a  store-house  boarded  up  with  this  wood  is  rendered  useless. 
The  timber  which  in  its  growth  resembles  the  fir-tree  warps  less,  but 
we  are  already  obliged  to  fetch  it  from  some  distance,  and  it  will  not 
float.  There  are  a  variety  of  palm-trees,  and  the  heaths  that  are 
free  from  timber  are  covered  with  a  variety  of  the  most  beautiful 
flowering  shrubs,  wild  celery,  spinages,  samphose  [samphire],  a  small 
wild  fig,  and  several  berries,  which  have  proved  very  wholesome, 
particularly  the  leaves  of  a  small  shrub  which  is  found  in  such 
plenty  that  it  has  not  yet  failed  us  as  most  of  the  others  have  done. 
What  seeds  could  be  collected  are  sent  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  as  like- 
wise the  red  gum  taken  from  the  large  gum-tree  by  tapping,  and  the 
yellow  gum  which  is  found  on  the  dwarf  palm-tree.  The  small  quan- 
tity of  flax  that  has  been  procured  is  suttlcient  to  show  the  quality, 
but  the  flax-plant  described  by  Capt.  Cook  I  have  never  met  with, 
nor  had  the  botanists  that  accompanied  Mons.  La  Perouse  found 
it  when  I  saw  them,  and  which  was  some  time  after  they  arrived ; 
and  here,  my  Lord,  I  must  beg  leave  to  observe,  with  regret,  that 
being  myself  without  the  smallest  knowledge  of  botany,  I  am  with- 
out one  botanist,  or  even  an  intelligent  gardener,  in  the  colony  ;  it 
is  not  therefore  in  my  power  to  give  more  than  a  very  superficial 
account  of  the  produce  of  this  country,  which  has  such  variety  of 
plants  that  I  cannot,  with  all  my  ignorance,  help  being  convinced 
that  it  merits  the  attention  of  the  naturalist  and  the  botanist. 

The  stone  of  this  country  is  of  three  sorts  :  Freestone,  which 
appears  equal  to  Portland  stone,  a  bad  firestone,  and  a  stone  that 
appears  to  contain  a  large  proportion  of  iron.  We  have  good 
clay  for  bricks,  but  no  chalk  or  limestone  has  yet  been  found. 

With  respect  to  the  natives,  it  was  my  determination  from  my 
first  landing  that  nothing  less  than  the  most  absolute  necessity 
should  ever  make  me  fire  upon  them,  and  tho'  persevering  in  this 
resolution  has  at  times  been  rather  diflicult,  I  have  hitherto 
been  so  fortunate  that  it  never  has  been  necessary.  Mons.  La 
Perouse,  while  at  Botany  Bay,  was  not  so  fortunate.  He  was  obliged 
to  fire  on  them,  in  consequence  of  which,  with  the  bad  behaviour 
of  some  of  the  transports'  boats  and  some  convicts,  the  natives 
have  lately  avoided  us,  but  proper  measures  are  taken  to  regain 
their  confidence. 

The  few  hours  I  have  to  collect  and  put  into  method  the  obser- 
vations I  have  made  of  these  people  will,  I  hope,  excuse  me 
to  your  Lordship  for  sending  only  extracts  from  my  journal,  as 
they  have  been  set  down  when  the  little  incidents  occurred,  and 
from  which  a  more  just  opinion  of  these  people  may  be  drawn 
than  I  should  perhaps  be  able  to  give. 

When  I  first  landed  in  Botany  Bay  the  natives  appeared  on 
the  beach,  and  were  easily  persuaded  to  receive  what  was  offered 


them,  and,  tho'  they  came  armed,  very  readily  retui-ned  the  con-       1788 
lidence  I  placed  in  them,  by  going  to  them  alone  and  unarmed,     is  May. 
most  of  them  laying  down  their  spears  when  desired ;  and  while 
the  ships  remained  in  Botany  Bay  no  dispute  happened  between 
our  people  and  the  natives.      They  were  all  naked,   but  seemed  the  nath'es. 
fond  of  ornaments,  putting  the  beads  or  red  baize  that  were  given 
them  round  their  heads  or  necks.     Their  arms  and  canoes  beinsf 
descriljed  in   "  Captain  Cook's  Voyage,"  I  do  not  trouble  your 
Lordship  with  any  description  of  them. 

When  I  first  went  in  the  boats  to  Port  Jackson  the  natives 
appeared  armed  near  the  place  at  which  we  landed,  and  were 
very  vociferous,  but,  like  the  others,  easily  persuaded  to  accept 
what  was  offered  them,  and  I  persuaded  one  man,  who  appeared  ^.  fricncily 
to  be  the  chief  or  master  of  the  family,  to  go  with  me  to  that  part 
of  the  beach  where  the  people  were  boiling  their  meat.  When 
he  came  near  the  marines,  who  were  drawn  up  near  the  place, 
and  saw  that  by  proceeding  he  should  be  separated  from  his  com- 
panions, who  remained  with  several  officers  at  some  distance,  he 
stopped,  and  with  great  firmness  seemed  by  words  and  acting  to 
threaten  if  they  offered  to  take  any  advantage  of  his  situation. 
He  then  went  on  with  me  to  examine  what  was  boiling  in  the 
pot,  and  exprest  his  admiration  in  a  manner  that  made  me  believe 
he  intended  to  profit  from  what  he  saw,  and  which  I  made  him 
understand  he  might  very  easily  by  the  help  of  some  oyster-shells. 
I  believe  they  know  no  other  way  of  dressing  their  food  but  by 
broiling,  and  they  are  seldom  seen  without  a  fire,  or  a  piece  of 
wood  on  tire,  which  they  carry  with  them  from  place  to  place,  and 
in  their  canoes,  so  that  I  apprehend  they  find  some  difficulty  in 
procuring  fire  by  any  other  means  with  which  they  are  acquainted. 
The  boats,  in  passing  near  a  point  of  land  in  the  harbour,  were  intrepidity 
seen  by  a  numljer  of  men,  and  twenty  of  them  waded  into  the  y^uks 
water  unarmed,  received  what  was  offered  them,  and  examined 
the  boats  witli  a  curiosity  that  gave  me  a  much  higher  opinion 
of  them  than  I  had  formed  from  the  l)ehaviour  of  those  seen  in 
Captain  Cook's  voyage,  and  their  confidence  and  manly  behaviour  Manly  Cove. 
made  me  give  the  name  of  Manly  Cove  to  this  place.  The  same 
people  afterwarfls  joined  us  whei-e  we  dined  ;  they  were  all  armed 
with  lances,  two  with  shields  and  swords — the  latter  made  <tf 
wood,  the  gripe  small,  and  I  thought  less  formidable  than  a  good 
stick.  As  their  curiosity  made  them  very  troublescjme  when  we 
were  preparing  our  dinner,  I  made  a  circle  round  us.  There  was 
little  difiiculty  in  making  them  understand  that  they  were  not  to 
come  within  it,  and  they  then  sat  down  very  quiet.  The  white  The  savajje 
clay  rubbed  on  the  upper  part  of  the  face  of  one  of  these  men  '^'^'^'''■''^'^''• 
had  the  appearance  of  a  mask  ;  and  a  woman  that  appeared  on 
some  rocks  near  which  the  boats  passed  was  marked  with  white 
on  the  face,  neck,  and  breasts,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  render  her 



15  May. 

of  the 

The  entente 




ment of  the 

the  most  horrid  figure  I  ever  saw.  They  are  not  often  seen 
marked  in  this  manner,  and  it  is  done  only  on  some  particular 
occasions.  Several  women  landed  from  their  canoes  the  mornina: 
the  boats  stopp'd  in  a  small  bay  near  the  entrance  of  the  harbour, 
when  I  was  going  to  examine  the  coast  to  the  northw^ard,  and 
three  of  them  were  very  big  with  child.  Ribbons,  baize,  &c.. 
they  tied  round  their  necks  when  they  were  given  to  them, 
Several  of  them  had  childi'en  with  them  in  the  canoes.  They 
appeared  to  be  less  chearful  than  the  men,  and  under  great  sub- 
jection. Two  canoes  with  three  women  in  each,  and  one  canoe 
with  a  man  and  woman,  came  off  to  us  when  we  were  a  mile 
from  the  land,  and  came  alongside  the  boat  to  receive  some  fish- 
hooks and  lines  which  were  offered  them. 

In  Broken  Bay  several  women  came  down  to  the  beach  with 
the  men  where  we  landed,  one  of  which,  a  young  woman,  was 
very  talkative  and  remarkably  cheerful.  They  all  readily  assisted 
us  in  making  a  fire,  and  behaved  in  the  most  friendly  manner. 
In  a  bay  in  which  we  landed  to  haul  the  seine  many  of  the 
natives  joined  us,  and  I  now  observed  that  the  women  had  lost 
two  joints  of  the  little  finger  of  the  left  hand.  As  they  appeared 
to  be  all  married  women,  I  supposed  it  to  be  a  part  of  the  marriage 
ceremony,  but  in  going  into  a  hut  where  there  were  several 
women  and  children  who  did  not  seem  inclined  to  show  themselves, 
I  found  one  woman,  who  appeared  to  have  had  children,  and  a 
very  old  woman,  on  neither  of  whom  this  operation  had  been 
performed.  There  was  likewise  a  child  of  five  or  six  years  of  age 
that  had  lost  the  two  joints.  It  is  the  women  only  that  suffer  this 
operation,  which,  as  it  must  be  performed  with  the  shell  that 
serves  them,  when  fixed  at  the  end  of  a  short  stick,  as  a  chisel 
for  pointing  their  spears  and  for  separating  the  oysters  from  the 
rocks,  must  be  a  painful  one.  And  as  it  is  only  on  the  little  finger 
of  the  left  hand  that  it  is  performed  it  cannot  be  any  part  of  the 
marriage  ceremony,  for  I  have  seen  several  women  with  child 
whose  fingers  were  perfect,  and,  as  I  before  observed,  a  female 
child  of  five  or  six  years  of  age  that  had  suffered  the  operation. 

I  likewise  saw  some  very 


female  children  whose  finjjers 

were  perfect.  The  loins  of  many  of  the  women  appeared  as  if 
they  had  something  of  a  scrofulous  disorder,  but  which  I  thought 
might  be  the  marks  still  remaining  of  a  chastisement.  They 
certainly  are  not  treated  with  any  very  great  tenderness,  and  I 
believe  are  mostly  employed  in  the  canoes,  where  I  have  seen 
them  with  very  young  infants  at  the  breast.  They  appear  very 
obedient  to  the  men,  and  as  they  are  the  weakest,  so  in  this  state 
of  nature  they  appear  to  be  treated  as  the  inferior.  The  women, 
as  well  as  the  men,  seem  fond  of  little  ornaments,  but  which  they 
soon  lay  aside,  and  the  talkative  lady,  when  she  joined  us  in  her 
canoe  the  day  after  we  first  landed,  stood  up  and  gave  us  a 



that  was  not  unpleasing.     As  most  of  the  women  have  lost  the       1788 

two  first  joints  of  the  Httle  finger  on  the  left  hand,  so  most  of  the     15  May. 

men  want  the  right  front  tooth  in  the  upper  jaw,   and  have  the  Disfl^^jn^ 

gristle  that  separates  the  nostrils  perforated,  frequently  having  practices." 

a  piece  of  stick  or  a  bone  thrust  through,  and  which  does  not 

add  to  their  beauty.     This  is  general,  but  I  saw  some  very  old 

men  that  had  not  lost  the  tooth,   and  whose  noses  were  not 

perforated  for  this  ornament.    On  my  showing  them  that  I  wanted 

a  front  tooth  it  occasioned  a  general  clamour,  and  I  thought  gave 

me  some  little  merit  in  their  opinion.     Their  bodies,  chiefly  about 

the  breasts  and  arms,   are  scarified,  and  sometimes  the  skin  is  scarifica- 

raised  for  several  inches  from  the  flesh,   appearing  as  if  it  was  *'°°* 

filled  with  wind,  forming  a  round  surface  of  more  than  a  quarter 

of  an  inch  in  diameter.     They  have  scars,  likewise,  on  difierent 

parts  of  the  body,  and  frequently  one  on  the  instep ;  nor  does  the 

head  always  escape,   for  one  of  them,  putting  aside  the  hairs  on  ' 

the  fore  part  of  the  head,  showed  a  scar,  and  then,  pointing  to  one 

on  the  foot  and  those  on  different  parts  of  the  body,  gave  us  to 

understand  that  he  was  honoured  by  these  marks  from  head  to 

foot.     The  scars  the  men  are  fond  of  showing,  but  I  did  not  think 

that  the  women  seemed  to  be  fond  of  showing  the  mutilated 

fingers,  and  sometimes  found  it  rather  diflicult  to  know  whether 

they  had  lost  the  joint  or  not,   for,   though  they  had  not  the 

smallest  idea  that  one  part  of  the  body  required  concealment 

more  than  the  other,  they  appeared  timid,  would  not  approach  us  Timidity  of 

so  readily  as  the  men  did,  and  sometimes  they  would  not  land  *^®  women, 

from  their  canoes,  but  made  signs  for  us  to  give  what  we  offered 

them  to  the  men. 

When  the  south  branch  of  Broken  Bay  was  first  visited  we  had 
some  difticulty  in  getting  round  the  headland  that  separates  the 
two  branches,  having  very  heavy  squalls  of  wind  and  rain,  and 
where  we  attempted  to  land  there  was  not  sutiicient  water  for 
the  boat  to  approach  the  rocks,  on  which  were  standing  an  old 
man  and  a  youth.  They  had  seen  us  labour  hard  to  get  under  A  friendly 
the  land,  and  after  pointing  out  the  deepest  water  for  the  boats,  deoiinud 
brought  us  fire,  and  going  with  two  of  the  ofiicers  to  a  cave  at 
some  distance,  the  old  man  made  use  of  every  means  in  his 
power  to  make  them  go  in  with  him,  but  which  they  declined ; 
and  this  was  rather  unfortunate,  for  it  rained  hard,  and  the  cave 
was  the  next  day  found  to  l)e  sufficiently  large  to  have  contained 
us  all,  and  which  he  certainly  took  great  pains  to  make  them  under- 
stand. When  this  old  man  saw  us  pi'epare  for  sleeping  on  the 
ground,  and  clearing  away  the  bushes,  he  assisted,  and  was  the  next 
morning  rewai-ded  for  his  friendly  behaviour.  Here  we  saw  a 
woman  Ijig  with  child  that  had  not  lost  the  joints  of  the  little  finger. 

When  we  returned,  two  days  afterwards,  to  the  spot  where  the 
old  man  had  been  so  friendly  he  met  us  with  a  dance  and  a  song 




15  Mav. 


Courafi-e  of 
the  natives. 

A  fish  diet. 

Absence  of 

So  taste  for 
bread  or 


Mode  of 

of  joy.  His  son  was  with  him.  A  hatchet  and  several  jiresent.s 
were  made  them,  and  as  I  intended  to  return  to  Port  Jackson 
the  next  day  every  possible  means  were  taken  to  secure  his 
friendship ;  but  when  it  was  dark  he  stole  a  spade,  and  was  caught 
in  the  fact.  I  thought  it  necessary  to  show  that  I  was  displeased 
with  him,  and  therefore,  when  he  came  to  me,  pushed  him  away, 
and  gave  him  two  or  three  slight  slaps  on  the  shoulder  with  the 
open  hand,  at  the  same  time  pointing  to  the  spade.  This  de- 
stroyed our  friendship  in  a  moment,  and  seizing  a  spear  he  came 
close  up  to  me,  poised  it,  and  appeared  determined  to  strike ;  but 
whether  from  seeing  that  his  threats  were  not  regarded — for  I 
chose  rather  to  risk  the  spear  than  lire  on  him — or  from  anything- 
the  other  natives  said  who  surrounded  him,  after  a  few  moments 
he  dropped  his  spear  and  left  us.  This  circumstance  is  mentioned 
to  show  that  they  do  not  want  personal  courage,  for  several 
officers  and  men  were  then  near  me.  He  returned  the  next 
morning  with  several  others,  and  seemed  desirous  of  being  taken 
notice  of ;  but  he  was  neglected,  whilst  hatchets  and  several  other 
articles  were  given  to  the  others. 

The  men  hang  in  their  hair  the  teeth  of  dogs  and  other  animals, 
lobsters'  claws,  and  several  small  liones,  which  they  secure  by 
gum  ;  but  I  never  saw  the  women  do  this.  Their  food  is  chiefly 
Hsh.  The  shark,  I  believe,  they  neA'er  eat.  The  fern  root,  wild 
fig,  and  the  kernels  of  a  large  fruit  that  is  not  unlike  a  pine-apple, 
but  which  when  eaten  by  the  French  seamen  occasioned  violent 
retchings.  Their  hooks  are  made  from  shells,  and  their  lines  and 
nets,  I  believe,  from  the  flax-plant  ;*  but  I  have  some  that  were 
made  from  the  fur  of  some  animal,  and  others  that  appeared  to 
be  made  of  cotton.  The  craw-fish  and  lobsters  they  catch  in 
small  hoop  nets,  the  making  of  which  shows  some  art ;  yet  they 
have  no  kind  of  cloathing.  At  the  same  time,  they  appear  to  be 
sensible  of  the  cold,  and  to  dislike  the  rain  very  much,  putting 
on  their  heads  when  it  rains  a  piece  of  bark,  under  which  I  have 
seen  them  shiver.  Their  huts  are  generally  surrounded  by  oyster 
and  muscle  shells,  and  their  bodies  smell  of  oil.  They  cannot  l^e 
called  a  very  cleanly  people,  yet  I  have  seen  one  of  them,  after 
having  in  his  hand  a  piece  of  pork,  hold  out  his  fingers  for  others 
to  smell,  with  strong  marks  of  disgust ;  and  tho'  they  seldom 
refused  bi'ead  or  meat  if  oflered  them,  I  have  never  been  able  to 
make  them  eat  with  us,  and  when  they  left  us  they  generally 
threw  away  the  bread  and  meat  :  but  fish  they  always  accepted, 
and  would  broil  and  eat  it. 

The  ground  having  been  seen  raised  in  several  places,  as  is 
common  in  England,  where  poor  people  are  buried  I  had  one  of 
these  graves  opened,  and  from  the  ashes  had  no  doubt  but  that 
they  burn  their  dead.  From  the  appearance  of  the  ashes,  the  body 
must  be  laid  at  length  only  a  few  inches  below  the  surface,  and 

See  appendix  B. 


is,  \vitl\  the  wood  ashes  made  by  burning  the  body,  covered  lightly       1788 
over  with  mould,  fern,  and  a  few  stones.      A  grave  was  opened     15  May. 
by  Captain  Hunter,  in  which  part  of  a  jawbone  was  found,  not 
consumed  by  the  tire,  but  we  have  seen  very  few  of  these  graves, 
;ind  none  near  their  huts. 

It  is  not  230ssible  to  determine  with  any  accuracy  the  number  of  Number  of 
natives,  but  I  think  that  in  B(jtany  Bay,  Port  Jackson,  Broken  Bay,  p'^,y,'fation. 
and  the  intermediate  coast  they  cannot  be  less  than  one  thousand 
five  hundred. 

In  goinij  to  examine  a  cove  near  the  entrance  of  the  harbour 
(Shell  Cove)  I  found  a  passage  with  deep  water  into  a  branch  of 
the  harbour  that  runs  to  the  north-west,  and  finding  on  examining 
that  there  was  a  run  of  fresh  water  that  came  fi'om  the  westward, 
I  went  a  few  days  after  to  examine  the  source.  I  landed  with 
four  days'  provision,  several  officers,  and  a  small  party  of  marines, 
and  found  to  the  northward  of  this  part  of  the  harbour  a  large  Lake 
lake,  which  we  examined,  tho'  not  without  great  labour,  for  it  is  ^'''"^  ®'^"' 
surrounded  with  a  bog  and  large  marsh,  in  which  we  were 
frequently  up  to  the  middle  There  we  saw  a  black  swan  ;  it  was 
larger  than  the  common  swan,  and  when  it  rose,  after  being  fired 
at,  the  wings  appeared  to  be  edged  with  white;  there  is  some  red 
on  the  bill,  and  it  is  a  very  noble  bird.  With  great  labour,  in 
three  days  we  got  round  the  swamps  and  marshes,  from  which  all 
the  fresh  water  drains  that  this  harbour  is  supplied  with. 

The  country  we  past  thro'  when  we  left  the  low  grounds  was 
the  most  rocky  and  barren  I  ever  saw  ;  the  ascending  and  descend- 
ing of  the  mountains  being  practicable  only  in  particular  places, 
J>ut  covered  with  flowering  shrubs  ;  and  when  about  fifteen  miles 
from  the  sea-coast  we  had  a  very  fine  view  of  the  mountains  inland, 
the  northermost  of  which  I  named  Carmarthen  Hills,*  and  the  Carmar- 
.southermost  Lansdowne   Hills. f     A  mountain  between  I  called  Lansdowne 
llichmond  Hill,;  and  from  the  rising  of  these  mountains  I  did  not  Hills. 
doubt  but  that  a  large  river  would  be  found,  in  search  of  which 
I  set  off  the  22nd  of  April,  with  six  days'  provision.     We  were 
eleven  officers  and  men,  and  landed  near  the  head  of  the  harbour. 
Here  the  country  was  good,  l)ut  we  soon  came  to  a  close  cover, 
tliat  we  endeavoured  for  some  time  to  get  thro',  but  were  obliged 
tf)  return,  and  the  next  day  past  this  cover  by  keeping  along  the 
l)anks  of  a  small  creek  for  about  four  miles.       The  three  following 
<lays    we    proceeded    to    the    westward,    finding  the   country   in  Fine 
general  as  fine  as  any  I  ever  saw,  the  trees  growing  from  twenty  the 
to  forty  feet  fi-om  each  othei-,   and,   except  in  particular  places  ^vcstward. 
where  the  soil  was  stony  and  very  poor,   no  underwood.     The 

*  Named  after  the  Marquis  of  Carmartlicn,  afterwards  Puke  of  Leeds,  who  was  Secretary 
•f  State  for  tlie  Korei(,'n  Department,  and  administered  tlie  affairs  of  the  colonies  durinj,'  a 
])art  of  the  year  1783. 

t  Named  after  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne  (Earl  of  Shelburne). 

X  .Named,  it  is  supposed,  after  the  Duke  of  Richmond,  then  Master-General  of  the 


1788       country  thro'  which  we  past  was  mostly  level,  or  only  rising  in 
15  May.      small  hills,  which  gave  it  a  pleasing  and  picturesque  appearance. 
The  fifth  day  we  got  to  a  rising  ground,   and  for  the  first  time 
since  we  landed  saw  Carmarthen  Hills,  as,  likewise,  the  hills  to  the 
southward.      The  country  round  this  hill  was  so  beautiful  that  I 
called  the  hill  Bellevue,  but  the  hills  we  wished  to  reach  still 
appeared  to  be  at  least  thirty  miles  from  us.     We  had  been  five 
days  out,  and  the  want  of  provisions  obliged  us  to  return  to  the 
spot  we  left,  ])y  the  track  we  went,  otherwise  our  journey  might  be 
Exploration  lengthened  several  days  longer  than  we  expected,  by  meeting  with 
^  ^^'^  •       deep  ravines,  which  we  might  be  obliged  to  go  round ;  and,  I  believe, 
no  country  can  be  more  difficult  to  peiietrate  into  than  this  is,  tho' 
we  always  found  pools  of  water  that  had  remained  after  the  rainy 
season,  yet,  as  that  could  not  be  depended  on,  the  water  necessary  for 
the  day  was  always  carried,  which,  with  the  provisions,  arms,  and 
a  couple  of  tents,  obliged  every  officer  and  man  to  carry  a  very 
heavy  load,  but  which  at  present  was  so  much  lightened,   and 
having  the  trees  marked,  in  one  day  and  a  half  we  got  back  to  the 
head  of  the  harbour.     We  had  been  thirty  miles  to  the  westward, 
and  had  seen  a  country  that  might  be  cultivated  with  ease,  and  I 
Land  fit  for   intended  returninsf  in  a  few  days  in  hopes  of  reaching  the  bottom 
c   tna  ion.    ^£  Lan.(jgf|Q-^n.  Or  Carmarthen  Hills ;  and  the  tracing  of  the  natives 
inland,  added  to  the  hopes  of  finding  a  large  river,  which  the  appear- 
ance of  the  country  promised,  made  everyone,  notwithstanding  the 
fatigue,  desirous  of  being  of  the  party  ;  but  my  having  when  I  went 
to  Broken  Bay,  before  I  was  perfectly  recovered  from  the  complaint 
Hardships  of  which  had  been  so  general,  slept  several  nights  on  the  wet  ground, 
°'     brought  on  a  pain  in  the  side,  which  this  journey  increased  so  much 
that  I  found  a  few  weeks'  rest  necessary  after  I  returned. 

I  have  had   the  honor    of  informing  your  Lordship  that  we 
Good  now  know  there  is  a  good  country  near  us,  and  it  shall  be  settled 

countrv  »/  ^ 

near  tiie        and  cultivated  early  in  the  spring.     In  this  journey  I  was  surprized 

settlement.    ^^  g^^j  temporary  huts  made  by  the  natives  far  inland,  where  they 

must  depend  solely  on  animals  for  food,   and  to  procure  which 

we  have  never  yet  seen  any  other  weapon  than  the  spear,  which 

is  certainly  very  inferior  to  our  guns,  and  with  which  in  this 

journey,  tho'  we  were  in  want  of  provisions  for  the  last  two  days, 

procured  us  barely  sufficient  for  two  meals.     These  huts  consist  of 

only  a  single  piece  of  bark,  about  eleven  feet  in  length,  and  from 

Gunyah.".      four  to  six  feet  in  breath,  being,  when  stripped  from  the  tree,  bent 

in  the  middle,  and  sat  up  as  children  put  up  a  card,  affording 

shelter  against  a  shower  of  rain  if  you  sit  under  it.     The  hut  may, 

perhaps,  only  be  intended  to  hide  them  from  the  animals  they  lay 

in  wait  for.     Near  one  of  these  huts  we  found  some  of  the  bones 

of  a  kangaroo,  and  saw  sevei'al  trees  that  were  on  fire  ;  the  natives, 

Trees  on        I  suppose,  had  left  them  on  our  approach.      I  also  found  the  root 

^'^'  of  fern,  or  something  like  the  fern  root,  that  had  been  chewed  by 


one  of  the  natives  ;  he  could  only  have  left  the  spot  a  few  minutes  ;       1788 
but  we  never  saw  any  of  them,  and  I  believe  their  numbers  in     15  May. 
these  woods  must  be  vei-y  small.    A\'liether  they  live  in  the  woods 
by  choice,  or  are  driven  from  the  society  of  those  who  inhabit  the 
sea-coast,  or  whether  they  travel  to  a  distant  part  of  the  country, 
I  can  form  no  judgment  at  present.     The  bark  of  many  of  the 
trees  were  cut  in  notches,  and  at  the  foot  of  one  tree  we  found  the 
fur  of  a  flying  squirrel.     Many  trees  were  seen  with  holes  that 
had  been  enlarged  by  the  natives  to  get  at  the  animal,  either  the  How  the 
squirrel,  kangaroo  rat,  or  opossum,  for  the  going  in  of  which  pei'haps  ^^l^^ 
they  wait  under  their  temporary  huts,  and  as  the  enlarging  these  smau  game. 
holes  could  only  be  done  with  the  shell  they  use  to  separate  the 
oysters  from  the  rocks,  must  require  great  patience.      Against 
several  trees  where  the  hole  was  near  the  ground,  but  too  high  to 
reach,  boughs  of  trees  were  laid  for  to  climb  up  by.     We  saw  many 
places  where  the  natives  had  made  fires,  but  at  one  place  only 
were  any  oyster  or  muscle  shells  seen,  and  there  not  more  than 
half-a-dozen,  and  no  fish-bones,  so  that  when  they  go  inland  they 
certainly  do  not  carry  any  fish  to  support  them. 

In  Botany  Bay,  Port  Jackson,  and  Broken  Bay  we  frequently  Aboris-inal 
saw  the  tigui'es  of  men,  shields,  and  fish  roughly  cut  on  the  rocks;  '^'^^^'"°- 
and  on  the  top  of  a  mountain  I  saw  the  figure  of  a  man  in  the 
attitude  they  put  themselves  in  when  they  are  going  to  dance, 
which  was  much  better  done  than  I  had  seen  before,  and  the 
figure  of  a  large  lizard  was  sufficiently  well  executed  to  satisfy 
every  one  what  animal  was  meant. 

In  all  the  country  thro'  which  I  have  passed  I  have  seldom  Traces  of 
gone  a  quarter  of  a  mile  without  seeing  trees  which  ap'pear  to  have  *'''''"• 
been  destroyed  by  fire.  We  have  seen  very  heavy  thunderstorms, 
and  I  believe  the  gum-tree  strongly  attracts  the  lightning,  but 
the  natives  always  make  their  fire,  if  not  before  their  own  huts, 
at  the  root  of  a  gum-tree,  which  burns  very  freely,  and  they  never 
put  a  fire  out  when  they  leave  the  place. 

Near  some  water  we  saw  the  dung  of  an  animal  that  fed  on  plenty  of 
grass,   and   which   I   thought  could   not  be    less  than    a    horse.  *''*'"'^- 
Kangaroos  were  frequently  seen,  but  very  shy,  and  it  is  a  little 
extraordinary  that  more  of  these  animals  are  seen  near  the  camp 
than  in  any  other  part  of  the  country,  notwithstanding  they  are 
fired  at  almost  daily.     Black  swans  are  found  on  most  of  the  Black  swans, 
lakes,  and  a  bird  as  large  as  the  ostrich  was  killed  while  I  was  at 
Broken  Bay.     It  differs  both  from    the    ostrich    and    the  emu. 
Several  have  been  seen,  but  they  are  very  shy,  and  much  swifter 
than  the  greyhounds.     Here  are  wild  ducks,  teal,   and  quails,  vviid  duciis. 
with  great  variety  of  small  birds. 

On  my  return  from  this  excursion  I  had  the  mortification  to  find  Sheep  kilkd 
that  five  ewes  and  a  lamb  had  been  killed  in  the  middle  of  the  day,  ^oji?  ""^ 
and  very  near  the  camp,  I  apprehend  by  some  of  the  native  dogs. 




15  May. 

Departure  of 
for  China — 
the  Supply 
to  Lord 





12  Feb. 

King's  ajj- 
to  Norfolk 

The  beginning  of  May  the  rainy  season  was  once  more  sup- 
posed to  be  set  in,  but  after  a  week  Ave  had  fine  weather. 

The  three  transports  for  China*  sailed  the  5th,  6th,  and  8th  of 
May ;  and  the  Supply,  having  been  caulked,  sailed  the  6th  to 
Lord  Howe  Island,  to  endeavour  to  procure  turtle,  in  hopes  of 
checking  the  scurvy,  with  which  most  of  the  people  are  aft'ected, 
and  near  two  hundred  rendered  incapable  of  doing  any  work.  It 
is  not  possible  to  send  the  Sirius  to  the  northward,  for  she  inust 
then  have  her  carpenters,  and  only  three  of  those  hired  from  the 
transports  now  remain  •  and  tho'  the  detachment  began  to  build 
barracks  for  the  use  of  the  men  and  huts 'for  the  ofiicers  the 
14th  of  February,  and  near  a  hundred  convicts  were  given  to 
assist  in  this  work,  they  are  not  yet  finished,  nor  is  the  hospital 
or  the  store-house  that  is  to  receive  the  provisions  still  remaining 
on  board  three  transports,  and  on  these  works  the  carpenters  of 
the  Sirius  are  employed.  I  have  before  pointed  out  the  great 
labour  in  clearing  the  ground  as  one  cause  of  our  slow  progress. 

Your  Lordship  will,  I  hope,  excuse  the  confused  manner  in 
which  I  have  in  this  letter  given  an  account  of  what  has  past 
since  I  left  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  It  has  been  written  at 
different  times,  and  my  situation  at  present  does  not  permit  me 
to  begin  so  long  a  letter  again,  the  canvas  house  I  am  under  being 
neither  wind  nor  water  proof.  I  have,  &c., 

[Enclosure.]  ^-   I'hillip. 

Government  of  Norfolk  Island. 
By  His  Excellency  Arthur  Phillip,  Esq.,  Governor-in-Chief  and 
Captain-General  in  and  ovei-  his  Majesty's  territory  of  New 
South  Wales  and  its  dependencies,  itc,  ifec,  &c. 
By  virtue  of  the  power  and  authority  vested  in  me,  I  do  hereby 
constitute  and  appoint  you,  Philip  Gidley  King,  Superintendant 
and  Commandant  of  Norfolk  Island,  and  of  the  settlement  to  be 
made  thereon,  f 

You  are  therefore  carefully  and  diligently  to  dischai'ge  the  duty 
of  Superintendant  and  Commandant  of  the  same,  by  doing  and 
performing  all  and  every  such  instructions  as  you  have,  or  may 
hereafter,  from  time  to  time,  receive  from  me,  for  the  good  of  his 
Majesty's  service. 

Given  under  my  hand  and  seal,  at  head-quarters,  in  Port 
Jackson,  New  South  Wales,  this  12th  day  of  February, 
1788.  Arthur  Phillip. 

To  Philip  Gidley  King,  Esq., 

Superintendant  and  Commandant  of  Norfolk  Island. 
By  Command  of  his  Excellency. 

Andrew  Miller,  Secretary. 

*"  Scarborough,  Charlotte,  and  Lady  Penrhyn. 

t  See  Phillip's  despatch  to  Lord  Sydney,  ante,  p.  124.      Kiiijf  was  afterwards  appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor  of  Norfolk  Island  bj'  Commission,  post,  p.  287. 



[Enclosure.]  1788 

Instructions  for  Philip  Gidley  King,  Esq.,  SuperintencLant  and      12  Fei>. 

Coiniiiandant  of  the  Settlement  of  Norfolk  Island. 

With  these  Instructions  you  will  receive  my  Commission  appoint-  Kinga 

ing    you    to    superintend    and    command    the    settlement    to    be 

formed  on  Norfolk  Island,  and  to  obey  all  such  orders  as  you 

.shall,  from  time  to  time,  receive  from  me,  his  Majesty's  Governor- 

in-Chief  and    Captain-General   of   the   territory   of    New   South 

Wales  and  its  dependencies,  or  from  the  Lieutenant-Governor  in 

my  absence. 

You  are  therefore  to  proceed  in  his  Majesty's  armed  tender 

Supply,  whose  commander  has  my  orders  to  receive  you  with  the 

men  and  women,  stores  and  provisions,  necessary  for  forming  the 

intended  settlement,  and  on  your  landing  on  Norfolk  Island  take  Settlement 

.  .  to  be 

upon  you  the  execution  of  the  trust  reposed  in  you,  causing  my  fonned. 

Commission  appointing  you  Superintendant  over  the  said  settle- 
ment to  be  publicly  read. 

And  after  having  taken  the  necessary  measures  for  securing  J^?^  island 
yourself  and  people,  and  for  the  preservation  of  the  stores  and  culthateii. 
provisions,  you  are  immediately  to  proceed  to  the  cultivation  of 
the  ilax-plant,  which  you  will  lind  growing  spontaneously  on  the 
island,  as  likewise  to  the  cultivation  of  cotton,  corn,  and  other 
grains,  with  the  seeds  of  which  you  are  furnished,  and  which  you 
are  to  regard  as  public  stock,  and  of  the  increase  of  which  you 
are  to  send  me  an  account,  that  I  may  know  what  quantity  may 
be  drawn  from  the  island  for  the  public  use,  or  what  supplies 
may  be  necessary  to  send  hereafter.     It  is  left  to  your  discretion 
to   use  such  part  of  the  corn  that   is    raised  as  may  be  found 
necessary ;  but  this  you  are  to  do  with  the  greatest  economy.  Economy  in 
And  as  the  corn,  flax,  cotton,  and  other  grains  are  the  property  grainf*^  ° 
of  the  Crown,  and  are  as  such  to  be  accounted  for,  you  are  to 
keep  an  exact  account  of  the  increase,  and  you  will,  in  future, 
receive  directions  for  the  disposal  thereof. 

You  are  to  inform  yourself  of  the  nature  of  the  soil,  what  pro-  The 
portion  of  land  you  tind  proper  for  the  cultivation  of  corn,  flax,  and  of  the  island 
cotton,  as  likewise  what  quantity  of  cattle  may  be  bred  on  the  *"  '^'r  , 
island,  and  the  number  of   people  you   judge  necessary  for  the 
above  purposes.     You  will  likewise  obser\e  what  are  the  prevail- 
ing winds  in  the  diflerent  seasons  of  the  year,  the  best  anchorage 
according  to  the  season,  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides,  likewise 
when  the  dry  and  rainy  seasons  begin  and  end. 

You  will  l)e  furnished  with  a  four-oared  boat,  and  you  are  not  ^^l^'F^, 
on  any  consideration  to  l)uild  or  to  permit  the  building  of  any  built, 
vessel  or  boat  whatever  that  is  decked,  or  of  any  boat  oi'  vessel 
that  is  not  decked,  whose  length  of  keel  exceeds  twenty  feet ;  and 
if  by  any  accident  any  vessel  or  boat  that  exceeds  twenty  feet 
keel  .should   be  driven  on  the   island,  you  are   immediately  to 


1788       cause  such  boat  or  vessel  to  be  scuttled,  oi'  otherwise  rendered 
12  Feb.      unserviceable,  letting  her  remain  in  that  state  until  you  receive 
further  directions  from  me. 
Provisions         You  will  be  furnished  with  provisions  for  six  months,  within 
months.        which  time  you  will  receive  an  additional  supply,  but,  as  you  will 
be  able  to  procure  fish  and  vegetables,  you  are  to  endeavour  to 
make  the  provisions  you  receive  serve  as  long  as  possible. 
Convicts  to        The  convicts  being  the  servants  of  the  Crown  till  the  time  for 
public.          which  they  are  sentenced  is  expii-ed,  their  labour  is  to  be  for  the 
public,  and  you    are  to  take  particular  notice  of   their  general 
good  or  bad  behaviour,  that  they  may  hereafter  be  employed  or 
rewarded  according  to  their  different  merits. 
Observance        You  are  to  cause  the  prayers  of  the  Church  of  England  to  be 
re  igion.    ^,gg^^  with  all  due  solemnity  every  Sunday,  and  you  are  to  enforce 
a  due  observance  of  religion  and  good  order,  transmitting  to  me, 
as  often  as  opportunity  offers,  a  full  account  of  your  particular 
situation  and  transactions, 
with^tradin        You  are  not  to  permit  any  intercourse  or  trade  with  any  ships 
vessels          or  vessels  that  may  stop  at  the  island,  whether  English  or  of  any 
pro  ibite  .    Q^hgj,  nation,  unless  such  ships  or  vessels  are  in  distress,  in  which 
case  you  are  to  afford  them  such  assistance  as  may  be  in  your  power. 
Given  under  my  hand,  at  head-quarters,  in   Port  Jackson, 
New  South  Wales,  this  12th  day  of  February,  1788. 
Arthur  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 
My  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson,  May  16,  1788. 

16  May.  I  have  in  my  first  letter  had  the  honour  of  observing  to  your 

Superinten-   Lordship  the  great  want  of  proper  persons  to  superintend  the 
dents  convicts.     The  ofiicers  who  compose  the  detachment  are  not  only 

wanted.  n         ■  cii  ni-i  •  p 

tew  m  number,  but  most  or  them  have  declined  any  mterterence 
with  the  convicts,  except  when  they  are  employed  for  their  own 
particular  service.  I  requested  soon  after  we  landed  that  ofiicers 
would  occasionally  encourage  such  as  they  observed  diligent,  and 
point  out  for  punishment  such  as  they  saw  idle  or  straggling  in 
Reluctance  the  woods.  This  was  all  I  desired,  but  the  olficers  did  not  under- 
superids"  °  stand  that  any  interference  with  the  convicts  was  expected,  and 
convicts.  that  they  were  not  sent  out  to  do  more  than  the  duty  of  soldiers. 
The  consequence  must  be  obvious  to  your  Lordship.  Here  are  only 
convicts  to  attend  to  convicts,  and  who  in  general  fear  to  exert 
any  authority,  and  very  little  labour  is  drawn  from  them  in  a 
country  which  requires  the  greatest  exertions.  In  this  declara- 
tion I  do  not  mean  to  include  the  Lieut. -Governor,*  who  has  shown 
every  attention  that  could  be  expected  from  him  ;  and  the  Judge- 
Advocate,!  acting  as  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  with  a  diligence  that 

*  Robert  Ross.  Major  of  Marines  and  Commandant  of  the  detachment  at  Port  Jackson, 
t  David  Collins,  Captain  of  Marines,  aiso  Secretary  to  the  Go\ernor. 


does  him  the  greatest  credit,  they  are  under  as  good  order  as  our      1788 
present  situation  permits.  16  May. 

The  sitting  as  members  of   the  Criminal  Court  is  thought  a  officerT 
hardship  by  the  officers,  and  of   which  they  say  they  were  not  object  to  sit 

t/  «/  t/  ^  „  criiiiiniiA 

informed  before  they  left  England.      It  is  necessary  to  mention  court. 
this  circumstance  to  your  Lordship,  that  officers  coming  out  may 
know  that  a  young  colony  requires  somethmg  more  from  officers 
than  garrison  duty. 

The  not  having  the  power  of  immediately  granting  lands  the  Disap- 
officers  likewise  feel  as  a  hardship.     They  say  that  they  shall  be  ^etung  nt 
obliged  to  make  their  minds  up  as  to  the  staying  in  the  country  land. 
or  returning  before  they  can  know  what  the  bounty  of  Govern- 
ment intends  them. 

As  it  is,  my  Lord,  impossible  for  the  Commissary  to  attend  to  Assistant 
the  issuing  of  provisions  without  some  person  of  confidence  to  appo^nted!^ 
assist  and  to  be  charged  with  the  details,  I  have  appointed  the 
person  who  was  charged  with  the  victuallmg  the  convicts  from 

There  is  likewise  a  veiy  useful  person  who  acts  as  Provost-  Superinten- 
Martial  (the  one  appointed  in  England  not  having  come  out),  and  works. ' 
who  likewise  superintends  the  diffiirent  works  gomg  on. 

Two  people,  who  are  farmers,  and  the  clerk  of  the  Sirius  are  Making:  men 
employed  in  cultivating  ground,  and  in  the  store,  as  likewise  a  ^^®*^'- 
smith  that  superintends  the  convict  smiths.      As  the  granting 
these  people  any  land  would  at  present  draw  their  attention  from 
the  public  service,  I  have  promised  that  their  situation  should  be 
represented  to  your  Lordship.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

My  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  N.S.  Wales,  May  16,  1788. 

I  have  the  honor  of  transmiting  your  Lordship  copies  of 
the  proceedings  of  a  battalion  court-martial,  and  the  letters  which 
passed  on  that  occasion,*  by  which  your  Lordshij)  will  see  the 
reasons  assigned  by  the  commandant  of  the  detachment  for  puting  Officers 
the  officers  under  arrest,  as  likewise  the  reasons  giving  [given  ?]  airest. 
by  the  court  for  not  altering  the  sentence. 

Battalion  court-martial  being  ordei-ed  by  Major  Ross,  as  Com- 
mandant of  the  detachment,  when  he  judged  necessaiy,  I  was 
not  informed  of  the  courtsf  being  under  arrest  till  the  next 
morning,  when  he  came  to  inform  me,  and  I  used  every  means  in 
my  power  to  prevent  a  general  court-martial,  the  inconveniences 
of  which  were  obvious.  Any  accommodation  being  declined,  I 
did   not  judge  it  prudent  to  put  the  guards  in    the  charge  of 

*  Post,  pp.  140-141,  159-164. 

t  The  ott-.cers  constituting-  the   court,   viz.,  Capt.-Lt.   Tench,  1st   Lt.  Kellow,   1st  Lt. 
Poulden,  1st  Lt.  Davey,  and  Ist  Lt.  Tiuiins. 



A  marine 
strikes  a 

1788      serjants,  which  must  have  l^een  done  to  assemble  the  court,  the 
16  May.       number  of  officers    capable   of   doing  duty   being    but  thirteen. 
I  therefore  ordered  the  officers  to  return   to   their  duty  till  a 
general  court-martial  could  be  assembled.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Proceedings  of  a  court-martial  held  at  Port  Jackson,   by  order 
of  Major  Ross,  Commandant  of  the  Battalion  of  Marines. 

Captain-Lieut.  Tench,  President. 

Members: — First   Lieut.   Kellow,   F.    Lieut.   Davey,   F.  Lieut. 
Poulden,  F.  Lieut.  Timins. 
IS  March.  18th  March,  1788. 

Joseph  Hunt,  private  of  the  15th  Compy.,  bro't  to  trial  for 
striking  William  Dempsey,  private  in  Captain  Meredith's  cy., 
when  going  to  the  cooking-place. 

William  Dempsey  prosecutes,  and  informs  the  court  that  on 
Sunday  evening  last,  as  he  was  going  to  the  cooking-place  with  a 
pot  in  his  hand  to  boil,  he  saw  Jane  Fitzgerald,  a  female  convict, 
talking  to  another  marine.  The  woman  (Fitzgerald)  asked  him 
how  he  did.  He  told  her  he  was  well,  immediately  on  which  the 
prisoner  came  up  and  struck  him  with  a  stick.  On  his  asking 
Hunt  the  meaning  of  such  treatment,  he  told  him  that  he  would 
let  him  know  that  he  had  no  right  to  speak  to  any  woman  of  his 
(the  prisoner's)  ship.  Thos.  Jones,  marine,  then  coming  up, 
asked  why  he  struck  Dempsey.  He  directly  called  him  a  Ports- 
mouth rascal,  and  told  him  to  go  directly  out  of  his  sight.  On 
further  advice  from  Jones  to  return  to  his  tent,  the  prisoner  at 
length  complied. 
Evidence.  Thomas  Jones,  private  of  the   15th  Compy.,  informs  the  court 

that  he  was  standing  near  the  cooking-place  on  Sunday  evening, 
when  he  heard  some  words  between  the  prosecutor  and  prisoner 
of  an  angry  nature,  but  which  he  could  not  distinctly  make  out. 
He  says  that  he  saw  no  blows  pass,  and  that  after  some  little  time 
Hunt  went  away  towards  his  tent. 

James  Wedman,  private  of  the  5th  Compy.,  informs  the  court 
that  he  was  at  the  cooking-place  at  the  time  William  Dempsey 
came  up,  and  that  on  a  female  convict  speaking  to  him,  the  prisoner 
struck  him  on  the  shoulders  with  a  small  stick  he  had  in  his  hand. 
Dempsey  showed  some  dissatisfaction  at  this,  upon  which  Hunt 
struck  him  twice  on  the  head  with  his  hst,  and  on  being  told  by 
the  prosecutor  that  he  would  complain  of  him,  the  prisoner  said 
that  if  he  pleas'd  he  was  welcome  to  do  so.  After  this  Hunt  went 
away  to  the  encampment. 

Question  from  the  prisoner  to  Wedman :~  Did  you  hear  me  say 
to  Dempsey  that  he  should  not  speak  to  a  woman  of  the  ship  I 
came  out  in  ?     Answer  :  I  did  not. 


Question  from  the  prisoner  to  the  prosecutor  : — Did  I  strike  you       1788 
■with   my  open  hand  or  my  clench'd  fist  1     Answer :    I  am  not    18  March, 
certain  what  it  was,  tho'  I  think  rather  with  the  open  hand. 

The  prisoner,  being  put  on  his  defence,  acknowledges  that  he  The  offence 
struck  the  prosecutor,  but  says  that  he  was  not  in  earnest  in  it, 
and  did  it  not  with  the  intention  of  hurting  him.  Denies  having 
said  to  him  that  he  would  not  allow  him  to  speak  to  any  woman 
of  the  ship  he  came  out  in,  and  submits  himself  to  the  mercy  of  the 
court.  The  prisoner  calls  on  the  President  of  the  court  and  Lieu- 
tenants Poulden  and  Timins  for  a  character,  and  those  members 
are  glad  to  have  it  in  their  power  to  give  him  the  character  of  a 
good  soldier. 

The  court  was  of  opinion  that  the  prisoner  is  guilty  of  the  crime 
laid  to  his  charge,  and  falls  under  a  breach  of  the  18th  Article  of 
the  1 4th  section  of  the  Articles  of  War,  and  do  sentence  him  either 
to  ask  puljlic  pardon  before  the  battalion  of  William  Dempsev,  ''''^^^ 
the  soldier  whom  he  struck  and  injur'd,  or  to  receive  one  hundred 
lashes  on  his  bare  back,  by  the  drummers  of  the  detachment,  and 
where  the  commanding  officer  shall  appoint. 

Watkix  Tench, 
Capt.-Lt.  Mars.  [Marines]  and  President. 

The  court  having  met  a  second  time,  by  order  of  the  command-  Jtsconfirma- 
ing  officer,  to  reconsider  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  crime  laid  to 
the  prisoner's  chai'ge,  the  evidence  in  support  of  the  prosecution, 
the  prisoner's  defence,  and  their  own  judgment,  do  not  in  delibera- 
ting among  themselves  see  any  cause  to  rescind  the  sentence  they 
have  already  given.  Watkix  Tench, 

Capt.-Lieut.  and  President. 

Proposed  Trading  Settlement  at  Norfolk  Island. 

London,  May  24,  1788.         24  May. 
To  the  Right  Honourable  Lord  Sydney,  one  of  his  Majestie's 

Principal  Secretarys  of  State,  etc.,  &c. 
The  petition  of  Sir  George  Young,  Knt.,  and  John  Call,  Esquire, 

in  behalf  of  themselves  and  others, — 
Sheweth — 

That  your  petitioners  have  it  in  contemplation  to  form  a 
settlement  on  a  small  uninhabited  island,  first  discovered"  by 
Captain  Cook,  and  by  him  named  Norfolk  Island,*  lying  in  the 
latitude  of  29^  2'  south,  and  longitude  108°  IG'  east  from  Green- 
wich, in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  in  order  to  promote  the  cultivation  of 
the  New  Z(!aland  flax-jjlant,  and  the  growth  of  pine  timber  for  pjax  and 
masts,  being  persuaded  that  if  tliey  ai-e  fortunate  enough  to  timber. 
succeed   in  their    undertaking    it    will  be   attended    with   great 

■*  The  petitioners  were  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  this  island  }ia(l  been  taken  possession 
of  by  Lieutenant  King,  and  a  settlement  planted  there,  three  months  before  the  date  of 
their  ai)pIication. 




.  21  Maj'. 

at  Norfolk 

*  July. 




5  July. 


national  utility,  by  furnishing  a  future  supply  of  those  valuable 
articles  of  cordage  and  masts  for  his  Majestie's  ships-of-war  in 
India,  which  have  hitherto  been  obtained  at  an  enormous  expense, 
owing  to  the  difficulty  of  conveying  them  thither,  and  from  their 
scarcity  have  often  reduced  the  maritime  force  employ'd  in  the 
East  Indies  to  ajreat  inconvenience  and  even  distress. 

Your  petitioners,  therefore,  considering  the  great  expence  and 
risque  they  must  necessarily  incur  in  prosecuting  an  enterprise 
in  which  if  they  succeed  the  nation  cannot  fail  in  being  benehted, 
A  free  grant,  humbly  solicit  from  his  Majesty  a  grant  to  them  and  their  heirs 
for  ever  of  the  said  island,  to  be  held  of  the  Crown  as  of  the 
Manor  of  East  Greenwich.  Geo.  Young. 

Jno.  Call. 

Surgeon  White  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

July  the  4th,  1788. 
Among  the  troops,  their  wives  and  children,  as  well  as 
the  convicts  who  have  been  ill,  the  want  of  necessaries 
to  aid  the  operation  of  medicine  has  been  most  materially  and 
sensibly  felt.  My  duty  leads  me  to  mention  this  circumstance  to 
your  Excellency  in  order  that  you  may  use  such  means  for  their 
procurement  as  may  seem  most  expedient. 

For  your  Excellency's  information  I  have  taken  the  liberty  to 
insert  the  articles  in  the  marofin*  which  come  under  the  head  of 
necessaries,  to  which  I  beg  leave  to  add  blankets  and  sheets  for 
the  hospital,  none  of  which  are  in  the  colony,  altho'  they  are 
essential  and  absolutely  necessary.  The  want  of  them  makes 
that  observance  and  attention  to  cleanliness  (a  circumstance 
which  among  sick  persons  cannot  be  too  much  inculcated  or 
attended  to),  utterly  impossible.  With  respect  to  necessaries, 
our  situation  here,  constantly  living  on  salt  provisions  without 
any  possibility  of  a  change,  makes  them  more  necessary  than 
perhaps  in  any  other  quarter  of  the  globe.     I  have,  &c., 

John  White,  Surgeon. 


Spirits  for 



Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  ISTepean. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

Dear  Sir,  July  the  5th,  1788. 

Having,  pursuant  to  the  instructions  I  received  from  the 

Right  Honourable  the  Lord  Sydney,  ordered  the  Commissary  to 

purchase  a  sufficient  quantity  of  spirits  at  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  serve 

the  garrison  for  three  years  from  the  time  of  their  landing,  the 

same  is  issued  according  to  the  instructions  ;  but  the  soldiers' 

wives  soon  after  landing  being  sickly,  and  the  surgeon  judging 

that  a  small  quantity  of  spirits  would  be  of  service,  I  then  ordered 

the  Commissary  to  issue  to  each  soldier's  wife  half  the  proportion 

*  Sugar,  sago,  barley,  rice,  oatmeal,  currants,  spices,  vinegar,  portable  soup,  tamarinds. 


of  spirits  allowed  the  husbands — that  is,  one-quarter  of  a  pint 
per  day,  on  condition  that  the  quantity  so  issued  should  be  here- 
after stop'd  from  the  husbands'  allowance  if  not  approved  of.  ^  "^"^^'• 

The  same  ration  is  settled  by  the  Navy  Board  for  the  detach- 
ment as  for  the  convicts,  and  is  as  follows,  viz.  :— 

Rations  for  seven  days  successively  for  each  marine  and  male  Rations, 
convict — 

Seven  pounds  of  bread,  or,  in  lieu  thereof,  seven  pounds  of  flour. 

Seven  pounds  of  beef,  or,  in  lieu  thereof,  four  pounds  of  pork  ; 
three  pints  of  pease;  six  ounces  of  butter;  one  pound  of  flour,  or, 
in  lieu  thereof,  half  a  pound  of  rice. 

I  am  informed  that  seven  pounds  of  pork  is  given  to  the 
soldiers  in  the  settlement  when  they  are  served  pork,  and  not 
four  pounds  of  pork  in  lieu  of  seven  pounds  of  beef ;  and  here, 
as  is  the  custom  of  the  Navy,  the  eighth  is  deducted. 

You  will,  sir,  be  so  good  as  to  explain  the  intent  of  Government  stoppage  of 
on  this  head.     The  eighth  is  stopped  for  the  benefit  of  the  Crown,  Percentage. 
and  to  make  up  for  the  loss  in  serving  in  small  quantities.     The 
Commissary,  of  course,  has  not  any  advantage  from  the  provisions. 

The  one  pound  of  flour  is  not  clearly  understood.     If  intended 
to  be  given  weekly,  as  is  done,  or  if  it  was  intended  to  be  given 
in  lieu  of  pease,  which  from  the  manner  of  wording  the  order 
from  the  Navy  Board  does  not  appear  to  have  been  the  intention 
of  Government.      If  it  is  not  the  intention  of  Government  that  the  what  does 
eighth  should  be  stopped,  I  have  promised  that  they  should  be  Q^fvemment 
repaid  when  the  Right  Honourable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  intend  ? 
his  Majesty's  Treasury  have  signified  their  pleasure  thereon. 

Every  possible  attention  will  be  given  to  the  cultivation  of  the  piax. 
flax-plant  when  circumstances  permit,  and  on  our  first  arrival  in 
this  port  it  was  frequently  met  with  ;  but  when  I  judged  the 
seed  to  he  ripe,  and  ordered  it  to  be  collected,  veiy  little  was  found, 
and  none  in  those  places  where  it  had  been  seen  in  any  quantity, 
which  I  impute  to  the  natives  pulling  up  the  plant  when  in 
flower  to  make  their  fishing-lines.  A  few  plants  have  been 
collected,  and  which  are  sent  home  under  the  care  of  the  agent 
of  the  transports. 

Sheep  do  not  thrive  in  this  country  at  present,  but  as  many  cows  sheep  do 
with  one  or  two  young  bulls  as  the  ships  intended  for  this  settle-  nottlirivc. 
ment  that  touch  at  the  Cape  can  receive  on  board  will,  I  hope,  be 
ordered,  as  likewise  seeds  and  a  few  quarters  of  wheat,  barley, 
and  Indian  corn. 

Cloathing  for  the  natives,  if  sent  out,  will,  I  daresay,  be  very  clothing  for 
accejjtable  to  them  when  they  come  amongst  us.    I  should  recom-  *^^  natives 
mend  long  frocks  and  jackets  only,  wliich  will  equally  serve  both 
men  and  women. 

A  great  part  of  the  cloathing  I  have,  sir,  already  observed  was  Bad 
very  bad,  and  a  great  part  of  it  was  likewise  too  small  for  people  clothing. 




5  July. 

Presents  for 
the  natives. 

9  July. 



\  new 




of  common  size.     If  some  coarse  blankets  were  to  be  sent  out  they 
would  greatly  contribute  to  preserve  the  health  of  the  convicts. 

In  addition  to  the  frocks  and  jackets  for  the  natives,  good  house 
carpenters'  axes,  hats,  hooks  and  lines  will  be  the  most  beneficial, 
as  well  as  most  acceptable,  to  the  natives.  I  have,  etc., 

A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 

Sir,  9th  July,  1788. 

You  will  please  to  inform  their  Lordships  that  I  have 
permitted  First  Lieutenant  James  Maxwell  and  Second  Lieutenant 
William  Collins  to  return  to  England,  in  consequence  of  the  report 
made  to  the  Governor  and  me  of  the  impossibility  of  their  recover- 
ing their  health  in  this  country. 

Enclosed  you  have  a  copy  of  the  report  of  the  surgeons,*  and  the 
Governor  is  to  order  them  a  passage  in  such  of  the  returning 
transports  as  he  chooses. 

I  have  directed  them,  upon  their  arrival  in  England,  to  transmit 
to  you  a  copy  of  their  letter  of  leave,  as  likewise  an  account  of 
their  then  state  of  health,  and  to  request  their  Lordships'  orders 
for  their  future  proceedings. 

The  several  duties  we  have  to  perform  being  very  sevei'e  upon 
the  officers  in  general,  and  the  subalterns  in  particular,  I  beg  to 
assure  their  Lordships  that  nothing  less  than  the  chance  of  saving 
those  officers'  lives  could  have  made  me  grant  the  leave  they 
requested,  and  therefore  hope  their  Lordships  will  ajiprove  of  what 
I  have  done. 

I  have  taken  them  off  the  strength  of  the  detachment,  and 
Second  Lieut.  Dawes,  who  has  been  discharg'd  from  the  Sirius's 
books,  has  taken  the  place  of  Second  Lieutenant  Collins  in  it. 

I  have  likewise  turned  a  drummer,  a  very  bad  one,  into  the  ranks, 
and  replaced  him  with  a  very  fine,  stout  boy,  son  to  one  of  the 
detachment,  in  order  to  draw  as  few  men  as  possible  from  the 
Sirius ;  and,  sir,  as  he  is  attested,  he  stands  upon  the  strength  of 
the  detachment.  I  have,  etc., 

Pt.  Pioss,  Major. 

Major  Poss  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 
Sir,  9th  July,  1788. 

Inclosed  you  have  for  their  Lordships' information  a  general 
return  of  the  state  of  the  detachment  under  my  command.  By  it 
you  will  see  that  we  want  one  second  lieutenant  to  complete  the 
four  companies. 

*  Surjreon  White,  chief  surgeon  of  the  settlement,  and  Surgeon  Worgan,  of  the  Sirius, 
reported  that  Lieut.  Collins  suffered  from  dysentery  and  Lieut.  Maxwell  from  amaurosis. 


As  I  have  ever  since  my  arrival  here  entered  my  son,  John       l'^88 
Ross,   as  a  volunteer,   serving  without  pay,   may  I  presume  to     9  July, 
solicite  their  Lordships  to  do  me  the  honor  of  appointing  him  to  johnRoss. 
that  vacancy  in  the  detachment  1 

What  emboldens  me  to  pray  their  Lordships  for  this  particular 
mark  of  favor  is,  my  knowing  the  attention  shown  by  the  Board 
of  Admiralty  in  giving  a  preference  to  the  children  of  old  officers.  An  old 
among  which  number  I  may,  after  two-and-thirty  years'  actual  °   ^'^^  ^  ^°"' 
service,  surely  class  myself.  I  have,  <fec., 

*  R.  Ross,  Major. 

[Enclosure.  ] 

Officers  of  the  Detachment  of  Marines. 

Mojor-Commandant : — Robert  Ross. 

Captains  : — James  Campbell,  John  Shea. 

Captain- Lieutenants  : — James  Meredith,  Watkin  Tench. 

First  Lieutenants  : — George  Johnston,  John  Johnstone,  John 
Creswell,  James  Maitland  Shairp,  Robert  Kellow,  Thomas  Davey, 
John  Poulden,  Thomas  Timins. 

/Second  Lieuteiiants : — Ralph  Clarke,  William  Faddy,  William 

Adjutant  Second  Lieutenant : — John  Long. 

Quarter-master  First  Lieutenant : — James  Furzer. 

Judge- Advocate  : — -David  Collins. 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 
My  Lord,  July  the  9th,  1788. 

T  have  had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship  of  the 
situation  of  this  colony  prior  to  the   15th  of   May,  since  which 
two  stores  have  been  finished,   and  the  ships  are  now  landing  stores  and 
the  remainder  of  the  stores  and  provisions.  provisions. 

The  commandant  of  the  detachment,  having  enclosed  letters 
from  First  Lieutenant  James  Maxwell  and    Second  Lieutenant  officers 
William  Collins,    and  desired   that  their  requests   to  return  to  retumins^on 
Europe  might  be  complied  with,  if  their  state  of  health  was  found 
by   the   surgeon  to  be   as  represented,   and  the  surgeon  having 
reported  First  Lieutenant  Maxwell  as  incapable  of  duty,  from  a 
defect   in   his  sight,   and  Second  Lieutenant  Collins    to    be    so 
debilitated  in  state  from  a  long  illness  that  his  life  depends  on  his 
returning  to  Europe,  these  officers  have  my  leave  ;  and  Lieutenant 
Collins  is  charged  with  the  despatches  for  your  Lordship.    Lieu-  Lieutenant 
tenant  Dawes,*  who  came  out  as  a  lieutenant  of  marines  on  board  ^^'''^^• 
the  Sirius,  replaces  one  of  these  officers. 

The  hutting  the  battalion  is  still  going  on,   and  though  from  Building 
seventy  to  one  hundred  convicts  have  been  almost  constantly  *^"^'*' 

*  William  Dawes,  Second  Lieutenant  of  Marines.    Officer  of  Enjjineers  and  Artillery. 




9  July. 






Failure  to 




transports  to 

A  convict 



employed  assisting  in  this  business,  it  "will  not,  I  apprehend,  be 
finished  before  the  end  of  July ;  and  every  day  proves  the  neces- 
sity of  proper  persons  being  sent  out  to  superintend  the  convicts. 
If  a  small  number  of  carpenters  and  bricklayers  are  sent  out  with 
proper  people,  who  are  capable  of  superintending  the  convicts, 
they  will  soon  be  rendered  serviceable  to  the  State,  and  without 
which  they  will  remain  for  years  a  burden  to  Government. 
Xumbers  of  them  have  heen  brought  up  from  their  infancy  in 
such  indolence  that  they  would  starve  if  left  to  themselves ;  and 
many  (their  numbers  now  exceed  fifty),  from  old  age  and  dis- 
orders which  are  incurable,  and  with  which  they  were  sent  from 
England,  are  incapable  of  any  kind  of  work. 

Thus  situated,  your  Lordship  will  excuse  my  observing  a  second 
time  that  a  regular  supply  of  provisions  from  England  will  be 
absolutely  necessary  for  four  or  five  years,  as  the  crops  for  two 
years  to  come  cannot  be  depended  on  for  more  than  what  will  be 
necessary  for  seed,  and  what  the  Sirius  may  j)rocure  can  only 
be  to  breed  from.  Should  necessity  oblige  us  to  make  use  of 
wliat  that  ship  may  be  able  to  procure,  I  do  not  apprehend  that 
the  live  stock  she  will  bring  in  twelve  months  will  be  more  than 
a  month's  provision  for  the  colony ;  and  the  supply  is  totally 
unfit  for  a  service  of  this  kind. 

Lieutenajit  Ball  returned  the  25th  from  Lord  Howe  Island, 
where  I  had  sent  him  in  hopes  he  would  have  been  able  to  pro- 
cure some  turtle  for  the  sick,  but  the  weather  was  bad,  and  that 
island,  not  having  any  good  water,  will  not  be  of  any  service  to 
us,  for  Lieutenant  Ball  did  not  see  any  turtle,  nor  does  he  suppose 
they  were  bred  there.  The  transports  that  sailed  for  China*  had 
my  directions  not  to  go  to  that  island,  but  they  all  appeared 
there  before  the  Supply  left  it,  and  one  was  near  Ijeing  lost. 

The  store-ships  and  transports,  as  cleared,  are  ordered  to 
prepare  to  return  to  England  immediately,  but  some  of  their 
sheathing  being  much  destroyed  by  the  worms,  it  is  necessary  to 
permit  several  of  those  ships  to  heave  down. 

One  of  .the  convicts  who,  in  searching  for  vegetables,  had  gone 
a  considerable  distance  from  the  camp,  returned  very  dangerously 
wounded  in  the  back  by  a  spear.  He  denies  having  given  the 
natives  any  provocation,  and  says  that  he  saw  them  carrying 
away  a  man  that  had  gone  out  for  the  same  purpose,  and  who 
they  had  wounded  on  the  head.  A  shirt  and  hat,  both  pierced 
with  spears,  have  been  since  found  in  one  of  the  natives'  huts, 
but  no  intelligence  can  be  got  of  the  man,  and  I  have  not  any 
doubt  but  that  the  natives  have  killed  him,  nor  have  I  the  least 
doubt  of  the  convicts  being  the  aggressors.  Eleven  male  and 
one  female  convicts  have  been  missing  since  we  landed.     A  bull 

*  Scarborough,  Charlotte,  and  Lady  Penrylm.     They  sailed  respectively  on  the  5th,  6th 
and  8th  May.    Ante,  p.  136. 


calf  has  likewise  been  wounded  by  a  spear,  and  two  goats  have  1788 
been  killed  by  some  of  our  own  people,  the  skin  of  one  being  9  July, 
found  where  the  natives  never  appear,  so  that  the  little  stock  we 
now  have  is  likely  to  decrease  ;  and  though  robberies  are  punished 
with  severity,  there  is  not  a  week  passes  but  there  are  people  who 
lose  their  provisions  and  cloaths,  which  in  our  present  situation 
it  is  impossible  to  prevent. 

I  should  hope  that  few  convicts  will  be  sent  out  this  year  or  Despatch  of 
the  next,  unless  they  are  artificers,  and  after  what  I  have  had  ghouid^be 
the  honour  of  observing  to  your  Lordship  I  make  no  doubt  Ijut  restricted. 
proper  people  will  J)e  sent  to  suj^erintend  them.     The  ships  that 
bring  out  convicts  should  have  at  least  the  two  years'  provisions 
on  board  to  land  with  them,  for  the  putting  the  convicts  on  board 
.some  ships  and  the  provisions  that  were  to  support  them  in  others, 
<is  was  done,  I  beg  leave  to  observe,  much  against  my  intimation, 
must  have  been  fatal  if  the  ship  carrying  the  provisions  had 
been  lost. 

I  have  the  honour  to  enclose  your  Lordship  the  intended  yAan  Plan  of 
for  the  town.      The  Lieutenant-Governor  has  already  begun  a  ''^  "f^" 
small  house,  which  forms  one  corner  of  the  parade,  and  I  am 
Ijuilding  a  small  cottage  on  the  east  side  of  the  cove,  where  I 
shall  remain  for  the  present  with  part  of  the  convicts  and  an 
officer's  guard.     The  convicts  on  both  sides  are   distributed  in 
huts,  which  are  Ijuilt  only  for  immediate  shelter.     On  the  point 
of  land  which  forms  the  west  side  of  the  cove  an  Observatory  is  vatory. 
building,  under  the  direction  of  Lieutenant  Dawes,  who  is  charged 
by  the  Board  of  Longitude  with  observing  the  expected  comet. 
The  temporary  Ijuildings  are  marked  in  black  ;  those  intended  to 
remain,  in  red.     We  now  make  very  good  bricks,  and  the  stone  is 
good,  but  do  not  find  either  limestone  or  chalk.   As  stores  and  other  no 
buildings  will  l)e  begun  in  the  course  of  a  few  months,  some  regular  limestone, 
plan  for  the  town  was  necessary,  and  in  laying  out  of  which  I 
have  endeavoured  to  place  all  public  buildings  in  situations  that 
will  be  eligil)le  hereaftei',  and  to  give  a  sufficient  share  of  ground 
f<jr  the  stores,  hospitals,  etc.,  to  be  enlarged,  as  may  be.  necessary 
in  the  future.     The  principal  streets  are  placed  so  as  to  admit  a 
free  circulation   of  air,   and   are   two   hundred  feet  wide.     The  The  streets 
ground  marked  for  Government  House  is  intended  to  include  the  ^^la^^^^ 
main  guard,  Civil  and  Criminal  Courts,  and  as  the  ground  that 
runs  to  the  southward  is  nearly  level,  and  a  very  good  situation 
for  )>uildings,  streets  will  be  laid  out  in  such  a  manner  as  to  ail'ord 
.1  free  air,  and  when  the  houses  are  to  be  built,  if  it  meets  with 
your  Lordship's  apprcjijation,  the  land  will   be   granted   witli   a 
clause  that  will  ever  prevent  more  than  one  house  being  built  on  BuiifHntr 
the  allotment,  which  will  be  sixty  feet  in  front  and   150  feet  in  restrictions, 
depth.     This  will  preserve  uniformity  in  the  buildings,  prevent 
narrow  streets,  and  the  many  inconveniences  which  the  increase 



9  Julv. 





Murders  bj- 

The  blacks 
not  the 

But  they 





of  inhabitants  would  otherwise  occasion  hereafter, 
is  a  building  that  will  stand  for  some  years.      It 

The  hospital 
is  clear  of  the 
town,  and  the  situation  is  healthy.  The  barracks  and  huts  now 
building  for  the  officers  and  men  will  stand  three  or  four  years. 
If  water  could  be  found  by  sinking  wells  on  the  high  ground 
between  the  town  and  the  hospital,  I  pi'oposed  building  the 
barracks  on  that  spot,  and  sui'rounding  them  with  such  works  as 
we  may  be  able  to  make,  and  which  I  did  intend  beginning  as 
soon  as  the  transports  were  cleared  and  the  men  hutted ;  but  I 
now  find  that  without  some  additional  workmen  the  progress 
must  be  so  very  slow  that  that  design  is  laid  aside,  and  the  only 
building  I  shall  attempt  will  be  a  store-house.  That  will  be  secure, 
those  we  have  already  built  being  not  only  in  danger  from  fire, 
from  being  thatched,  but  of  material  that  will  not  stand  more 
than  two  years.  The  barracks,  and  all  buildings  in  future,  will 
be  covered  with  shingles,  which  we  now  make  from  a  tree  like  the 
pine-tree  in  appearance,  the  wood  resembling  the  English  oak. 

The  30th  of  May  two  men  employed  collecting  thatch  at  some 
distance  from  the  camp  were  found  dead ;  one  of  them  had  four 
spears  in  him,  one  of  which  had  passed  through  his  body ;  the 
other  was  found  at  some  distance  dead,  but  without  any  apparent 
injury.  This  was  a  very  unfortunate  circumstance,  and  the  more, 
as  it  will  be  impossible  to  discover  the  people  who  committed 
the  murder,  and  I  am  still  persuaded  the  natives  were  not  the 
aggressors.  These  men  had  been  seen  with  one  of  their  canoes, 
but  I  was  not  informed  of  that  circumstance  for  some  days. 
Though  I  did  not  mean  to  punish  any  of  the  natives  for  killing 
these  people,  which,  it  is  more  than  probable,  they  did  in  their 
own  defence,  or  in  defending  their  canoes,  I  wished  to  see  them, 
and  as  they  had  carried  away  the  rushcutters'  tools,  I  thought 
they  might  be  found  out,  and  some  explanation  take  place,  for 
which  purpose  I  went  out  with  a  small  party  the  next  day,  and 
landed  where  the  men  were  killed  ;  but  after  traversing  the  country 
more  than  twenty  miles  we  got  to  the  north  shore  of  Botany  Bay 
without  meeting  any  of  the  natives.  There  we  saw  about  twenty 
canoes  fishing.  It  was  then  sunset,  and  as  we  made  our  fires  and 
slept  on  the  beach  I  did  not  doubt  but  some  of  them  would  join 
us,  but  not  one  appeared;  and  the  next  morning,  tho'  fifty  canoes 
were  drawn  up  on  the  beach,  we  could  not  find  a  single  person ; 
but  on  our  return,  keeping  for  some  time  near  the  sea-coast,  we 
came  to  a  cove  where  a  number  of  the  natives  were  assembled,  I 
believe  more  than  what  belonged  to  that  particular  spot.  Though 
we  were  within  ten  yards  when  we  first  discovered  each  other, 
I  had  barely  time  to  order  the  party  to  halt  before  numbers 
appeared  in  arms,  and  the  foremost  of  them,  as  he  advanced,  made 
signs  for  us  to  retire,  but  upon  my  going  up  to  him,  making  signs 
of  friendship,  he  gave  his  spear  to  another,  and  in  less  than  three 

THE    CATTLE    LOST.  149 

minutes  we  were  surrounded  by  two  hundred  and  twelve  men,       1788 
numbers  of  women  and  children  were  at  a  small  distance,   and      9  July, 
whether  by  their  superiority  of  numbers,  for  we  were  only  twelve, 
or  from  their  not  being  accustomed  to  act  with  treachery,  the 
moment  the  friendship  I  offei'ed  was  accepted  on  their  side  they  Friendship 
joined  us,  most  of  them  laying  down  their  spears  and  stone  hatchets  accepted. 
with  the  greatest  conhdence,  and  afterwards  brought  down  some 
of  their  women  to  receive  the  little  articles  we  had  to  give  them. 
I  saw  nothing  to  induce  me  to  believe  these  people  had  been  con- 
cerned in  the  murther  which  had  been  committed.  We  parted  on 
friendly  terms,   and  I  was  now  more  than  ever  convinced  of  the 
necessity  of  placing  a  confidence  in  these  people  as  the  only  means  How  to  treat 
of  avoiding  a  dispute.      Had  I  gone  up  to  them  with  all  the  party,     '^  "aiues. 
though  only  twelve,  or  hesitated  a  moment,  a  lance  would  have  been 
thrown,  and  it  would  have  been  impossible  to  have  avoided  a  dispute. 

Here  we  saw  the  finest  stream  of  fresh  water  I  have  seen  in  this  a  fine 
country,  but  the  cove  is  023en  to  the  sea.     When  the  natives  saw  water. 
we  were  going  on  towards  the  next  cove,  one  of  them,  an  old  man, 
made  signs  to  let  him  go  first,  and  as  soon  as  we  were  at  the  top 
of  the   liill  he  called  out,  holding  up  both  his  hands  (a  sign  of 
friendship)  to  the  people  in  the  next  cove,  giving  them  to  under-  Friendly 
stand  that  we  were  friends ;  we  did  not  go  to  that  cove,  but  saw  "**'*«^- 
about  forty  men ;  so  that,  unless  these  people  had  assembled  on 
some  particular  occasion,  the  inhabitants  are  still  more  numerous 
than  I  had  imagined.     I  have  V^efore  had  the  honor  of  observing 
to  your  Lordship  that  we  had  traced  the  natives  thirty  miJes 
inland,  and  this  morning,  in  crossing  the  hills  between  Botany  Bay  inland 
and  Port  Jackson,  we  saw  smoke  on  the  top  of  Landsdowne  Hills,  ^^  '^®^" 
so  that  I  think  there  cannot  be  any  doubt  of  there  being  inhabitants 
fifty  miles  inland. 

His  Majesty's  birthday  was  observed  with  every  possible  mark  The  King's 
of  attention  our  situation  permitted.     The  three  men  that  liad  "'  '  ^^' 
been  reprieved   from  death,   in  order  to  be   exiled,   were   fully 
pardoned,  and  for  the  twenty -four  hours  I  believe  there  was  not 
one  heavy  heart  in  this  pai't  of  his  Majesty's  dominions. 

If  we  had  been  unfortunate  in  our  live  stock  in  general,  I  had 
the  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  cows  and  horses  thrive  ;  but  the  man 
who  attended  the  former,  having  left  them  for  a  short  time,  they 
strayed  and  were  lost.*  The  loss  of  four  cows  and  two  bulls  will  Cattle  lost, 
not  easily  be  repaired.  Pardon,  my  Lord,  these  tedious  relations 
of  robberies  and  losses  ;  it  is  the  only  means  I  have  of  giving  your 
Lordship  a  faint  idea  of  the  situati<jn  in  which  I  am  placed.  Of 
the  live  stock  purchased  at  the  Cape,  part  died  on  the  passage,  and 
the  greatest  part  of  what  remained  since  landing. 

*  The  cattle  made  their  way  to  the  Cowpastures  on  the  Neptan  River,  where  they  were 
found  by  Governor  Hunter,  20th  November,  1795.  They  had  increased  to  upwards  of  60 
head.    Collins,  vol.  I,  p.  430. 




9  Julj-. 





reason  to  believe  that  one 




preparing  to 

A  fine 

Tne  people 

of  the  natives  had  been 
murthered  and  several  wounded,  which,  it  is  probable,  occasioned 
the  attack  on  the  rushcutter,  I  have  promised  to  emancipate  any 
convict  that  will  discover  the  aggressors ;  it  will,  T  hope,  at  least 
prevent  anything  of  this  kind  in  future. 

A  convict  who  had  committed  a  robbery,  and  absconded  the 
5th  of  June,  returned  the  24th,  almost  starved ;  he  found  it 
impossible  to  subsist  in  the  woods.  One  of  the  natives  gave  him 
a  fish,  but  then  made  signs  for  him  to  go  away.  He  says  he  after- 
wards joined  a  party  of  the  natives,  who  would  have  burned  him, 
Ijut  that  he  got  away  from  them,  and  that  he  saw  the  remains  of 
a  human  body  on  the  fire.  In  the  woods  he  saw  four  of  the  natives 
who  were  dying,  and  who  made  signs  for  food.  This  man  was 
tried,  pleaded  guilty,  and  suffered  with  another  convict.  He 
persisted  in  the  story  respecting  the  natives  intending  to  burn 
him,  and  I  now  believe  they  find  the  procuring  a  subsistence  very 
difficult,  for  little  fish  is  caught. 

The  22nd  of  this  month  (June)  we  had  a  slight  shock  of  an 
earthquake ;  it  did  not  last  more  than  two  or  three  seconds.  I 
felt  the  ground  shake  under  me,  and  heard  a  noise  that  came  from 
the  southward,  which  1  at  first  took  for  the  I'eport  of  guns  fired 
at  a  great  distance. 

Four  ships  are  now  clear,  and  preparing  to  sail  the  first  week 
in  July  ;*  a  fifth  will  be  clear  in  a  few  days,  if  the  heavy  rains  we 
have  had  these  two  days  will  cease,  and  will  sail  with  them.  The 
store-ship  that  has  the  spirits  on  board  must  remain  some  time 
longer.     I  hope  to  send  her  away  by  the  middle  of  August. 

Tho'  we  have  had  heavy  rains  at  the  change  of  the  moon, 
this  cannot  be  called  a  rainy  season.  The  climate  is  a  very  fine 
one,  and  the  country  will,  I  make  no  doubt,  when  the  woods  are 
cleared  away,  be  as  healthy  as  any  in  the  world,  but  is,  I  believe, 
subject  to  violent  storms  of  thunder  and  lightning.  Soon  after  we 
landed,  several  trees  were  fired  by  the  lightning,  and  several 
sheep  and  hogs  killed  in  the  camp. 

Of  the  convicts,  36  men  and  4  women  died  on 


men  and  8  women  since 


-eleven  men  and  one 




absconded  ;  four  have  been  executed,  and  three  killed  by  the 
natives.  The  number  of  convicts  now  employed  in  erecting  the 
necessary  buildings  and  cultivating  the  lands  only  amounts  to 
320 — and  the  whole  number  of  people  victualled  amounts  to  966 
— consequently  we  have  only  the  labour  of  a  part  to  provide  for 
the  whole. 

Your  Lordship  will  doubtless  see  the  necessity  of   employing  a 
considerable  force  in  the  country,  and  I  presume  an  addition  of 

*  The  greater  part  of   this  despatch  appears  to  have  been  written  before  the  date  it 




five  hundred  men  will  he  absolutely  requisite  to  enable  me  to  1788 
detach  three  or  four  comi^anys  to  the  more  open  country  near  the  9  July. 
head  of  the  harbour. 

I  could  have  wished  to  have  given  your  Lordship  a  more  T^e  outlook 
pleasing  account  of  our  present  situation ;  and  am  persuaded  I  i„fr. 
shall  have  that  satisfaction  hereafter  ;  nor  do  I  doubt  but  that 
this  country  will  prove  the  most  valual^le  acquisition  Great 
Britain  ever  made  ;  at  the  same  time  no  country  offers  less  assist- 
ance to  the  first  settlers  than  this  does ;  nor  do  I  think  any 
country  could  be  more  disadvantageously  placed  with  respect  to 
support  from  the  mother  country,  on  which  for  a  feAV  years  we 
nmst  entirely  depend. 

The  heavy  rains  have  prevented  the  provisions  and  stores  being  Heavy  rain, 
landed  so  soon  as  I  expected.  It  is  now  the  9th  July,  and  the 
ships  sail  the  12th.  Duplicates  and  triplicates  of  my  despatches 
to  your  Lordship  go  by  these  ships,  and  I  have  the  honor  of 
enclosing  your  Lordship  the  returns  of  the  detachment  and  of 
the  sick  ;  the  necessary  demands  for  the  hospital,  &c.,  are  sent  to 
the  Under  Secretaries  of  State.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 
[Enclosure.  ] 

Ax  Account  of  Live  Stock  in  the  Settlement,  May  1st,  1788. 

To  whom 





















GoTernment     . . 

Lieut. -Governor 

Officers  ami  men 


detachment    . . 








1  ram 
12  ewes 
3  wethers 
1  ewe 
1  lamb 

'  11 




1  boar 

19  sows 









■  ■ 




















Otlier  individuals  ,. 











Since  the  1st  of  May,  three  sheep  dead,  and  the  cows  and  bulls  lost, 

Andkew  Millek,  Commissary. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.* 
3Iy  Dear  Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  July  the  9th,  1788. 

You  will  see  by  my  letters  to  Lord  Sydney  that  this  colony 
must  for  some  years  depend  on  supplies  from  England. 

The  Sirius  will    l)e    sent   to  the  northward  for  live  stock  as  ThcSiriusto 
soon  as  we  can  spare  her  carpenters ;  and  from  what  Monsieur  f°J^^  '*^  "^ 

*  A  private  letter.     A  ffreat  deal  of  the  information   it  contains  is  given  in   Phillip's 
despatch  to  Lard  Sydney  of  the  same  date. 



Land  in 





Losses  of 
live  stock 

1788  La  Perouse  said  to  Captain  Hunter,  one  of  the  lies  des  ISTaviga- 
9  July,  teurs  is  the  most  Hkely  to  furnish  us  with  what  we  want.  But 
though  these  islands  supply  two  or  three  ships  very  abundantly, 
they  will  afford  but  very  little  towards  the  support  of  this  colony, 
the  situation  of  which  I  have  particularly  pointed  out  in  my  letter 
to  Lord  Sydney,  and  which  I  shall  recapitulate  in  this,  as  the 
ship  by  which  1  now  write  may  arrive  before  either  of  those  that 
have  my  despatches  on  board. 

The  Lieutenant-Governor  has  about  four  acres  of  land  in  culti- 
vation. I  have  from  eight  to  ten  in  wheat  and  barley.  The 
officers  will  be  able  to  raise  sufficient  to  support  the  little  live 
stock  they  have,  and  which  is  all  that  can  be  expected  from 
them.  All  the  corn  raised  this  year  and  the  next  will  be  saved  for 
seed,  and  if  necessity  should  oblige  us  to  use  it  it  would  be  only 
a  few  days'  sujjport  for  the  colony  ;  and  from  the  rats  and  other 
vermin  the  crops  are  very  uncertain. 

This  country  is  subject  to  very  heavy  storms  of  thunder  and 
lightning,  several  trees  having  been  set  on  fire  and  some  sheep 
and  dogs  killed  in  the  camp  since  we  landed. 

All  the  provisions  we  have  to  depend  on  until  supplies  arrive 
from  England  are  in  two  wooden  buildings,  which  are  thatched. 
I  am  sensible  of  the  risk,  but  have  no  remedy. 

The  greatest  part  of  the  stock  brought  from  the  Cape  is  dead, 
and  from  the  inattention  of  the  men  who  had  the  care  of  the 
cattle,  those  belonging  to  Government  and  two  cows  belonging 
to  myself  are  lost.  As  they  have  been  missing  three  weeks,  it  is 
probable  they  are  killed  by  the  natives.  All  my  sheep  are  dead, 
and  a  few  only  remain  of  those  purchased  for  Government.  The 
loss  of  four  cows  and  two  bulls  falls  very  heavy.  The  horses 
do  very  well. 

With  respect  to  any  resources  that  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  might 
afford,  I  have  only  to  observe  that  the  strong  westerly  winds  that 
prevailed  all  the  year  between  that  Cape  and  the  southern  ex- 
tremity of  this  country  would  render  a  passage  to  the  Cape  very 
tedious  if  attempted  to  the  southward,  and  little  less  so  if  ships 
go  to  the  northward.  "Batavia  and  our  own  settlements  are  at  a 
great  distance,  and  when  the  transports  are  sailed  I  shall  have 
only  the  Sirius  to  employ  on  a  service  of  this  kind ;  and  as  I  should 
not  think  myself  at  liberty  to  send  either  to  the  Cape  or  the  East 
Indies  unless  in  a  case  of  the  greatest  necessity,  it  would  in  all 
probability  then  be  too  late.  I  mention  these  circumstances  just 
to  show  the  real  situation  of  the  colony,  and  I  make  no  doubt  but 
that  supplies  will  arrive  in  time,  and  on  which  alone  I  depend. 
The  provisions  sent  to  support  this  colony  for  two  years  being 
A  great  risk,  put  on  board  three  ships  was  running  a  very  great  risk,  for  had 
they  separated  and  afterwards  been  lost  the  consequence  is  obvious, 
for  this  country  at  present  does  not  furnish  the  smallest  resource 

Difficulty  in 




except  in  fish,  and  which  has  lately  been  so  scarce  that  the  natives       1'''88 
find  great  difficulty  in  supporting  themselves.      Any  accident  of      9  July, 
this   kind  will  be   guarded  against,  of   course ;    and   soldiers  or  pighTpoor 
convicts  when  sent  out  will  be  put  on  board  the  ships  with  pro-  resource. 
visions  to  serve  them  for  two  years  after  they  land;  and  in  our 
present  situation  I  hope  few  convicts  will  be  sent  out  for  one  year  No  drones 
at  least,  except  carpenters,  masons,  and  bricklayers,  or  farmers,  who  ^^"  ^  • 
can  support  themselves  and  assist  in  supporting  others.  Numbers  of 
those  now  here  are  a  burthen  and  incapable  of  any  kind  of  hard 
labour,  and,  unfortunately,  we  have  not  proper  people  to  keep  those 
to  their  labour  who  are  capable  of  being  made  useful. 

Officers  decline  the  least  interference  with  the  convicts,  unless  officers  win 
when  they  are  immediately  employed  for  their  (the  officers)  own  "°''  ^^^^^' 
conveniency,  or  when  they  are  called  out  at  the  head  of  their 
men  :  the  saying  of  a  few  words  to  encourage  the  diligent  when 
they  saw  them  at  work,  and  the  pointing  out  the  idle  when  they 
could  do  it  without  going  out  of  their  way,   was  all  that  was 
desired.     The  convicts  were  then  employed  clearing  the  ground 
on  which  the  officers  were  encamped,  and  this  they  refused ;  they 
did  not  suppose  that  they  were  sent  out  to  do  more  than  garrison 
duty,  and  these  gentlemen  (that  is,  the  majority  of  the  officers) 
think  the  being  obliged  to  sit  as  members  of  the  Criminal  Court  Judicial 
an  hardship,  and  for  which  they  are  not  paid,  and  likely  think  objected  to 
themselves  hardly  dealt  by,  in  that  Government  had  not  determined 
what  lands  were  to  be  given  them.     But  I  presume  an  additional 
force  will  be  sent  out  when  the  necessity  of  making  detachments  in 
order  to  cultivate  lands  in  the  more  open  country  is  known,  and 
from  four  to  six  hundred  men  will,  I  think,  be  absolutely  necessary. 

If  fifty  farmers  were  sent  out  with  their  families  they  would  Farmers  as 
do  more  in  one  year  in  rendering  this  coloiiy  independent  of  the  ^'^*'*'^s'^^- 
mother  country,  as  to  provisions,  than  a  thousand  convicts.  There 
is  some  clear  land,  which  is  intended  to  be  cultivated,  at  some 
distance  from  the  camp,  and  I  intended  to  send  out  convicts  for 
that  purpose,  under  the  direction  of  a  person  that  was  going  to 
India  in  the  Charlotte,  transport,  but  who  remained  to  settle  in 
this  country,  and  has  been  brought  up  a  farmer,  but  several  of 
the  convicts  (tiii-ee)  having  been  lately  killed  by  the  natives,  I 
am  obliged  to  defer  it  untill  a  detachment  can  be  made. 

The  natives  are  far  more  numerous  than  they  were  supposed  to  The  natives 
be.  I  think  they  cannot  be  less  than  fifteen  hundred  in  Botany 
Bay,  Port  Jackson,  and  Broken  Bay,  including  the  intermediate 
coast.  I  have  traced  thirty  miles  inland,  and  the  having  lately  seen 
smoke  on  Landsdown  Hills,  which  are  fifty  mUes  inland,  I  think 
leaves  no  doul)t  but  that  there  are  inhabitants  in  the  interior 
parts  of  the  country. 

Lists  of  what  articles  are  most  wanted  will  be  sent  by  the 
Commissary ;   and  I  am  very  sorry  to  say  that  not  only  a  great 





9  Julv. 

Provost - 


and  Golden 


China  for  the 

The  climate. 

in  the  bush. 

pai't  of  the  cloathing,  particularly  the  women's,  is  very  bad,  but 
most  of  the  axes,  spades,  and  shovels  the  worst  that  ever  were  seen. 
The  provision  is  as  good.  Of  the  seeds  and  corn  sent  from 
England  part  has  been  destroyed  by  the  weevil ;  the  rest  in  very 
good  order. 

The  person  I  have  appointed  Provost-Marshall  is  likewise  very 
useful  in  superintending  the  carpentry ;  the  person  sent  out  by 
the  contractor,  who  assists  the  Commissary  in  the  delivery  of 
provisions,  one  that  was  clerk  of  the  Sirius,  a  master  smith,  and 
two  farmers  are  very  useful  people,  and  I  beg  leave  to  recommend 
them  to  Government.  The  granting  them  lands  would  draw  their 
attention  from  their  present  occupations. 

We  had  a  slight  shock  of  an  earthquake  in  the  afternoon  of  the 
22nd  [June] ;  it  lasted  between  two  and  three  seconds,  and  was 
attended  with  a  noise  like  the  report  of  very  distant  cannon, 
which  came  from  the  southward. 

The  Fishburn,  store-ship,  is  detained  until  a  proper  j^lace  can 
be  provided  for  the  spirits ;  and  the  rains  have  for  some  days 
prevented  the  landing  the  remainder  of  the  provisions  from  the 
Golden  Grove  ;  therefore  those  two  ships  will  sail  together,  I 
hope,  by  the  end  of  August ;  the  other  ships  have  all  cleared,  and 
preparing  to  sail.  » 

The  masters  of  the  transports  having  left  with  the  agents  the 
bonds  and  whatever  papers  they  received  that  related  to  the 
convicts,  I  have  no  account  of  the  time  for  which  the  convicts 
are  sentenced,  or  the  dates  of  their  convictions ;  some  of  them, 
})y  their  own  account,  have  little  more  than  a  year  to  remain, 
and,  I  am  told,  will  apply  for  permission  to  return  to  England,  or 
to  go  to  India,  in  such  ships  as  may  be  willing  to  receive  them. 
If  lands  are  granted  them.  Government  will  be  obliged  to  support 
them  for  two  years  ;  and  it  is  more  than  probable  that  one-half 
of  them,  after  that  time  is  expired,  will  still  want  support.  Until 
I  receive  instructions  on  this  head,  of  course  none  will  be  per- 
mitted to  leave  the  settlement ;  but  if,  when  the  time  for  which 
they  are  sentenced  expires,  the  most  abandoned  and  useless  were 
permitted  to  go  to  China,  in  any  ships  that  may  stop  here,  it 
would  be  a  great  advantage  to  the  settlement. 

The  weather  is  now  unsettled,  and  heavy  rams  fall  frequently, 
but  the  climate  is  certainly  a  very  fine  one,  but  the  nights  are 
very  cold,  and  I  fi'equently  find  a  difference  of  thu"ty-three  degrees 
in  my  chamber  between  8  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  2  o'clock  in 
the  afternot)n,  though  the  sun  does  not  reach  the  thermometer, 
which  is  at  the  west  end  of  ray  canvass  house. 

A  convict  who  fled  to  the  woods  after  committing  a  robbery 
returned  after  being  absent  eighteen  days,  forced  in  by  hunger ; 
he  had  got  some  small  support  from  the  people,  and  the  few  fish 
left  by  accident  on  the  beach  after  hauling  the  seine,  and  had 


endeavoured  to  live  amongst  the  natives,  but  they  could  give  him       1788 
but  little  assistance;  he  says  they  are  now  greatly  distressed  for      9 July. 
food,  and  that  he  saw  several  dying  with  hunger.     It  is  possible 
that  some  of  the  natives  at  this  time  of  the  year  might  find  it 
easier  to  support  themselves  on  birds,  and  such  animals  as  shelter 
themselves  in  the  hollow  trees,  than  on  fish  ;  but  then,  I  think, 
they  would  not  go  to  the  top  of  the  mountains,  where  at  present 
it  must  be  very  cold.     I  intend  going  to  Landsdown  or  Carmar-  intended 
then  Hills  as  soon  as  the  weather  permits,  if  it  is  possible,  and  ^^^  '^'^^  '°°" 
which  will  explain  what  is  at  present  a  mystery  to  me,  how  people 
who  have  not  the  least  idea  of  cultivation  can  maintain  them- 
selves in  the  interior  parts  of  this  country.     When  I  went  to  the 
westward,   in   hopes  of    being  able  to  reach  the  mountains,  we 
carried  six  dtxys'  provisions,  and  proceeded  five  days  to  the  west- 
ward ;  returning  we  were  very  short  of  provisions,  and  our  guns 
only  pi'ocured  us  two  scanty  meals. 

I  shall  now  conclude  with  saying  that  I  have  no  doubt  but  that  a  predie- 
the  country  will  hex'eafter  prove  a  most  valuable  acquisition  to  '■''*°- 
Great  Britain,  though  at  present  no  country  can  afford  less 
support  to  the  first  settlers,  or  be  more  disadvantageously  placed 
for  receiving  support  from  the  mother  country,  on  which  it  must 
for  a  time  depend.  It  will  require  patience  and  perseverance, 
neither  of  which  will,  I  hope,  be  wanting  on  the  part  of 

Dear  Sir,  Yours,  etc., 

A.  Phillip. 

His  Majesty's  Commission,  with  that  for  establishing  the  Courts 
of  Civil  and  Criminal  Judicature,  were  read  soon  after  landing, 
and  as  it  is  necessary  in  Public  Acts  to   name    the  county,   I  Thecounty 

of  Ciiniber- 

named  it  Cumberland,  and  fixed  its  boundaries  by  Carmarthen  and  land. 
Landsdown    Hills  to    the  westward,  by    the    northern   parts   of 
Broken  Bay  to  the  northward,   and  by  the  southernmost  part  of 
Botany  Bay  to  the  southward. 

I  have  enclosed  copies  of  a  letter  I  have  received  fiom  the  Hospital 
surgeon,*  reporting  the  state  of  the  hospital  and  the  great  necessity  n^^^essanes. 
of  blankets  and  sheets,   as  well  as  sugar,  and  those  articles  coming 
under  the  denomination  of  necessaries,  and  the  want  of  which  is 
ecjually  felt  by  the  marines  and  convicts. 

Tlie  numljer  of  marines  now  under  medical  treatment         ...         3G 
Convicts      ...  ...  ..  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...         6f> 

Unfit  for  labour  from  old  age  and  infirmities  ...         ...         52 


A  List  of  Articles  uwat  wanted  in  the  Settlement. 

House  carpenters'  axes  Iron  in  bars 

Chalii-lines  (none  sent  out)  Steel  in  ditto 

Felling-axes  Armourers'  tools  (none  sentout) 

Cross-cut  saws  Gunpowder,  inuscjuct  balls  and  paper 

Pit  saws  for  the  use  of  the  garrison  (none 

Saw  setts  sent  out) 

*  Ante,  p.  142. 



9  July. 

List  of  Articles — continued. 

Files  for  cross-cut  and  pit  saws  (a 
considerable  number,  as  they  soon 
wear  out) 

Gimlets,  augers,  chissels  and  gouges 

Iron  pots  of  3,  +,  and  5  gallons 
(much  wanted  at  this  time) 


Scyths  and  reap-hooks 

Nails, 'mostly  of  18,  20,  and  24  penny 

Nails  (spike),  brads 

Sheet  and  pig  lead 

Swan  and  buck  shot 

White  and  red  paint 

Oil  for  ditto 

Canvas,  No.  3,  6  bolts ^ 

p.     c 

>»  3)  ')  )> 

M         ))     8)  6  ,,       J_ 
Twine,  one  liundred  weight 
Sail  needles 
Copper  nails  for  repairing  boats 

9th  July,  1788. 

For  boats' 

Strong  double  tin  plates 

Stonemasons"  tools 

Trowels  for  bricklayers 

Glass,  not  less  than  10  inches  by  8 

Fifteen  puncheons   of  red  wine,  for 

the  use  of  the  hospital 
Hooksand  fishing  lines  forthenatives 
Cloathing  for  the  men  and  women 

convicts,  with  a  large  proportion 

of  shoes 
Long  frocks  and  strong  jackets  for 

tlie  natives 
Soldiers'  blankets  for  the  convicts 
Twelve  turn-over  carts 
Wheel-  bar  r  0  ws 
Four  timber  carriages 
Blacksmitlis'  liammers 
Carpenters'  ditto 
Turkey  stones    for  the   carpenters' 

tools  (none  sent  out) 
Rope,  of  H  inch,  1  coil 

Andw.  Miller, 





Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens.* 
Sir,  Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  9  July,  1788. 

I  am  very  much  concerned  at  the  necessity  I  am  under  of 
acquainting  you,  for  their  Lordships'  information,  with  a  trans- 
action that  took  place  in  the  detachment  which  their  Lordships 
have  honoured  me  with  tlie  command  of,  on  the  18th  of  March 

From  the  papers  herein  enclos'd  their  Lordships  will  see  that 
it  relates  to  a  court-martial,  which  I  had  ordered  to  assemble  on 
that  day,  for  the  tryal  of  a  private  of  the  detachment — for  dis- 
orderly behaviour. 

On  perusing  the  proceedings  of  the  court-martial,  which  had 
been  brought  to  me  by  the  President,  I  observ'd  to  him  that  they 
had  found  the  prisoner  guilty  of  the  crime  with  which  he  stood 
charg'd,  and  that  the  sentence  past  upon  him  was  such  as  I 
could  by  no  means  approve  of,  as  it  was  of  such  a  nature  as  to 
leave  it  in  the  breast  of  the  prisoner  to  I'eceive  or  not  receive  the 
punishment.  That  it  was  wresting  out  of  the  hands  of  the  com- 
manding officer  a  most  essential  and  necessary  power,  the  power 
of  mitigating  or  inflicting  the  punishment  order'd  the  prisoner,  as 
he  might  see  cause ;  that  the  passing  of  two  sentences  upon  a 
prisoner  try'd  but  for  one  crime,  and  leaving  the  option  of  the 
punishment   to   be  inflicted  in  the  breast  of   the  prisoner,  was 

*  See  PhiUip's  despatch,  16  May.    Ante  pp.  139-141. 


contrary  to,  and  out  of,  the  common  practice  of  the  service.  I  1788 
therefore  requested  that  he  would  get  it  alter'd  to  either  one  or  9  j^jy. 
other  of  the  sentences,  I  did  not  care  which. 

Captain-Lieutenant  Tench,  the  President,  carried  with  him  the 
proceedings — soon  after  he  came  to  me  again  with  the  proceedings 
of  the  court,  in  the  state  of  the  inclos'd  copy  of  it.     From  their 
mode  of  proceeding,  finding  that  they  wanted  to  deprive  me,  as 
commanding  officer,  of  a  power   which  I  did  not  think  myself  Command-^ 
authorised  to  give  up  into  the  hands  of  others,  I  directed  the  p"owers^'''^ 
adjutant  to  write  the  letter  of  which  No.  1  is  a  copy.     To  this  invaded. 
letter  I  very  soon  after  received  an  answer,  of  which  reply  to 
ISTo.  1  is  a  copy.     Not  being  yet  out  of  hope  but  that  they  might 
be  induced  to  make  an  alteration  in  their  sentence,  I  caused  the 
adjutant  to  write  the  letter  of  which  No.  2  is  a  copy,  directed  it 
to  the   President  and  members  of  the  court,  at  the  same  time 
desiring  the  adjutant  to  inform  them  that  it  should  be  the  last 
time  I  would  write  to  them  on  the  subject,  and  that  I  should 
look  upon  their  refusal  as  a  disobedience  of  orders.     But  tliis. 
message,  the  adjutant  says,  he  did  not  deliver;  the  reason  why  is 
best  known  to  himself.     To  this  letter  I  received  an  answer,  of 
which  reply  to  No.  2  is  a  copy.     From  their  last  answer,  finding 
them  obstinate  in  assuming  a  power  which  I  did  not  think  vested 
in  them,  and  not  deeming  it  prudent,  in  my  present  critical  situ- 
ation, to  give  up  any  pai-t  of  the  power  or  authority  with  which 
their  Lordships  have  honoured  me,  I  found  myself  reduced  to 
the  disagreeable  necessity  of  either  giving  up  the  consequence  of 
the  commanding  officer,  or  putting  the  President  and  members 
of  the  court  under  an  arrest,  and  the  latter  I  did  as  the  mode  officers 
least  likely  to  injure  the  service,  till  the  return  of  the  Governor,  ^\^^^ 
who  was  then  absent  on  a  party  of  discovery,  when  I  hoped  the 
affair  might  be  settled  without  my  having  occasion  to  trouble  their 
Lordships  with  it.     On  the  return  of  the  Governor  I  had  still 
more  reason  to  be  of  this  opinion,  for,  when  I  laid  the  court-martial, 
together  with  the  letters  that  passed  on  the  occasion,  before  his 
Excellency,  and  a  verbal  report  of  my  having  put  the  President 
and  members  under  arrest,  he  very  humanely  wished  me  to  leave  the 
papers  with  him,  saying  that  he  would  send  for  Captain  Tench,  and 
endeavour  to  accomodate  the  matter,  as  he  judged  that  the  making  The 
an  alteration  of  a  few  words  in  the  sentence  would  make  it  a  ^"J,^!""ts'"j^ 
proper  one,  but  this  endeavour  his  Excellency  was  not  able  to  )inj3us 
accomplish,  and  I  have  since  been  inform'd  by  him  of  his  having  """"^  '" 
proposed  to  those  gentlemen  that  the  business  should  be  left  to 
the  decision  of  any  three,  five,  seven,  or  nine  officers  to  be  named 
by  me  and  them,  unless  we  wished  him  to  name  one   of  them. 
To  this  they  desired  a  short  time  to  consider,  and  that  they  would 
send  their  answer  in  writing,  which  should  be  final.      In  their 
answer,*  which  I  hope,  and  have  requested,  the  Governor  has  still 

•  Post,  p.  104. 




9  July 

The  officers 
on  their 

Report  to 





return  to 





in  his  possession,  they  say  that  nothing  short  of  what  could  not, 
possibly,  in  our  then  situation,  be  granted — a  general  court- 
martial,  or  a  public  reparation  for  the  indignity  done  them — would 
satisfy  their  feelings. 

Upon  the  Governor  receiving  the  above  answer,  he  told  me 
that  if  I  meant  to  Jproceed  in  the  business  I  should  send  him  a 
report  of  the  whole  in  writing.  Of  this  report  No.  3  is  a  copy, 
in  answer  to  which  I  received  the  reply  to  No.  3,  and  was,  at 
the  same  time,  told  by  H.  Excellency  that  he  had  determined  on 
the  steps  he  was  to  take  ;  but  that  before  he  could  or  would 
make  his  intention  known  to  any  person  it  was  necessary  that 
I  should  first  apply  to  him  for  a  general  court-martial  upon  them. 
Having  complied  with  his  desire  by  writing  him  a  letter  of 
which  No.  4  is  a  copy,  he  soon  after  gave  out  the  order  of 
which  No.  5  is  a  copy.  Of  this  order  I  had  not  the  most  distant 
knowledge  til  it  was  bro't  to  me  by  the  adjutant  copied  into 
the  orderly-book  of  the  detachment,  and  when  I  had  read  it  I 
desired  that  the  adjutant  would,  before  he  gave  out  the  orders 
for  the  day,  shew  it  to  the  President  and  members  of  the  court- 
martial.  On  his  return  from  them  he  gave  a  note,  of  which 
No.  6  is  a  copy,  and,  as  soon  as  the  orders  were  given  out,  the 
officers  who  had  been  under  the  arrest  returned,  and  were  by 
me  received,  to  their  duty,  which  they  still  continue  doing. 

Since  the  above  transaction,  this  detachment  being  mostly 
composed  of  young  officers,  some  of  whom  being  without  much 
experience  or  military  knowledge  are  led  away  into  party,  which 
has,  in  a  great  measure,  destroy'd  that  hai'mony  so  very  essential 
to  good  order  and  military  discipline,  and,  indeed,  I  may  say,  of 
which  it  is  the  very  soul ;  and  I  have  found  myself  from  my 
present  situation  obliged  to  put  up  with  such  mortifying  things, 
more  particularly  from  Captn. -Lieut.  Tench,  as  nothing  else  than 
that  situation,  my  distance  from  their  Lordships,  my  ardent 
wish  to  promote  the  publick  good,  as  well  as  my  wish  and 
determin'd  resolution  to  keep  every  kind  of  dissension  (as  far  as 
in  my  power  lay)  from  the  knowledge  of  the  privates  of  the 
detachment,  could  possibly  make  me  submit  to.  Soon  after  my 
having  order'd  the  above  officers  under  an  arrest,  I  asked  Captain 
Campljell,  the  next  officer  to  me  in  command,  and  an  officer  of 
one-and-thirty  years'  experience  in  actual  service,  what  judge- 
ment he  formed  of  the  proceedings ;  and  I  found  him  with  me 
in  opinion,  that  if  the  officers  who  compos'd  the  court-martial 
deem'd  themselves  injur'd  or  oppress'd  by  the  request  and  order 
they  received,  the  time  and  situation  they  took  to  show  their 
obstinacy  was  highly  improper,  for  even  supposing  them  to 
think  their  commanding  officer  wrong  in  his  idea  of  the  propriety 
of  their  sentence,  they  well  knew  where  they  were  sure  of 
obtaining  redress  (by  laying  their  grievance  before  their  Lord- 


ships)  without  impeding  the  service ;  and  I  have  myself  ever  l^SS 
made  it  a  rule  to  obey  all  ordei-s,  and  if  I  thought  them  9  July, 
oppressive,  made  my  complaint  after  having  carried  them  into 
execution ;  nor  do  I  believe  it  to  be  a  very  uncommon  thing  for 
young  officers  to  submit  their  own  opinions  iu  military  affiiirs  to 
the  judgement  of  the  more  experienced,  who  are  presumed  to  be 
the  best  judges  how  far  situation  and  the  nature  of  the  service 
employ'd  on  may  render  it  necessary  to  deviate  from  general  rules. 

I  have,  therefore,  earnestly  to  I'equest  you  will  move  their  Lord- 
ships to  take  such  steps  in  this  affair  as  may  to  them  appear  most 
proper  and  necessary ;  and  I  must,  at  the  same  time,  take  the 
liberty  of  observing  that  unless  some  decisive  step  is  taken  by  their  a  decisive 
Lordships  to  put  a  stop  to  the  present  disseution,  and  the  restoring  necessary, 
subordination,  it  will  be  absolutely  impossible  for  any  commanding- 
officer  ever  to  carry  on  the  service  in  such  manner  as  to  be  either 
useful  to  the  publick  or  satisfactory  to  himself. 

In  justice  to  many  officers  of  this  detachment,  I  must  take 
the  liberty  of  observing  to  their  Lordships  that  I  by  no  means 
intend  the  above  observation  as  a  general  one,  as  many  of  the 
officers  under  my  command  do  all  the  duties  ordered  them  very 
much  to  my  satisfaction,  and  with  a  chearfulness  and  alacrity  Some 
that  does  them  honour,  and  I  cannot  but  likewise  observe  that  praised, 
the  duties  they  have  to  perform  are  more  severe  than  I  ever 
knew  it  upon  any  other  service. 

The  same  may,  with  justice,  be  said  of  the  non-commissioned  ^0°^ 


officers  and  privates,  who,  a  very  few  excepted,  seem  impress'd  of  the 
with  a  very  proper  sense  of  the  natui'e  of  the  service  on  which  '■egr""ent. 
they  .are  emjjloy'd,  and  perfoi'm  all  their  duties,  as  well  as  the 
different  works  order'd  them,  very  much  to  the  satisfaction  of 
every  person  in  any  kind  of  authority  over  them.     I  have,  &c., 

R.  Eoss,  Major. 
[Enclosure  No.  1.] 

Adjutant  Long  to  Captain-Lieutenant  Tench. 
Sir,  Camp,  Port  Jackson,  March  the  18th,  1788.       is  March. 

I  am  directed  by  the  commanding  officer  to  inform  you 
that  the  court-martial  of  which  you  was  President,  and  which 
met  this  morning  for  the  tryal  of  Jcjseph  Hunt,  private  in  the 
15th  Compy.,  for  striking  William  Dempsey,  pte.  in  Captn. 
Mcicdith's  cy.,  having  pass'd  a  sentence  by  no  means  consistent  The 
with  the  martial  law,  it  is  therefore  his  orders  that  you  con-  be"rc\  iewed 
vene  the  officers  composing  that  court  and  proceed  to  passing 
a  sentence  without  the  choice  of  two  sentences,  either  to  the 
commanding  officer  or  prisoner,  and  enclosed  herewith  you  will 
receive  the  original  proceedings  for  such  alterations  as  you  and  the 
rest  of  the  court  may  think  necessary.  I  am,  &c., 

J.  LoNC,  2nd-Lieut  and  Adjut. 


1V88  [Reply  to  Enclosure  No.  1.] 

„    ^  Officers'  Reply  to  Adjutant  Long. 

18  March. 

Port  Jackson,  March  1 8th, 
Sir,  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon. 

We  have  had  the  honor  of  receiving  your  letter  of  this 
afternoon,  address'd  to  Captn.-Lt.  Tench,  ordering  him  to  convene 
us  for  the  purpose  of  revising  a  second  time  the  sentence  we  pass'd, 
after   the  strictest  deliberation  and  most  impartial  enquiry,  on 
Joseph  Hunt,  privte.  in  Captn.  Campbell's  cy.,  for  striking  Wm. 
Dempsey,  private  in  Captn.  Meredith's  compy.,  and  beg  leave  to 
The  court      acquaint  you  that  we  do  not  think  ourselves  authoriz'd  to  sit  in 
third  thiie*  ^  judgment  a  third  time  in  the  same  cause,  as  the  latter  part  of 
the  10th  Article  of  the  Act  of  Parliament  for  the  regulation  of 
his  Majesty's  marine  forces  while  on  shore  expressly  instructs  us 
"that  no  sentence   given  by  any  court-martial,    and  signed  by 
the  president  thereof,  is  liable  to  be  revised  more  than  once." 
We  have,  &c., 

Watkin  Tench,  Capt.-Lt.  and  President. 
RoBT.  Kellow,  '\ 

rp     ^    -p.        ^  ' '  >  1st  Lieuts.  and  Members. 
Thos.  Timins,      j 
[Enclosure  No.  2.] 
Adjutant  Long  to  Officers. 
Sir,  Camp,  Port  Jackson,  March  the  18th,  1788. 

The  I  am  directed  by  the  commanding  officer  to  acquaint  the 

anth'i'^tracts  officers  Composing  the  court  that  there  cannot  be  two  sentences 
the  court,  past  On  a  prisoner  tryed  for  one  crime,  and  as  in  their  original 
proceedings  they  pass'd  two  sentences,  leaving  it  to  the  choice  of 
the  prisoner  which  shall  be  inflicted,  therefore  returning  those 
pi"oceedings  could  not  be  a  reversal,  because  it  was  not  a  sentence. 
It  is,  therefore,  his  orders  that  you  do  immediately  proceed  to 
finish  the  court-martial  that  you  were  in  orders  for,  by  passing 
only  one  sentence  for  one  crime.  I  am,  &c., 

J.  Long,  2nd  Lieut,  and  Adjt. 

[Reply  to  Enclosure  No.  2.] 
Officers  to  Major  Ross. 

Port  Jackson,  18th  March,  1788, 
Sir,  7  o'clock  in  the  evening. 

W^e  have  been  honored  with  your  answer  to  our  letter  of 
this  afternoon,  wherein  you  state  that  the  proceedings  of  the 
court-martial  held  this  morning  would  not  be  sent  back  a  second 
time  by  you  for  a  reversal,  because  a  sentence  was  not  passed. 
The  court  "^g  now  beg  leave  to  observe  to  you  that  we  could  not  then,  or 

do  we  now,  conceive  it  possible  for  us  to  alter  a  judgment  which 


we  gave  after  the  most  impartial  enquiry  and  most  mature  delibera-       ^^^^ 

tion  without  revising  and  I'econsidering  the  nature  of  the  crime  for    is  March. 

which  the  prisoner  was  tried,  the   evidence  given   in,   and   the 

defence — matters  which  we  cannot  think  it  proper  or  miHtary  to 

come  again  under  our  cognizance  after  we   had  revised   them, 

agreable  to  the  latter  part  of  the   10th  Article  of   the  Act  of 

Parliament  for  the  regulation  of  the  mai'ine  forces  while  on  shore, 

and  the  custom  of  the  Army. 

We  have,  <kc., 

Watkix  Texch,  Captn.-Lt.  and  President. 

Robert  Kellow,  \ 

John  Poulden,     {  -,  .  t     .         ,  ^t     i 
n,  -r^  V  1st  Lieuts.  anci  Members. 

Ihos.  Davey,        I 

Thos.  Timins,        j 

[Enclosure  No.  3.] 
Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

[In  a  letter  to  the  Governor  there  is  first  a  copy  of  the  above 
letter  (7  o'clock  in  the  evening)  and  then  : — ] 

From  the  above  answer,  finding  that  the  court-martial  seemed 
determened  to  wrest  all  power  from  the  commanding  otficer,  by 
passing  such  a  sentence  on  the  prisoner  they  tried  as  to  leave  it 
solely  in  his  power  to  be  punished  or  not,  as  he  chose,  I  did 
not  think  it  consistant  with  my  duty,  either  to  the  publick  or 
myself,  to  resign  all  authority  into  their  hands,  and  give  up  the 
command  of  the  detachment  entrusted  to  my  care, — and  from 
their  determined  obstinacy  I  had  no  alternative  left  but  the  very 
mortifying  and  disagreeable  one  of  suspending  the  president  and 
memljers  that  composed  the  court-martial  from  all  duty,  by  officers 
putting  them  under  an  arrest,  which  I  ordered  the  adjutant  to  an'est  "'"^'^"^ 
do  for  disobedience  of  orders,  til  such  time  as  the  opinion  of 
more  competent  judges  than  either  them  or  myself  might  be  had 

Your  Excellency  will  therefore  please  to  take  such  steps  in  this 
disagreeable  business  as  may  appear  to  you  most  proper  for  the 
establishment  of  good  order  and  military  discipline,  so  indis- 
pensible  and  al)solutely  necessary  in  our  present  critical  situation. 

I  have,  &c., 

R.  Ross. 
[Reply  to  Enclosure  No.  3.] 

Governor  Phillip  to  Major  Ross. 

Sir,  Head-quarters,  20th  March,  1788.        20  March. 

I  have  this  moment  received  yours  of  this  day's  date, 
informing  me  that  you  had  suspended  from  all  duty  Capt.-Lieut. 
Tench,  Lieuts.  Rol)ert  Kellow,  John  Poulden,  Thos.  Davey,  and 
Thos.  Timins,  by  putting  them  under  arrest  for  disobedience  of  Tiie  arrest. 




20  ilarcli. 

su<j!,'ests  a 

■21  March. 

A  disasree- 
-able  duty. 

orders,  until  such  time  as  the  opinion  of  more  competent  judges 
than  either  them  or  yourself  might  be  had,  or  the  sentence  past 
by  those  officers,  who  were  ordered  l)y  you  to  assemble  on  the 
18th  inst.  for  the  trial  of  a  private  marine  for  unsoldierlike 
behaviour ;  your  not  approving  of  the  sentence  past  by  the  said 
officers,  which,  by  your  letter,  left  a  choice  of  two  sentences  to 
the  prisoner,  and  they  refusing  to  make  any  change  in  the 
sentence,  which  in  their  letter  they  say  they  had  revised  once, 
and  were  not  at  liberty  to  revise  a  second  time,  by  the  Act  of 
Parliament  past  for  the  regulation  of  his  Majesty's  marine  forces 
while  on  shore. 

As  there  are  only  four  captains  and  twelve  lieutenants  in  the 
detachment,  two  of  which  from  their  sickness  are  unable  to  do 
their  duty,  the  having  one  captain  and  four  lieutenants  under 
arrest  out  of  so  small  a  number  must  very  materially  affect  the 
service.  The  opinion  of  most  competent  judges,  if  you  mean  the 
opinion  of  the  officers  who  compose  the  detachment,  may  be  had 
without  any  official  application  to  me  for  that  purpose,  if  you 
and  the  officers  under  arrest  are  satisfied  to  leave  it  to  their 
decision ;  and  I  shall  be  very  happy  if  it  can  be  immediately 
settled  by  this  means,  and  which  I  hope  neither  you  nor  the 
officers  under  arrest  will  refuse,  as  I  know  no  other  alternative, 
if  not  immediately  settled,  but  that  of  a  general  court-martial. 

I  am,  lire, 

A.  Phillip. 


[Enclosure  No.  4.] 
Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Camp,  Port  Jackson,  21  March,  1788. 

of  discipline. 

Request  for 

Having  found  myself  reduced  to  the  most  disagreeable 
necessity  of  ordering  Captn.-Lieut.  Watkin  Tench,  First  Lieut. 
Robert  Kellow,  First  Lieut.  John  Poulden,  First  Lieut.  Thos. 
Davey,  and  First  Lieut.  Thos.  Timins,  the  first  as  president  and 
the  others  as  members  of  a  court-martial,  which  I  ordered  to 
assemble  on  the  18th  for  the  trial  of  Joseph  Hunt,  pte.  marine, 
and  both  of  the  detachment  under  my  command,  under  an  arrest 
for  passing  what  they  call  a  sentence  on  the  prisoner  tried  l)y 
them  of  such  a  nature  as,  in  my  opinion,  tends  greatly  to  the 
subversion  of  all  military  discipline,  by  passing  two  judgements, 
and  thereby  leaving  it  solely  in  the  breast  of  the  prisoner,  after 
finding  him  guilty,  whether  he  should  or  should  not  receive 
corporal  punishment,  and  for  positively  refusing  when  directed 
by  my  order  to  make  any  alteration  in  the  sentences  they  had 
pass'd  on  the  above  Joseph  Hunt, — • 

I  have  therefore  to  request  that  you  will  please  to  order  a 
general  court-martial  to  assemble  for  the  trial  of  the  above 
officers  for  refusing  to  make  any  alteration  in  a  sentence  passed 
by  them  on  the  prisoner  tried,  which,  if  suffered  to  pass,  introduces 



ii  precedent  iii  its  consequences  subversive  of  all  order  and  military  1738 
discipline,  and  takes  all  the  power  of  mitigation  out  of  the  hands  21  Marc 
of  the  commanding  officer,  or  in  any  other  manner  that  may 
appear  to  your  Excellency  most  likely  to  restoi-e  harmony  and 
support  that  military  discipline  and  good  order  which  is  absolutely 
necessary  to  maintain  in  the  present  critical  situation  of  tha 
detachment.  I  have,  &c., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 
[Enclosure  Xo.  5.] 

Gexeual  Order. 
Parole,  Bengal.  Head-quarters,  22nd  March,  1788.        2-2Mirch. 

The  major  commandant  of  the  detachment  doing  duty  in  this 
.settlement  having,  by  letter  dated  the  21st  instant,  reported 
the  following  officers  under  an  arrest,  viz.  : — Captain-Lieutenant 
"NVatkin  Tench,  First  Lieutenant  Robert  Kellow,  First  Lieutenant 
John  Poulden,  First  Lieutenant  Thos.  Davey,  and  First  Lieu- 
tenant Thomas  Timins,  the  first  as  president  and  the  others  as 
members  of  a  court-martial  which  he  ordered  to  assemble  on  the 
18th  inst.,  for  the  trial  of  a  private  belonging  to  the  detachment.  The 
the  said  court  having,  in  his  opinion,,  passed  a  sentence  which  P°^'''°" 
tends  to  the  subversion  of  all  military  discipline,  and  requesting 
that  a  general  court-martial  may  be  ordered  to  assemble  for  the 
trial  of  the  aforesaid  officers  for  refusing  to  make  any  alteration  in 
the  said  sentence,  or  that  it  might  be  settled  in  any  manner  most 
likely  to  restore  harmony  and  support  that  military  discipline  and 
gof)d  order  which  is  so  absolutely  necessary  to  be  maintained. 

The  officers  under  arrest  liaving  declined  the  proposal  made 
of  submitting  the  determination  of  this  affiiir  to  any  number  of 
officers,  and  having  informed  the  Judge-xldvocate,  who  had  orders 
to  propose  that  or  any  other  mode  of  settling  this  matter  without  officers  wish 
a  general  court-martial,  that  they  being  put  under  an  arrest  by  for  court- 
the  Commandant  did  not  conceive  that  anything  less  than  a  legal 
<lecision  by  a  general  court-martial,  or  a  public  reparation  from 
their  commandant,  would  clear  their  characters. 

The  service  does  not  at  this  moment  permit  a  general  court-  a  -fenerai 
martial  to  be  assembled,  the  officers  composing  the  detachment  ^^^^^{^i 
(exclusive  of  the  five  ofiicers  under  arrest)   being  no  more  than  impossible 
three  captains  and  eleven  subalterns,  one  of  which  is  confined  to 
his  bed  by  sickness,  which  reduces  the  number  of  officers  in  this 
settlement    eligible    to   sit   on   this   occasion   to   thirteen,    con- 
sefiuently  not  leaving  any  one   officer  for  duty.     It  is  therefore 
oi-dered  tliat  the  minutes   of  the  trial  of  the  aforesaid  private 
sf>ldier,  with  the  letters  that  have  passed  on  the  occasion  between 
the  couit  and  the  commandant  of  the  detachment,  l)e  delivered 
to  the  Judge- Ad v(K-ate,  that  when  the  service  permits  by  there 
l)eing  a  sufficient  numl^er  of  officers  to  form  a  general  court- 




22  March. 

To  be  held 



Officers  to 
return  to 

Read.v  to 
meet  the 

19  March. 

The  officers 




refuse  to 
leave  arrest. 

martial,  and  for  the  necessary  duty  of  the  camp,  a  general  court- 
martial  may  be  then  held  on  the  said  Capt.-Lt.  Watkin  Tench, 
First  Lt.  Robt.  Kellow,  First  Lt.  John  Poulden,  First  Lt.  Thos. 
Davey,  and  First  Lt.  Thos.  Timins,  if  such  general  court-martial 
shall  be  then  required  by  either  of  the  parties. 

The  officers  now  under  arrest  to  return  to  their  duty. 

Geo.  Johnston,*  Adjut.  of  Orders. 
A  true  copy  from  the  original. 

David  Collins,  Judge-Advocate. 

[Enclosure  No.  6.] 
Declaration  of  Officers. 
We  are  put  under  an  arrest  by  the  commanding  officer  for  dis- 
obedience of  his  orders.  We  are  now  ordered  out  of  it,  and 
whenever  Major  Ross  shall  think  proper  to  bring  the  merits  or 
demerits  of  our  conduct  to  a  legal  decision  we  are  ready  to  meet 
the  charge,  and  we  once  more  repeat  that  a  general  court-martial 
only  can  bring  the  matter  to  a  proper  issue. 

Watkin  Tench,  Capt.-Lt.  of  Mars. 

Robert  Kellow,  1st  Lt. 

John  Poulden,  1st  Lt. 

Thos.  Davey   1st  Lt. 

Thos.  Timins,  1st  Lt. 

Officers  to  Governor  Phillip.! 
Sir,  Port  Jackson,  19th  March,  1788. 

The  friendly  and  handsome  part  you  have  taken  in  endea- 
vouring to  reconcile  the  unfortunate  difference  of  opinion  which 
subsists  between  us,  as  the  members  of  a  court-martial,  and  Major 
Ross,  as  commandant  of  the  battalion  of  marines,  demands  our 
warmest  and  most  respectful  acknowledgments.  It  is  not,  at  the 
same  time,  without  pain  that  we  state  to  you  that  we  conceive 
the  treatment  we  have  received  so  violent,  and  our  present  dis- 
graceful situation  so  notorious,  that  we  cannot,  without  injustice 
to  our  feelings,  consent  to  have  the  arrest  we  now  suffer  under 
taken  off  until  a  public  reparation  should  have  been  made  for  the 
indignity  we  have  been  used  with.  We  farther,  sir,  beg  permission 
to  say  that  it  is  our  unanimous  opinion,  should  the  measure  we 
have  stated  be  deemed  ineligible  by  the  commanding  officer,  that 
no  meeting  of  officers,  short  of  the  customary  usage  of  service  in 
like  cases,  can  adequately  and  properly  fix  on  a  mode  of  extricating 
us  from  the  ignominious  condition  in  which  we  have  the  honour  to 
subscribing  ourselves,  sir.  Your  most.  Arc, 

Watkin  Tench.  John  Poulden. 

Robert  Kellow.  Thos.  Davey. 

Thos.  Timins. 

*  First  Lieutenant  of  Marines. 
t  See  Major  Ross's  despatch,  9th  Jul}-,  ante,  p.  157. 


Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens.  1V88 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales,  lo  Ju'y- 

Sir,  10th  July,  1788. 

Inclosed  you  will  lind  some  letters  from  officers  of  this  Officers  who 
detachment  requesting  to  be  relieved  at  the  expiration  of  the  ^'^"um. 
time  for  which  they  understood  their  Lordships  intended  they 
should  continue  here. 

You    will    therefore   please    to    communicate    them    to    their 
Lordships.  I  am,  &c., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 


Sir,  Camp,  Port  Jackson,  24th  June,  1788.         ^*"^""^- 

I  beg  you  will  be  pleased  (the  first  opportunity)  to  forward 
my  request  to  my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that  I    "'^  ^"" 
may  be  relieved  at  the  expiration  of  three  years,  or  at  the  first 
relief  of  this    garrison,    as  my    private    affairs  will    require    my 
attention  in  England  by  that  time.  I  am,  itc, 

John  Poulden. 

Lieut.    Timins,  July  8th,   said — "  My  private   affairs  being  so  Timins. 
situated  as    to  render  a  longer  absence    from    them    highly    in- 

Liettt.  Davey,  July  9th — Ditto  to  Lt.  Timins.  Davey. 

Lieut.  Cla.rke,  June  22nd — Ditto  to  Lt.  Timins.  Clarke. 

Lieut.   Creswell,  June  15th — "A  longer  stay   in  this  country  Creswell. 
than  the  term   of  three  years  will  be  injurious  to  my  private 

Lieut.  Kellov),  July  18th — "As  a  longer  stay  in  this  country  Keiiow. 
will  be  very  injurious  to  my  private  affairs." 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens.* 

Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 

Sir,  July  10th,  1788.         lOJuly. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Honorable  the  Lords  Derarture 
Commissioners  of  the    Admiralty   that   I  sailed  from  the   Cape  f™in  the 
of  (iood  Hope  with  the   ships  under   my  command  the   12th  of   ''^^^^' 
November,    leaving   my   despatches    for    their    Loixlships    with 
Captain  Cox,  who  was  at  the  Cape  on  his  way  to  Europe  from 

The  wind  continuing  southerly  for  some  days  after  we  sailed, 
it   was  the  23rd  bef«jre  we  past  the  Cape,   and   the    25th  being 
eighty  leagues  to  the  eastward  of  it,  then  having  strong  westerly 
winds,  I  left  the  Sirius  and  went  on  V)oard  the  Supply,  armed  On  boani 
tender,  in  order  to  precede  the  transports,  in  hopes  of  gaining  *^®  ^"W% 
a  sufficient  time  to  examine  Botany  Bay,  and  fix   on    the   most 

*  a  portinn  of  this  despatcli  Tieiii},'  identical  with  Phillip's  despatch  to  the  Home  Office, 
May  15,  17sS,  is  omitted.     The  passages  omitted  are  iiidiuated  by  asterisks. 


1788       eligible    situation   for  the  colony  ;    at  the  same  time  I  named 

Lieutenant   Shortland,    the   agent   for   the   transports,  who   was 

10  July.      *^^  board  the  Alexander,  to  follow  with  that  ship,  the  Scarborough, 

and   Friendship.     They  sailed  better  than   the   other  transports, 

and  I  wished  to  make  some  preparation  for  landing  the  stores 

and  provisions,  which  the  convicts  on  board  those  ships  would 

enable  me  to  do,  if  they  arrived  soon  after  the  Supply,  and  before 

Hunter  with  the  other  ships,  as  I  had  reason  to  expect.     Captain  Hunter,  in 

transports,    the  Sirius,  was  left  with  the  rest  of  the  transports.     This  was  the 

first  separation  that  had  taken  place  since  we  left  England,  and 

the  ships  were  then  all  very  healthy.      The  strong  westerly  wind 

continued,  shifting  regularly  from  the  N.W.  to  the  S.W.  quarter, 

and  then  backing  round  to  the  northward,  very  seldom  coming  to 

the  eastward,  and  then  for  a  few  hours  only,  untill  the  3rd  of 

Janviary,    when  we  saw  the  southern  extremity  of  New   South 

Wales.     The  westerly  winds  now  left  us,  and  we  had  variable 

winds  with  southerly  currents  until  the  1 8th,  when  we  anchored 

Botany  Baj-.  in.  Botany  Bay.     The  Alexander,  Scarborough,  and  Friendship 

came  in  the  next  day,  and  the  Sirius,  with  the  rest  of  the  ships, 

the  day  following.     These  ships  had  all  continued  very  healthy. 
*  *  *  *  * 

Major  Ross  having,  by  letters  of  the  8th  and  10th  of  IMay, 
requested  that  the  surgeons  might  be  ordered  to  examine  into  the 
Sick  officers,  state  of  health  of  Fii'st  Lieutenant  James  Maxwell,  who  had  not 
done  any  duty  for  some  months,  on  account  of  a  defection  in  his 
sight,  and  of  Second  Lieutenant  William  Collins,  who  from  a  very 
long  and  severe  illness  was  in  so  weak  a  state  that  there  were  no 
hopes  of  his  recovery  in  this  country,  an  order  was  given  to  the 
principal  surgeon  of  the  garrison  and  the  surgeon  of  his  Majesty's 
ship  Sirius  to  enquire  into  the  same,  who  have  given  it  as  their 
opinion  that  the  recovery  of  these  officers  depended  on  their  return 
to  Europe,  they  have  my  leave  ;  the  report  of  the  surgeons  is 
enclosed  for  their  Lordship's  information. 

As  Major  Ross  will  inform  their  Lordships  of  the  particulars 
respecting  the  detachment  of  marines  under  his  command,  I  do 
not  trouble  their  Lordships  with  a  repetition,  and  only  inclose 
the  returns.  Lieutenant  Dawes,  of  the  Sirius,  who  had  done  duty 
with  the  detachment  for  some  time,  replaced  Second  Lieutenant 

The  transports  began  to  land  their  provisions  and  stores  as 
o^The^lii*^  soon  as  store-houses  were  ready  to  receive  them.  The  Prince  of 
Wales  was  cleared  the  23rd  of  May,  and  the  Borrowdale  the  12th 
of  June  ;  the  rest  of  the  ships  in  succession,  and,  the  Fishburn 
and  Golden  Grove  excepted,  all  were  cleared  by  the  25th  These 
ships  as  they  were  cleared  had  orders  to  get  ready  to  return  to 
Europe,  but  the  worm  had  so  much  destroyed  their  sheathing 
that  most  of  them  were  oblij^ed  to  heave  down.     The  Fishburn, 



having  the  spirits  on  board  for  the  garrison  for  three  years,       1788 
was  retained  untill  a  proper  place  could  be  got  ready  to  receive     lOJuiy. 

Lieutenant  Ball,  in  the  Supply,  having  sailed  the  6th  of  May, 
returned  the  25th  without  being  able  to  procure  any  turtle ;  by 
the  accjunt  that  officer  now  gives  of  the  island*  it  will  not  be  any 
great  use  to  us ;  no  turtle  breed  there,  there  is  no  good  water,  or 
any  anchoringground  ;  the  Supply  being  obliged  to  come  too  lost  The  Supply 
an  anchor  and  cable.      The  three  transports  that  sailed  for  China  a"fchor"and 
came  to  this  island  before  the  Suj)ply  left  it,  and  one  of  them  was  cable. 
near  being  lost. 

I  shall  send  the  Sirius  to  the  northward  as  soon  as  her  carpenter 
can  be  spared,  and  from  what  Monsieur  La  Perouse  said  I  think 
one  of  the  Isles  des  Navigateurs  the  most  likely  to  furnish  the 
refreshments  we  want ;  at  the  same  time,  no  supplies  we  shall  be  Supplies 
al)le  to  procure  in  this  country  for  several  years  will  maintain  the  [siands'and 
colony,   and   regular  supplies  of  provisions   must   be   sent   from  from 
Europe.     The  seeds  we  have  been  able  to  put  in  the  ground  this  """""P®- 
year  will,  I  hope,  furnish  sufficient  seed  for  the  next  year,  and 
that  is  the  most  I  expect.     Of  the  live  stock  brought  from  the 
Cape  the  greater  part  is  dead ;  several  of  the  sheep  have  been  Loss  of  live 
killed,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  by  the  natives'  dogs  or  by  some  ^*°''''- 
of  our  own  people. 

The  natives,  who  are  far  more  numerous  than  I  expected  to 
find  them,  have  lately  revenged  the  insults  they  received  from 
some  seamen  and  convicts,  by  wounding  one  of  the  convicts,  and 
carrying  off  a  second,  who,  from  circumstances,  there  is  no  doubt 
but  they  killed  ;  these  people  were  out  collecting  vegetables  ;  and 
two  men  who  were  cutting  rushes  have  been  killed  by  the  natives.  Men  killed 
As  I  am  well  convinced  that  we  have  been  the  agressors,  and  ^^  "'^♦'i^es. 
it  is  not  possible  to  find  out  the  people  that  committed  these 
murthers,  I  have  only  taken  such  steps  as  may  prevent  the  like 
accidents  in  future,  and  have  endeavoured,  by  going  to  the  places 
to  which  the  natives  generally  resort,  to  satisfy  them  that  our 
intentions  are  friendly  ;  but  since  these  accidents,  except  two 
canoes  that  went  alongside  the  Sirius,  the  natives  generally  avoid 
U.S.  The  day  after  the  two  last  men  were  killed  I  went  out  in 
hopes  of  finding  their  tools  on  some  of  the  natives,  which  might 
have  enabled  me  to  have  come  to  an  explanation  with  them  ;  but 
not  a  native  appeared  in  Botany  Bay,  where  I  slept  that  night.  The  blacks 
and  though  twenty  canoes  were  fishing  when  we  made  our  fire  on  '^'s=iPP'^''''» 
the  beach,  none  came  near  us  ;  fifty  canoes  wer'e  seen  on  the 
beach  next  morning,  but  not  a  man  could  be  found,  and,  on  oui' 
return  to  Port  Jackson,  in  a  small  cove  on  the  sea-shore,  we  fell 
in  with  a  number  of  hutts,  and  the  moment  we  appeared,  the 
natives  armed,  and  made  signs  for  us  not  to  advance,  but  on  my 
going  forward  unarmed,  and  making  signs  of  friendsjiip,  most  of 

*  Lord  Howe  Island. 




10  July. 





The  natives 
hold  aloof. 


The  climate 

Danger  f  I'on 

Two  years' 

them  laid  down  their  spears,  and  thoiigh  we  were  within  ten 
yards  of  them  before  they  discovered  us  in  less  than  three  minutes 
amounted  to  two  hundred  and  twelve  men.  We  parted  with 
these  people  on  good  terms,  and  their  behaviour  convinces  me 
that  they  will  never  be  the  first  agressors,  though  I  have  been 
fully  satisfied  that  they  revenge  the  smallest  affront.  Whether 
from  their  superiority  of  numbers,  for  we  were  only  twelve,  or 
from  their  not  being  accustomed  to  act  with  treachery,  the 
moment  the  friendship  I  offered  was  accepted  on  their  side  they 
joined  us,  most  of  them  laying  down  their  arms ;  and  afterwards, 
with  the  greatest  confidence,  brought  down  their  women  to  receive 
fish-hooks,  and  what  we  had  to  give  them. 

Of  these  people  we  know  little  ;  for  though  I  go  amongst  them 
as  often  as  the  many  circumstances  which  draw  my  attention 
permit,  yet  not  being  able  to  remain  any  time  with  them,  and 
they  never  coming  near  us,  but  when  we  are  near  the  coves  in 
which  they  reside,  or  for  a  few  minutes  in  their  canoes  alongside 
the  Sirius,  very  few  words  of  their  language  are  attained. 

The  store-ships  and  transports  are  now  preparing  to  return  to 
Europe,  the  Fishburn  excepted.  That  ship  camiot  be  cleared 
untill  a  secure  place  is  made  for  the  spirits,  which  I  hope  will  be 
done,  so  as  to  permit  her  to  sail  before  the  middle  of  August. 

I  have  only  to  add  that,  with  respect  to  this  country,  the 
climate  is  very  good,  and  it  will,  I  make  no  doubt,  be  as  healthy 
as  any  in  the  world  when  the  woods  are  cleared  round  us.  At 
present  the  only  disorder  that  prevails  is  the  scurvy,  which  still 
rages.  The  storms  of  thunder  and  lightening,  judging  from  what 
we  had  soon  after  we  landed,  must  be  very  heavy  in  the  summer ; 
and  as  several  trees  have  been  fired  and  some  sheep  and  hogs 
killed  in  the  camp,  all  the  provisions  the  colony  has  to  subsist  on 
untill  fresh  supplies  are  sent  from  Europe  being  in  two  stores, 
which  are  thatched,  give  me  some  anxiety,  but  for  which  there  is 
no  remedy  at  present.  Had  the  three  store-ships  parted  company 
and  afterwards  been  lost  the  consequences  must  have  been  fatal 
to  the  settlement,  for  no  resources  within  our  reach  would  have 
supported  us  untill  supplies  could  have  been  procured  from  the 
Cape  or  any  European  settlement. 

Their  Lordships  will,  without  doubt,  order  that  those  sent  out 
in  future  are  embarked  in  the  ships  that  bring  the  provisions 
intended  to  support  them  for  two  years  after  they  land,  which  is 
the  least  time  they  can  be  victualled  for,  untill  a  regular  cultivation 
has  taken  place,  and  which  will,  I  apprehend,  be  four  years.  The 
islands  may  furnish  us  with  live  stock  to  breed  from,  but  I  am 
fully  satisfied  that  all  the  Sirius  will  be  able  to  procure  in  a  year 
will  not  be  more  than  a  month's  subsistence  for  the  colony,  should 
we  be  obliged  to  make  use  of  it.  The  Supply  is  no  way  calculated 
for  a  service  of  that  kind.      Cloathing  in  this  country  is  full  as 


necessary  as  in  England,  the  nights  and  mornings  being  very  cold  ;       1788 
and  before  any  supplies  can  be  sent  out  most  of  the  people  will      lo  July. 
be  without  shoes,  the  most  necessary  article. 

Of  the  convicts,  thirty-six  men,  four  women  died  on  the  passage,*  Deaths, 
twenty  men  eight  women  since  landing ;    eleven   men  and  one 
woman  have  absconded,  and  are  supposed  to  have  perished  in  the 
woods  ;  three  have  been  killed  by  the  natives,  and  four  have  been 

The  rains  setting  in  have  prevented  the  Golden  Grove  being  jRain. 
cleared,  and  that  ship  will  sail,  with  the  Fishburn,  as  soon  as 
possible  after  the  other  ships. 

The  weekly  accounts,  returns  of  marines  on  board  the  Sirius, 
and  last  weekly  return  of  the  detachment  serving  on  shore  are 
inclosed.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens,  t 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  "Wales, 
Sir,  10th  July,  1788. 

You  will  please  to  inform  the  Right  Honourable  the 
Loi'ds  Commissioners  of  the  Adm'lty  that  since  my  last  letter 
from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  which  we  left  the  13th  Novr., 
1787,  nothing  material  happen'd  till  a  few  days  after,  when 
Governor  Phillip  inform'd  me  for  the  first  time  of  his  intention  Altered 
of  proceeding  to  Botany  Bay  in  the  Supply,  tender,  as  he  wished,  p'^°^- 
if  possible,  to  arrive  there  some  time  before  the  rest  of  the  fleet. 
He  likewise  said  that  the  Alexander,  Scarboro',  and  Friendship, 
the  best  sailing  transports,  should  be  order'd  to  follow  him  under 
the  direction  of  the  agent,  and  that  the  other  transports,  with 
the  victuallers,  were  to  be  left  with  Captain  Hunter.  He  then 
asked  me  if  I  chose  to  proceed  in  either  of  the  first-named 
transp'ts.  I  told  him  I  was  there  to  be  dispos'd  of  in  whatever 
way  he  might  think  I  could  be  made  most  useful  for  carrying  on 
the  publick  sendee  ;  but  as  the  principal  part  of  the  detachment 
under  my  command  were  on  board  the  transports  which  were  to 
•proceed  with  the  agent,  I  thought  it  best  to  go  with  them  if  he 
approv'd  of  it.  I  could  not,  I  confess,  but  feel  myself  much  hurt 
at  His  Excellency's  not  having  given  me  the  most  distant  hint 
of  his  intention  pidor  to  our  quitting  the  Cape,  that  I  might  No  notice 
have  made  some  preparation  for  such  an  event,  and  more  par-  K»ven. 
ticularly  so  as  I  found  that  it  had  been  made  known  to  others,  as 
a  proof  of  which  I  received  my  first  intimation  of  his  design  from 
the  mess  of  the  Sirius's  gun-room. 

*  Aceordinff  to  the  official  return,  post,  p.  193,  there  also  died  five  convicts'  children,  one 
marine,  one  marine's  wife,  and  a  marine's  child,  niakinjf  the  total  number  of  deaths  on  the 
passa'/e  48. 

t  Major  Ross,  in  this  despatch,  writes  upon  matters  which  are  dealt  with  in  Phillip's 
desi)atch  of  loth  May.     Ante,  pp.  121-136. 




10  July. 

On  board 
the  Scar- 


Botany  Bay. 

A  bad  situ- 



ships  in 
Botany  Bay, 

On  the  25th  November,  the  Governor,  with  Lieut.  King  and 
Lieut.  Dawes  of  the  Sirius's  detachm't  of  marines,  embark'd  on 
board  the  Supply,  myself  and  the  Adjutant  onboard  the  Scarbro', 
and  the  Qr.-master,  who  I  thought  it  necessary  to  carry  Avith  nnj 
(to  take  charge  of  such  marine  stores  as  might  be  landed),  on 
board  the  Alexander.  At  1 2  o'clock  we  parted  company,  and  in  the 
evening  of  the  same  day  we  lost  sight  of  both  the  Supply  and  Sirius. 

From  this  time  til  our  making  the  South  Cape  we  were  most 
fortunate  in  fair  winds,  but  from  thence  to  Botany  Bay  we  had 
bafeling,  and  at  times,  strong  gales. 

On  the  morning  of  the  19th  of  Jan.,  1788,  the  Alexandei-, 
Scarl^ro',  and  Friendship  entered  Botany  Bay,  where  we  found 
the  Supply  had  arrived  the  evening  before,  and  the  next  morninu 
the  Sirius,  with  the  other  transports  and  victuallers,  joined  us. 

Immediately  on  my  arrival  I  waited  upon  the  Governor,  whom 
I  accompanied  in  quest  of  the  most  proper  spot  for  carrying  his 
Majesty's  intention  of  forming  a  settlement  on  this  coast  into 

Meeting  with  no  eligible  situation  on  this  or  the  following- 
day's  excursion,  the  whole  country,  as  far  as  we  saw,  appearing 
to  us  to  be  either  sand,  rock,  or  swamp,  and,  as  far  as  we  could 
judge,  unfit  for  any  kind  of  cultivation.  From  this  appearance 
his  Excellency,  before  he  would  land  the  detachment  or  the 
convicts,  detex-min'd  to  explore  the  nearest  harbour  (mention'd 
by  the  late  Captn.  Cooke)  to  the  northward. 

Before  he  left  us  (22nd  Jan'y)  he  directed  me  to  land  a  certain 
number  of  men  on  the  south  side  of  the  bay  every  morning  to 
fall  trees  and  form  saw-pits,  in  order  that  the  whole  might  be  set 
to  work  in  errecting  stores,  &c,  in  case  he  did  not  meet  with  a 
more  promising  situation.  On  his  return  he  inform'd  me  that  he 
found  Port  Jackson  one  of  the  finest  harbours  in  the  world  ;  that 
he  had  determin'd  to  fix  the  settlement  in  one  of  the  many  coves  in 
it,  and  that  he  would  proceed  before  us  in  the  Supply,  the  Sirius, 
with  the  transports  and  victuallers,  to  follow  as  soon  as  possible. 

On  the  25th,  his  Excellency,  with  a  detachment  of  two  subalt'ns, 
a  proportion  of  non-commiss'd  officers  and  twenty  j^rivates,  sail'd 
for  Port  Jackson ;  and  on  the  27th  the  Sirius,  with  her  convoy, 
with  much  difficulty  worked  out  of  the  bay,  and  just  as  the  night 
came  on  got  safe  into  the  cove,  where  we  now  are. 

I  have  to  observe  to  their  Lordships  that  on  the  day  we  left 
Botany  Bay  two  French  ships  of  war  arrived  there.  I  found 
they  were  on  a  voyage  of  discovery,  but  as  Governor  Phillip  can 
give  their  Lordships  a  much  better  account  of  them  than  I  have 
the  power  of  doing,  I  must  refer  their  Lordships  to  his  letter  on 
that  subject. 

On  the  26th  his  Excellency  directed  that  a  number  of  the 
convicts  should  be  landed  every  morning  for  the  purpose  of  falling 


ices  ;ui(l  forming  saw-pits,  go  on  l)()ai'd   to   dinner,  land  after  it,        1788 
I'ld  ))(' enil)ark'd  again  in  the  evening.      This  mode  being  found     lojuly, 
trdious  and   troublesome,    two   days  after  orders   were  given  to 
land  the  detachment  and  the  convicts  as  soon  as  tents  could  be 
L;()t   ready   for  them,  which  was  soon  accorapKshed,   and  all   in 
health  landed  ;  the  Governor,  with  the  civil  department   and  a 
number   of  the  convicts,  taking  possession  of  the  east  side  of  a  Lauding, 
-mall  stream  which  runs  into  the  cove,  and  the   marine  detach- 
ment, with  the  rest  of  the   convicts,  of   the  west  side  of  it,  in 
which  state  we  still  remain,  and  send  a  subaltern's  guard  to  the 
opposite  side  eveiy  morning. 

Here,  in  justice  to  myself  and  the  detachment  under  my  com- 
mand, I  must  observe  to  their  Lordships  that  the  detachment  is 
at  this  hour  without  any  kind  of  place  of  defence  to  retire  to  in 
case  of  an  alarm  or  surprize,  tho'  I  have,  in  justice  to  myself.  No  defences, 
repeatedly  mention'd  and  urged  his  Excellency  to  get  something 
or  other  errected  for  that  purpose.  Indeed,  a  surprize  seems  to 
me,  from  all  I  have  seen,  to  be  the  only  danger  we  have  to 
apprehend.  The  natives,  tho'  in  number  near  us,  shew  no 
inclination  to  any  kmd  of  intercourse  with  us,  for  ever  since  our 
arrival  there  lias  not  one  of  them  come  near  us  on  this  side,  and  Natives  shy. 
only  two,  who  had  been  known  at  Botany  Bay,  visited  the  other 
side  soon  after  our  arrival. 

Tho'  we  have  had  little  or  no  opportunity  of  coming  at  their 
i-eal  dispositions  and  character,  yet  I  am  by  no  means  of  opinion 
that  they  are  that  harmless,  inoffensive  race  they  have  in  general 
been  represented  to  be,   and  my  suspicions  have  in  some  measure  ,^ot  sp 
been  confirm'd  by  an  event  that  Ciiptn.  Campbell  met  with  a  few  rcpiesented. 
weeks  past.     Being  out  with  a  party,  he  met  with  the  bodys  of 
two  of  the   convicts  (who  had  been  sent  out  to  cut  thatch  for 
covei'ing  in    the    stoi-e-house),   who  had  been   most  barbarously 
mangled  and  murther'd  by  the  natives.     One  of  the  bodys  had 
no  less  than  seven  spears  in  it,  some  of  which  went  through  and  They  kill 
througli,  and  the  skulls  of  both  wei-e  fi-actui'ed.       What  appears  convicts. 
A-ery  e.xtraordinaiy   is  that  they  took  away  no  part  of  the  pro- 
visions or  cloths  belonging  to  the  unfortunate  men,  but  the  whole 
of  their  working  implements  had  Ijeen  cai-ried  off.     But  to  return 
to  the  detachment.     We  still  remain  under  canvas,  no  habitations  Under 
being  provided  for  either  officers  or  men  but  what  they  themselves,  '^'^"^'*** 
with  the  assistance  of  four  carpenters  and  a  few  others,  convicts 
(all  of  no  trades),  has  been  given  me  for  the  use  of  the  detachment, 
were  for   some   time  errecting,    and   wlien   any   of  them  will  be 
finished  (the  whole,  from  the  nature   of  this  sandy  soil,  being 
obliged  to  be  constructed   of  wood)  is  impossilile  for  me  to  say  ; 
but  I  fear  it  will  be  a  length  of  time  before  the  principal  butts  can  Building 
possibly  be  finished,  for  the  wood  here  is  of  so  indifferent  a  (juality  ''"*^- 
that  we  sometimes  fall  a  number  of  trees  before  we  meet  with  one 



10  July. 


Men  from 
the  ships 
assisting  to 


King  sent  to 



ing country. 

that  can  be  converted  to  any  use,  and  as  the  huts  are,  for  want 
of  other  mateiuals,  to  be  shingled,  it  becomes  a  very  tedious  liit  of 
work.  The  consequences  to  be  apprehended  from  this  delay  are 
to  me  truely  alarming,  for  our  sick  list  increases  daily,  and  the 
scurvy  is  making  great  havocks  among  us. 

Finding  that  the  Governor  had  employed  carpenters  and  sawyers 
from  the  Sirius,  as  well  as  the  transports,  paying  them  for  their 
work,  I  applied  to  him  for  an  order  to  employ  such  artificers  as 
could  be  found  in  the  detachment,  in  order  to  assist  in  hutting 
both  officers  and  privates,  without  which  we  never  should  have 
got  from  under  canvas  covers,  which  order  he  granted,  saying  they 
should  be  paid  agreeable  to  the  usual  custom  of  paying  troops  for 
extra  work.  I  immediately  caused  that  order  to  be  made  publick, 
and  the  artificers  are  now  employed,  with  the  four  carpenters 
already  mentioned,  errecting  the  necessary  buildings. 

I  hope  their  Lordships  will  see  the  necessity  I  was  under  of 
adopting  this  method,  and  as  I  had  no  other  method  of  retaining 
them,  the  men  knowing  that  artificers  employed  by  the  Governor 
were  to  be  paid  for  their  work,  I  hope  they  will  approve  of  what 
I  have  done. 

On  the  23rd  March,  Lieut.  Dawes,  a  corporal  and  eight  privates 
of  the  Sirius's  detachment  of  marines,  were  sent  to  do  duty  with 
the  detachment  on  shore.  Soon  after  liis  Excellency  order'd  Lieut. 
Dawes  to  be  discharg'd  from  the  ship's  books,  and  to  be  put 
upon  the  strength  of  the  detachment  in  room  of  Second  Lieut. 
William  Collins,  who  from  ill-health  is  obliged  to  be  sent  home, 
immediately  after  which  he  gave  out  in  public  orders  that  Lieut. 
Dawes  was  to  do  the  duty  of  engineer  and  artillery  officer,  by 
which  means  the  subalterns  of  the  detachment  are  in  no  shape 
reliev'd  by  his  joining  us. 

Soon  after  our  arrival  here  the  Supply  was  order'd,  with  Lieut. 
King,  of  the  Sirius,  some  male  and  female  convicts,  to  Norfolk 
Island,  but  with  what  instructions  or  appointment  I  am  entirely 

As  I  have  not  since  my  arrival  here  been  out  of  hearing  of  the 
drums  of  the  detachment  but  once  by  water  with  the  Governor, 
it  is  impossible  for  me  to  give  their  Lordships  any  other  account 
of  the  country  than  the  little  I  have  learned  from  those  who  have 
made  excursions  a  few  miles  round,  and  sorry  am  I  to  say  that 
the  accounts  are  by  no  means  of  a  flattering  kind.  The  country  in 
general  is  rocky  and  barren,  a  very  few  spots  excepted.  Nothing 
but  small  streams  of  water  have  yet  been  discover'd.  All  the 
stone  yet  seen  is  of  one  kind,  something  like  our  Portland  stone. 
The  face  of  the  country  is,  as  described  by  Captn.  Cooke,  covered 
with  trees,  the  greatest  part  of  which  has  the  appearance,  but 
the  appearance  only,  of  being  very  tine  timber.  The  best  kind  is 
a  tree  with  a  pine  top,  but  it  is  very  hard,  and  in  grain  not 


unlike  the  English  oak,  and  is  the  only  one  that  can  be  made  use       1788 
of,  but  it  does  not  grow  to  any  considerable  size,  and  such  as  are     lojuiy. 
of  any  tolerable  size  are  all  rotten  in  the    heart.     It   may    be  poyT^ji^er 
worthy  of  remark  that  the  same  tree  is  often  found  to  be  for 
some  feet  perfectly  sound,  then  decayed,  then  sound,  and  so  on 
alternately,  but  of  such,  and  cabbage-trees,  are  our  officers  and 
men,  with  great  labour  and  difficulty,  obliged  to  foi-m  their  hutts. 

Might  I  presume  to  intrude  an  opinion  on  their  Lordships  with 
respect  to  the  utility  of  a  settlement  upon  this  coast,  at  least 
upon  this  part  of  it,  it  should  be  that  it  never  can  be  made  to 
answer  the  intended  purpose  or  wish  of  Government,   for  the 
country  seems  totally  destitute  of  everything  that  can  be  an  The  site 
object  for  a  commercial  nation,  a  very  fine  harbour  excepted,  and  '^<^""^'"*'^  • 
I  much  fear  that  the  nature  of  the  soil  is  such  as  will  not  be 
brought  to  yield  more  than  sufficient  sustainance  for  the  needy 
emigrants  whose  despei'ate  fortunes  may  induce  them  to  try  the 
experiment.     Here  I  beg  leave  to  observe  to  their  Lordships  that 
the   above   is   but   a   private    opinion.      The    Governor's   I   am  Ross' 
unacquainted  with,  as  he  has  never  done  me  the  honor  of  inform-  opinion, 
ing  me  of  his  or  asking  me  for  mine  ;  neither  has  he  made  me  or 
any  other  person  that  I  know  of  acquainted  with  any  part  of  the 
intentions  of  Government,  nor  have  I  been  let  into  any  part  of  his 
plan,  which  will,  I  hope,  be  a  sufficient  apology  for  the  very  lame  Jfot 
accounts  in  my  power  to  give  their  Lordships,  independant  of  PMiiip.'^     ^ 
what  I  have  already  said.     The  face  of  the  country  round  us 
produces  dreadful  proofs  of  the  devastation  caused  by  the  frequent 
lightnings,  besides  our  having  been  already  visited  by  a  shock  of  Lightning 
an  earthquake,  which  happened  on  the  22nd  of  June.      The  fatal  ^u^^^gs'^'^" 
effects  of  the  first  Captain  Campbell  and  myself  have  woefully 
experienced  in  having  the  principal  part  of  our  live  stock  (all  our 
sheep  and  lambs,  with  some  hogs  which  we  purchased  at  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope)  destroyed  by  it  soon  after  our  arrival,  and  what  Live  stock 
little  remains  among  the  whole  of  us  are  now  in  a  starving  con-    '^^'''"J'^- 
dition  for  want  of  food  to  feed  them.     While  I  am  on  this  subject 
I  shall  take  the  liberty  of    mentioning  to    their  Lordships   the 
quantity  of  provisions  served  to  myself,  the  officers  and  men  of 
the  detachment,  in  which  there  is  now  no  difference  between  us 
and  the  convicts,  but  in  half  a  pint  per  day  of  P^io  spirits,  which  Bad  spirits. 
in  taste  and  smell  is  extremely  offensive.     Indeed,  I  may  say  that 
nothing  short  of  absolute  necessity  could  induce  men  to  use  it. 
What  makes  this  the  more  severely  felt  Vjy  many  of  us  is  our  not 
having  known  what  we  were  to  be  supplied  with  till  it  was  nmch 
too  late  to  make  any  other  provision  for  ourselves. 

I  have  likewise  to  oljserve  to  their  Lordships  that  the  quantity 
of  provision  served  to  the  detachment  is  short  of  what  it  used  to  Shortration. 
be.     On  my  mentioning  this,  at  the  request  of  the  officers  and 
privates,  to  his   Excellency,   he  said  that  it   was  by  particular 




10  July. 


A  broken 


The  Sirius. 

Wine  and 



direction  from  the  Navy  Board  he  was  to  deduct  a  certain  weight 
from  each  species  of  provisions  issued.  I  then  inform'd  him  of 
its  being  the  first  instance  I  had  ever  known  in  which  a  Com- 
missary made  any  deduction  from  the  daily  ration,  unless  it  was 
by  a  general  order  to  put  the  whole  upon  short  allowance.  If 
his  Excellency  thought  it  right  to  give  such  an  oi'der,  I  would 
answer  for  the  detachment  receiving  whatever  he  ordered  without 
a  murmur ;  but  that  men  never  would  without  such  order  be 
satisfied  with  fourteen  for  sixteen  ounces  of  anything.  I  like- 
wise mentioned  to  him  that  this  detachment  came  out  with  a 
promise  from  their  Lordships  of  their  being  properly  victualled 
while  they  remained  here,  and  that  I  had  myself  been  informed 
by  Mr.  Nepean,  of  the  Secretary  of  State's  office,  that  we  were  to 
be  victualled  in  every  respect  the  same  as  the  garrison  of  Gib- 
raltar, only  not  to  pay  for  our  rations.  That  had  I  not  under- 
stood it  so,  and  could  I  possibly  have  imagined  that  I  was  to  be 
served  with,  for  instance,  no  more  butter  than  any  of  the  con- 
victs (nearly  six  ounces  per  week),  I  most  certainly  would  not 
have  left  England  without  supplying  myself  Vi^ith  that  article,  as 
well  as  many  other,  or  oyle,  for  my  own  use.  His  Excellency 
then  said  that  he  would  write  home  for  permission  to  increase  the 
present  allowance,  which  he  hoped  and  had  no  doubt  would  be 
granted  him,  in  which  case  every  deficiency  from  the  time  of 
our  landing  should  be  made  good  ;  but  it  may  be  necessary  to 
observe  that  this  declaration  followed  my  observing  to  him  the 
customary  ration  I  had  ever  known  troops  to  receive,  and  that  I 
thought  it  aljsolutely  necessary  to  inform  their  Lordships  of  our 
present  situation. 

On  the  20th  June  his  Excellency  order'd  the  corporal  and 
eight  privates  lent  from  the  Sirius  to  be  sent  on  board  again, 
saying  that  he  would  discharge  three  privates  from  the  ship's 
books  to  complete  the  detachment,  which  he  did  on  the  2nd 
instant,  and  now  we  are  complete  with  the  same  number  of  men 
we  first  eml^ark'd  with.  I  likewise  beg  you  will  inform  their 
Lordships  that  on  the  8th  instant  the  Governor  read  the  copy  of 
a  letter  from  Mr.  ISTepean,  of  the  10th  May,  1787,  wherein  he 
authorizes  his  Excellency  to  purchase  on  the  jDassage  a  proportion 
of  wine  or  spirits  to  serve  the  marines  three  years,  but  that  it 
must  be  understood  that  at  the  expiration  of  that  time  there 
would  be  no  more  wine  or  spirits  allowed. 

It  is  therefore,  in  justice  to  the  detachment  under  my  com- 
mand, my  earnest  request  that  their  Lordships  will  please  to  take 
us  under  their  protection,  and  cause  us  to  be  properly  victualled 
in  the  manner  they  intended ;  and  as  it  is  not  possible  to  suppose 
troops  can  subsist  with  comfort  on  salt  provisions  and  water 
only,  it  is  hoped  this  request  will  be  attended  to,  as  I  can  affirm 
that  no  troops  in  the  King's  service  ever  had  such  severe  duty  to 


do ;  so  can  I  with  equal  truth  say  that  duty  can  never  be  done       ^"''^^ 
with  more  alacrity  than  it  is  done  by  this  detachment.  icuuiy. 

But  should  their  gropf  be  stopt  I  dread   the  consecjuences,  and  Grojr  indis- 
must  pray  that  before  such  an  e^■ent  takes  place,  should   it  be  so  P'=''^^J<^- 
intended,  their  Lordships  will  order  the  detachment  to  be  relieved, 
;ind  shall   hope  I  may  be   permitted  to  share  with  tliem  in  the 
same  induli:'ence. 

I  also  beg  leave  to  mention   that  clothing  will  be  very  much  Clothing. 
wanted  for  the  detachment,   they  being  already  intitled  to  the 
tpiantity  first  sent  out. 

I  must  likewise  intreat  their  Lordships  will  please   to  order  a 
supply  of  stationary  to  be   sent   out,  as  the   quantity  we   have  stationerj-. 
lirought  with  us  is  far  too   small   for  the  necessary  uses  of  the 
detachment,  guards,  &:c.  I  am,  etc., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

SuRGEOx  White  to  Lord  Sydney.* 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

:\Iy  Lord,  New  South  Wales,  July,  1788. 

The  jirevalence  of  disease  among  the  troops  and  convicts, 
who  on  landing  were  tainted  with  the  scurvy,  and  the  likelyhood  of 
its  continuance  from  the  food  (salt  provisions)  on  which  they  are 
from  necessity  obliged  to  live,  has  made  the  consumption  of 
medicines  so  very  great  that  the  inclosed  supply  will  be  very  More 
much  wanted  before  any  ships  can  possil^ly  arrive  here  from  required!^ 

The  distress  among  the  troops,  their  wives  and  children,  as 
well  as  among  the  convicts,  for  want  of  necessaries  to  aid  the 
operation  of  medicines  has  been  great.  What  are  included  under 
the  head  of  necessaries  I  take  the  liberty  to  enumerate,  which 
are  sugar,  sago,  oatmeal,  bai'ley,  rice,  currants,  different  spices,  Medical 
vinegar,  and  portable  soup.  Indeed,  our  situation,  not  having  any  ^'""'°"^ 
fresh  animal  food,  nor  being  able  to  make  a  change  in  the  diet, 
which  has  and  must  be  salt  meat,  makes  these  things  more 
necessary  here  than,  perhaps,  in  any  quarter  of  the  globe.  How- 
e\er,  the  necessity  of  having  these  things  sent  out  by  the  first 
opportunity  will  no  doubt  be  strongly  recommended  to  your 
Lordship's  notice  by  his  Excellency  Governor  Phillip.  I  have 
mentioned  them  lest  they  should  escape  him  through  the  multi- 
plicity of  matters  all  new  settlements  afford.  I  have  to  entreat 
your  Lm-dship  will  be  pleased  to  cause  the  medicines  to  be  sent  Medicines 
from  Apothecaries'  Hall,  where  they  are  sure  to  be  genuine  and 
fresh,  a  cii-cumstance,  considering  the  immense  distance  we  are 
off,  and  the  length  of  time  which  it  will  take  before  we  can 
receive  them,  that  cannot  be  too  much  attended  to.     Care  in  the 

*  See  Wliite  to  Phillip.     Ante,  p.  142. 


1788       puting  them  up  and  having  them  placed  in  a  dry  place  where 
10  July,     no  wet  can  come  at  them  during  the  voyage,  is  another  circum- 
stance equally  to  be  attended  to. 

I  have,  &c., 

John  White,  Surgeon. 

Major  Ross  to  Uxder  Secretary  Nepeax.* 
Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 
My  Dear  Sir,  10th  July,  1788. 

I  know  not  whether  the  Secretary  of  State  expects  I  am 
to  write  to  him  or  not,  but  I  suppose  rather  not,  for  as  I  came 
out  without  any  orders  or  instructions  from  your  office  with 
respect  to  the  intentions  of  Government,  so  am  I  still  ignorant  of 
it,  for  the  Governor  has  never  told  me,  neither  has  he  ever 
advised  or  consulted  with  me  on  the  subject,  and  I  beleive  every- 
body else  are  in  the  dark  as  well  as  myself.  Should  his  Lordship 
Ross's  expect  letters  from  me,  I  hope  you  will  think  the  above  a  sufficient 

"  "'   excuse,  for  I  cannot  see  how  I  could  write  without  informing 

him  of  the  manner  in  which  the  Governor  treats  me  as  Lieut. - 
Governor ;  and  as  to  the  detachment,  they  have  just  the  same 
cause  for  complaint  that  I  have.     This  you  will  see  cannot  be 
done  without  my  letter  coming  in  the  manner  of  a  complaint, 
which  I  by  no  means  wish  to  be  the  case  at  this  stage  of  the 
business ;  but  I  will  not  answer  for  what  may  be  the  case  here- 
General  dis-  after,  for,  take  my  word  for  it,  there  is  not  a  man  in  this  place 
but  wishes  to  return  home,  and  indeed  they  have  no  less  than 
cause,  for  I  believe  there  never  was  a  set  of  people  so  much  upon 
the  parrish  as  this  garrison  is,  and  what  little  we  want,  even  to 
a  single  nail,  we  must  not  send  to  the  Commissary  for  it,  but 
must  apply  to  his  Excellency,  and  when  we  do  he  allways  sayes 
there  is  but  little  come  out,  and  of  course  it  is  but  little  we  get, 
and  what  we  are  obliged  to  take  as  a  mark  of  favor. 
The  'oountrj'      If  you  want  a  true  description  of  this  country  it  is  only  to  be 
con  emue  .  £q^j-^j  amongst  many  of  the  private  letters  sent  home ;  however,  I 
will,  in  confidence,  venture  to  assure  you  that  this  countiy  will 
never  answer  to  settle  in,  for  altho'  I  think  corn  will  grow  here, 
yet  I  am  convinced  that  if  ever  it  is  able  to  maintain  the  people 
here  it  cannot  be  in  less  time  than  probably  a  hundi^ed  years 
hence.     I  therefore  think  it  will  be  cheaper  to  feed  the  convicts 
Convicts  and  On  turtle  and  venison  at  the  London  Tavern  than  be  at  the 
turtle.  expence  of  sending  them  here. 

I  have  now  only  to  add  my  hope  that  yourself,  Mrs.  Nepean, 
and  the  family  are  well,  and  to  assure  you  that  it  is  not  possible 
you  can  be  better  than  you  are  wished  to  be  by  James  Campbell,! 
as  well  as  by,  my  dear  sir,  Yours,  &c., 

R.  Ross. 

*  A  private  letter.  f  Captain  Campbell. 


GovEKNOR  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydxey.  1788 

:\Iy  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  July  the  10th,  1788.  i'^-^"'-^- 

In  obedience  to  the  instructions  I  received  under  the  Royal 
Sign  Manual,  resjjecting  the  natives,  and*  transmitting  an  account 
of  the  nature  and  quality  of  the  soil  in  and  near  the  settlement, 
and  the  mode,  and  upon  what  terms  and  conditions,  according  to 
the  best  of  my  judgment,  lands  maybe  grafted,*  I  have  the  honor 
(jf  inf(jrming  your  Lordship  that  the  natives  have  ever  been  treated  The  natives. 
with  the  greatest  humanity  and  attention,  and  every  precaution 
that  was  possible  has  been  taken  to   prevent  their  receiving  any 
insults  ;  and  when  I  shall  have  time  to  mix  more  with  them  every 
means  shall  be  used  to  reconcile  them  to  live  amongst  us,  and  to  Their fiieii<i- 
teach  them  the  advantages  they  will  reap  from  cultivatmg  the  ^  "^'  **^"'' 
land,  which  will  enable  them  to  support  themselves  at  this  season 
of  the  year,  when  fish  are  so  scarce  that  many  of  them  perish  witli 
hunger,  at  least,  I  have  strong  reason  to  suppose  that  to  be  the 
case.      Their  numljer  in  the  neighbourhood  of  this  settlement,  that  Their 
is  within  ten  miles  to  the  northward  and  ten  miles  to  the  south-  "'™  '''" 
ward,  I  reckon  at  fifteen  hundred. 

With  respect  to  the  soil,  I  have  had  the  honor  of  informing  your 
Lordship  that  near  the  head  of  the  harbour  there  is  a  tract  of 
country  running  to  the  westward  for  many  miles  which  appears 
to  be  in  general  rich,  good  land ;  the  breadth  of  this  tract  of  Good  laixi. 
country  I  have  not  yet  been  aljle  to  examine,  but  I  believe  it  to 
be  considerable.     These  lands,  and  several  particular  spots,  may  ])e 
settled,  and  the  ground  cleared  of  timber,  without  the  great  laljour 
we  experience  in  the  situation  in  which  I  have  been  obliged  to  fix 
the  colony.      Farmers  and  people  used  to  the  cultivation  of  lands.  Farmers  as 
if  sent  out  (and  without  which  agriculture  will  make  but  a  very  '^"''^'■^• 
slow  progress),  must  be  supported  by  Government  for  two  or  three 
years,  and  liave  the  labour  of  a  certain  numljer  of  convicts  to 
assist  them  for  that  time,  after  which  they  may  be  al)le  to  support 
themselves,  and  to  take  the  convicts  sent  out  at  the  expence  which 
Govei'nment  is  put  to  for  their  transportation  ;  but  then,  I  presume, 
none  should  be  sent  whose  sentence  is  for  a  less  term  than  fourteen 
years.     A  yearly  fine  to  be  paid  for  the  lands  granted,  after  the  Limd  tyrants. 
fifth  year ;  the  fine  to  be  in  grain,  and  in  proportion  to  the  crop ; 
and  this,  T  should  liope,  would  be  the  only  tax  laid  on  the  crop.s, 
giving  the  church  lands  in  the  room  of  tythes. 

The  .sending  out  settlers,  who  will  be  interested  in  the  laljor  of  Settlers 
the  convicts,  and  in  the  cultivation  of  the  country,  appeai-s  to  me  ^'''"''®'^' 
to  be  absolutely  necessary. 

Lands  granted  to  officers  or  settlers   will,   I  presume,  be  on  Conditions 
c<jndition  of  a  certain  proportion  of  the  lands  so  granted  being  [,^J,t"'^" 
cultivated  or  cleared  within  a  certain  time,  and  which  time  and 
(quantity  can  only  be  determined  by  the  nature  of  the  ground  and 

N  ♦  Ante,  pp.  85-91 




10  July. 

An  opinion 
to  order. 

situation  of  the  lands ;  and,  in  that  case,  when  lands  are  granted 
to  officers,  the  garrison  must  be  sufficient  for  the  service  of  the 
place,  and  to  permit  such  officers  occasionally  to  be  absent  at  the 
lands  they  are  to  cultivate,  and  for  a  certain  time ;  they  likewise 
must  be  allowed  convicts,  who  must  be  maintained  at  the  expence 
of  the  Crown. 

Your  Lordship  will  be  pleased  to  consider  this  opinion  as  given 
in  obedience  to  orders,  on  a  subject  which  requires  more  considera- 
tion than  I  can  give  it  at  present,  and  at  a  time  when  I  have 
only  a  very  superficial  knowledge  of  the  country  for  a  few  miles 
around.  I  have,  ifec, 

A.  Phillip. 

of  Port 

Letters  from 
La  Peroiise. 





Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.* 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

Dear  Sir,  July  the  10th,  1788. 

By  the  Alexander,  under  the  care  of  Lieutenant  Short- 
land,  agent  for  the  transports,  I  have  sent  dispatches  to  the  Right 
Honourable  the  Lord  Sydney  and  for  yourself,  with  a  rough  sur- 
vey of  Port  Jackson.  Duplicates  of  these  dispatches  go  by  the 
Friendship,  under  the  care  of  Lieutenant  Collins,  of  the  marines, 
triplicates  of  most  by  the  master  of  the  Borrowdale,  and  a 
quadriplicate  of  my  publick  letters  to  you  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales.  With  your  dispatches  I  have  sent  duplicates  and  tripli- 
cates of  my  publick  letters  to  the  Admiralty  and  Navy  Board, 
and  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  troubling  you  with  some  private 

Lieutenant  Shortland  is  likewise  charged  with  a  box  of  letters 
from  Monsieur  La  Perouse  for  the  French  Ambassador. 

Yesterday  twenty  of  the  natives  came  down  to  the  beach,  each 
armed  with  a  number  of  spears,  and  seized  on  a  good  part  of  the 
fish  caught  in  the  seine.  The  coxswain  had  been  ordered,  how- 
ever small  the  quantity  he  caught,  always  to  give  them  a  part 
whenever  any  of  them  came  where  he  was  fishing,  and  this  was 
the  first  time  they  ever  attempted  to  take  any  by  force.  While 
the  greatest  number  were  seizing  the  fish,  several  stood  at  a 
small  distance  with  their  spears  poised  ready  to  throw  them 
if  any  resistance  had  been  made,  but  the  coxswain  very  pru- 
dently permitted  them  to  take  what  they  chose,  and  parted  good 
friends.  They,  at  present,  find  it  very  difficult  to  support  them- 

In  consequence  of  what  happened  yesterday,  no  boat  will  in 
future  go  down  the  harbour  without  an  officer. 

I  have,  etc., 

A.  Phillip. 

*  a  similar  letter  was  sent  to  Secretarj-  Stephens. 


Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.*  1783 

My  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  tJuly,  1788.  lojuiy. 

The  publick  letters  to  your  Lordship  will  show  the  situation 
of  this  settlement,  and  the  little  diflicultys  we  have  met  with.  Difficulties, 
which  time,  an  additional  force,  and  prosier  people  for  cultivating 
the  land  will  remove;  and  your  Lordship  may  be  assured  that 
anxious  to  render  a  very  essential  service  to  my  country,  by  the 
establishment  of  a  colony,  which  from  its  situation  must  here- 
after be  a  valuable  acquisition  to  Great  Britain,  no  perseverance 
will  1)6  wanting  on  my  part,  and  which  consideration  alone  could 
make  amends  for  the  being  surrounded  by  the  most  infamous  of 
mankind,  it  is  to  your  Lordship  and  to  Nepean  only  that  I  make 
a  declaration  of  this  kind.      Time  will  remove  all  diflicultys,  and  Time  will 

with  a  few  familys   who   have  been  used  to  the  cultivation  of  fe'^o^e 
111-  •!!  1        •  11  them. 

lands,  this  country  will  wear  a  more  pleasing  aspect,  and  those 
who  are  to  come  out,  knowing  what  the  country  really  is,  will  be 
less  disapointed.  As  to  myself,  I  am  satisfied  to  remain  as  long 
as  my  services  are  wanted :  I  am  serving  my  country,  and  serving  Devotion 
the  cause  of  humanity.  I  flatter  myself  that  by  the  return  of  *°  ^"'••''• 
the  ships  that  brought  us  out  provisions,  and  on  wliic.h  is  'placed 
our  sole  dependence,  I  shall  be  able  to  give  your  Lordship  a  more 
satisfactory  account  of  this  country. 

Lt.  Philip  Gidley  King,  the  second  lieut.  of  the  Sirius,  who  is  King 
at  Norfolk  Island,  is  a  very  steady,  good  officer.     He,  too,  is  cut  off  P''^'^^^- 
from  all  society,  and  is  in  a  situation  that  will  require  patience 
and  perseverance,  both  of  which  he  possesses,  with  great  merit  in 
the  service  as  an  officer ;  as  such  I  beg  leave  to  recommend  him  to 
jour  Lordship.      The   rank  of  master   and    commander  he  well  His  pro- 
earned  in  the  late  war,  and  I  should  be  very  happy  if  he  now  asked"or 
attained  it,  thro'  your  Lordship.  |      I  have  now,  my  Lord,  only  to 
request  that  my  compliments  may  be  made  acceptable  to  Lady 
Sydney  and  family,  and  as  I  have  directed  my  official  letters  to 
Mr.  Nepean,  to  Mr.  Townshend  in  particular,  I  hope  he  will  not 
forget  his  exiled  friend. 

Of  your  Lordship's  friendship  I  have  had  proofs,  and  of  which 
I  retain  a  just  sense;  add  to  the  obligation,  my  Lord,  by  believing 
that  I  merit  the  friendship  you  honor  me  with,  and  that  I  am, 
with  esteem, —  Your  Lordship's,  &zc., 

A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.§ 

My  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  July  10th,  1788. 

I  have  now  closed  all  my  pu})lick  letters,  which,  from  the 

hurry  in  which  they  have  been  written,  will  appear  unconnected, 

♦  A  private  letter. 

t  The  (lay  of  the  month  is  not  ffiven,  but  the  letter  was  probably  written  on  the  same  day 
Jis  the  oHicial  despatches,  i.e.,  luth  July. 

}  King  was  promoted  2iid  .March,  IT'.U.  §  A  private  letter. 



10  July. 

Care  for  the 

for  England. 


A  kanajaroo. 

12  July. 





and  stand  in  need  of  an  apology.  Your  Lordship  will  see  by  the 
last  letter  that  the  natives,  armed,  took  some  fish  by  force  from 
the  boat's  crew.  The  temptation  was  great,  for  the  quantity 
caught  was  considerable,  and  fish  is  now  very  scarce.  We  shall 
guard  against  any  dispute  on  tliis  head  in  future,  and  when  the 
ships  sail  I  shall  have  time  to  go  amongst  them  and  to  give  them 
some  little  assistance  if,  from  the  rains  having  ceased,  fish  can  be 
caught  in  any  quantity. 

The  enclosed  memorandum  contains  the  articles  for  your  Lord- 
ship, which  are  on  l^oard  the  Alexander,  and  of  which  I  beg  your 
acceptance.     The  wine  will,  I  hoj^e,  be  improved  by  the  voyage. 

I  have  once  more  the  pleasure  of  assuring  your  Lordship  of  my 
esteem,  and  of  a  just  sense  of  the  friendship  with  which  I  am 
honor'd,  and  of  requesting  that  my  respects  may  be  made  accept- 
able to  Lady  Sydney,  with  compliments  to  Mr.  Townshend.  The 
birds  from  Lord  Howe  Island  may  be  acceptable  to  Lady  Chatham ; 
and  I  am  sorry  that  I  have  not  been  al)le  to  procure  any  small 
birds  for  Miss  Townshend,  to  whom,  likewise,  your  Lordship  will 
please  to  make  my  compliments. 

The  kangurroo*  for  your  Lordship  is  the  largest  I  have  yet 
seen.  As  it  stands  it  measures  five  feet  nine  inches.  This  extra- 
ordinary animal  makes  the  same  use  of  his  fore  feet  as  the  monkey 
does.  Major  Ross  has  one  alive.  It  is  young,  very  tame,  and 
comes  to  you  and  embraces  your  hands  with  the  fore  feet.  The 
female  was  killed,  and  the  young  one  remained  by  the  body. 

Wishing  your  Lordship  health,  I  have  the  honour  to  be,  with 

the  greatest  esteem,  &c.. 

A.  Phillip. 

Lt.  Collins,  whose  bad  state  of  health  obliges  him  to  return,  I 
beg  leave  to  recommend  to  your  Lordship's  notice. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

My  Dear  Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  July  12th,  1788. 

To  the  articles  which  I  have  mention'd  as  moi'e  immedately 
wanted,  the  following,  tho'  so  very  necessary,  have  escaped  my 
memory  till  this  moment.  Leather  for  soals  for  the  men's  shooes, 
and  the  materials  for  mending  them.  Shooes  here  last  but  a  very 
short  time,  and  the  want  of  these  materials,  and  thread  to  mend 
the  cloathing,  will  render  it  impossible  to  make  them  serve  more 
than  half  the  time  for  which  they  were  intended.  This  country 
requires  warm  cloathing  in  the  winter  ;  the  rains  are  frequent  and 
the  nights  very  cold. 

You  will  excuse  the  repetition  of  our  wants ;  they  will,  I  hope, 
be  less  in  future.  I  have,  &g., 

A.  Phillip. 

Vinegar  will  be  very  acceptable ;  it  is  very  much  wanted. 

*  Up  to  this  time  no  agreement  seems  to   have  been  come  to  as  to  the  spelling  o 
"  kangaroo." 

A    LETTER    EllOM    THE    CHAPLAIN.  181 

Thk  Rev.  Ricuard  Johnson  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean,        ^^^^ 

Port  Jackson,  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,       "   "  ^ 

Hon'd.  Sir,  New  South  Wales,  July  12th,  178S. 

Though  I  have  nothing  particular  to  mention  to  you,  I 
cannot  think  of  letting  the  fleet  return  to  England  without  droping 
you  a  single  line  to  inform  you  of  my  health  and  welfare.  It 
would  be  unnecessary  for  me,  sir,  to  give  you  any  account  of  the 
various  circumstances  or  incidences  respecting  the  fleet  during 
<;)ur  late  passage  from  England  to  .this  distant  part  of  the  globe, 
as,  no  doubt,  you  will  receive  ample  imformation  respecting  these 
matters,  together  with  a  description  of  this  country  as  to  climate, 
natives,  &c.,  &c.,  from  his  Excellency  Arthur  Phillip,  Esq.,  our 
Governour,  and  others.  Everything  here  is  as  yet  (as  you  may  Things 
easily  suppose)  very  unsettled,  but  hope  in  time  our  situation  will  "^settled. 
l)e  rendered  more  comfortable ;  and,  even  now,  all  things  considered, 
thank  God,  I  have  no  reason  to  complain. 

You  may  remember,  sir,  a  circumstance  which  greatly  interested 
the  public  a  little  before  our  leaving  England.    This  was  respecting 

the  Norwich  goaler  and  two  convicts, and ,  which, 

with  a  child,  were  removed  from  Norwich  gaol  to  Plymouth  in 
order  to  be  embarked  on  board  one  of  the  transports  bound  to 
New  South  Wales.  These  two  persons  I  marx^ied  soon  after  our  Marriage  of 
arrival  here.  Some  persons  made  a  charitable  contribution  for 
these  two  persons,  collected  the  sum  of  £20,  and  laid  this  out  in 
various  articles,  at  the  same  time  requesting  I  w'd  see  this  delivered 
to  them  upon  our  arrival  here.  Unfortunately,  these  have  not 
Ijeen  found.  This  circumstance  has  been  brought  before  the 
Ci\al  Court  here,  when  a  verdict  was  found  in  their  favor  ag'st 
the  captain  of  the  Alexander.  Am  sorry  this  charitable  in- 
tention and  action  has  been  brought  to  this  disagreeable  issue,  the 
more  so  because  the  public  seemed  to  be  so  much  interested  in 
their  welfare.  The  child  is  still  living — of  a  weakly  constitution, 
but  a  fine  boy. 

Hope,  sir,  you  will  excuse  my  freedom  in  directing  these  few 
lines  to  you,  my  chief  intention,  as  I  have  already  mentioned, 
l>eing  to  inform  you  of  my  health  and  welfare,  and  that  I  may  have 
the  honour  of  once  more  subscribing  myself,  &c., 

Richard  Johnson. 

Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Camp,  Svdney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 
Sir,  "  22nd  August,  1788.  •■^sAug. 

Having  on  the  15th  of  May  represented  to  your  Excel- 
lency the  absolute  impossibility  of  erecting  barracks  for  the 
officers  and  men  of  the  detachment  without  employing  such 
artificers  for  that  purpose  as  could  be  found  amongst  themselves, 



Paid  like 


and  having  at  the  same  time  said  that  they  could  not  be  re- 
22  Aug.  tained  at  such  work  unless  they  were  to  be  paid  in  the  customary 
manner  of  paying  all  troojis  employed  on  extra  works  for  the 
public  service,  and  more  especially  so  as  they  knew  that  the 
Artificers,  artificers  employed  from  the  ships  of  war  and  transports  were  to- 
be  paid  for  work  done  on  shore. 

Your  Excellency  having  done  me  the  honor  of  agreeing  with 
me  that  it  would  be  necessary  to  employ  them,  and  that  if  it  was 
customary,  there  could  be  no  doubt  but  that  the  men  so  employed 
would  be  paid,  I,  in  consequence,  gave  out  an  order  on  the  17th 
of  May  that  such  artificers  as  belonged  to  the  detachment,  and 
employed  in  erecting  barracks  or  other  public  works,  should  in 
future  be  paid  in  the  .same  manner  that  troops  usually  have  been. 

I  do  myself  the  honor  of  inclosing  for  your  Excellency's  inspec- 
tion a  list  of  such  artificers  as  have  been  employed  from  the  date 
of  the  above  order  to  the  17th  of  August,  1788. 

I  have,  etc., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

GovERXOR  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydxey. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 
My  Lord,  1st  September,  1788. 

I  had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship  of  the  situa- 
tion of  this  colony,  by  the  agent  for  the  transports,  Lieutenant 
Shortland,  who  sailed  the  13th  of  July,  in  the  Alexander,  with  the 
Despatches.  Friendship  and  Prince  of  Wales,  transports,  and  the  Borrowdale, 
store-ship  ;  duplicates  of  my  letters  to  your  Lordship  being  sent 
at  the  same  time  by  Lieutenant  William  Collins,  whose  bad  state 
of  health  obliged  him  to  return  to  Europe  ;  and  triplicates  by  the 
master  of  the  Borrowdale. 

These  ships  went  to  the  northward,  intending  to  follow  Captain 
Carteret's  track  between  New  Britain  and  New  Ireland ;  and  as  it 
is  not  now  impossible  but  that  the  ships  by  which  I  have  now  the 
honor  of  writing  to  your  Lordship  may  be  the  first  that  arrive,  I 
shall  recapitulate  the  heads  of  my  former  letters. 
[Here  follow  extracts  from  letters  already  given.] 

T  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

1  Sept. 




28  Sept. 

The  Sirius 
sent  to  the 
Cape  for 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 
My  Dear  Sir,  September  28th,  1788. 

I  have  ordered  the  Sirius  to  the  Cape,  for  the  reasons 
assigned  in  my  letter  to  Lord  Sydney  ;*  all  the  seed  wheat  and 
most  of  the  other  seeds  brought  from  England  having  been 
spoiled,  as  well  as  what  wheat  was  put  on  board  the  Supply  at 
the  Cape ;  several  acres  sown  with  this  wheat  have  been  sown  a 

*  Post,  p.  188. 


second  time,  with  the  seeds  preserved  for  next  year,   in  case  of       1783 
any  accident  happening  to  what  we   have   in   the  ground,   and      i  Sept. 
which  has  left  us  witliout  a  Imshel  of  seed  in  the  settlement. 
Having  only  a  year's  flour  in  store,  Captain  Hunter  has  orders  to 
purchase  as  much  as  the  ship  can  stow,  and  I  appi^ehend  he  will 
be  able  to  bring  six  months'  for  the  settlement ;  as  likewise  what 
seed   wheat,  &c.,  we  may  want.      The  Sirius  and  Supply   being 
victualled  from  the  stores  lessens  our  provisions ;  and  you  will,  I 
believe,  see  the  necessity  of  having  always  two  years'  provisions  Two  years' 
beforehand ;  a  store-ship  may  be  lost  a  long  time  before  it  is  known  pro°^?^s°ons 
here  or  in  England. 

Xo  kind  of  necessarys  for  the  sick  after  landing  was  sent  out.  Hospital 
I  enclose  the  surgeon's  letter,*  and  what  he  has  demanded  for  "^^ 
six    months   I    have    ordered    to   be  purchased,  and  apprehend 
necessarys  for  the  hospital  will  be  sent  out  by  the  first  ships. 
The  cloaths  for  the  convicts  are  in  general  bad,  and  thei-e  is  no  Clothing 
possibility  of  mending  them  for  want  of  thread ;  it  is  the  same  *"   ^  °*^^' 
with  the  shoes,  which  do  not  last  a  month ;  these  necessary  articles, 
to  the  amount  of  a  few  pounds,  I  have  likewise  ordered  to  be 
purchased.     A  strong  launch  to  remove  provisions  will  soon  be 
necessary,  as  some  convicts  are  going  to  cultivate  land  near  the  A  launch 
head  of  the  harbour,  and  to  bring  timber,  for  what  we  now  use  '"<^fi"ir'-'<^'- 
is  brought  already  from  a  considerable  distance,  and  our  roads 
after  heavy  rains  are  bad. 

Bills  are  given  to  the  carpenters  and  sawyers  of  the  Sirius  and 
Supply  for  the  time    they  have  been  ashore  (certificates  were 
given  to  those  belonging  to  the  transports).     The  whole  amounts 
to  £192  17s.  6d.     These  small  bills  will  give  the  Treasury  some 
trouble,  but  this  country  has  no  Treasury.      There  are  now  only 
ten  convict  carpenters  ;  more  are  absolutely  necessary,  as  well  as  Carpentei-s 
bricklayers,  for  the  building  to  secure  stores  will  be  a  heavy  work,  ^"['kiavcis 
and   must   be   undertaken ;  at   the   same   time  I  wish   to  avoid  wanted. 
hiring  the  ships'  carpenters  in  future. 

The  tools  and  articles  in  the  inclosed  lists  will  be  much  wanted 
by  the  time  they  can  be  sent  out,  and  I  cannot  help  repeating  Tools. 
that  most  of  the  tools  were  as  bad  as  ever  were  sent  out  for 
barter  on  the  coast  of  Guinea. 

Of  the  thirty  pipes  of  wine  ordered  for  the  hospital,  only  fifteen  wine, 
were  purchased.     There  being  no  more  port  wine  in  the  stores  at 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  you  will  be  so  good  as  to  let  orders  be  given  for 
the  remainder  being  procured  at  Teneriffe,  if  port  wine  is  not 
sent  from  England. 

The  ration,  as  settled  by  the  Navy  Board,  is  the  same  for  the  Ration  too 
men  convicts  as  for  the  garrison,   and  the  giving  of  only   four  ''™'' 
pounds  of  pork  in  lieu  of  seven  pounds  of  beef  I  think  too  little. 
The  additional  pound  of  flour  a  month  is,  I  suppose,  according  to 
the  custom  of  other  garrisons,  but  this  is  the  business  of  a  Com- 

»  Ante,  p.  142. 




2S  Sept. 


d  .(iuction  to 

be  ta-keii  off. 


Poor  «ood- 



More  help. 




The  prood 

Biissary,  and  with  which  I  am  unacquainted.  The  eighth  was 
stopped  for  some  time  in  favoui*  of  Government,  on  account  of 
the  loss  in  issuing  the  provisions  in  small  quantities,  but  being- 
desirous,  if  possible,  to  do  away  with  every  cause  of  discontent,  on 
Major  Ross  informing  me  that  it  never  was  done  in  any  garrison 
to  his  knowledge,  the  full  weight  being  given,  and  the  loss  falling 
on  Government,  I  have  ordered  that  deduction  to  be  taken  off, 
and  the  garrison  and  convicts  receive  their  full  allowance. 

The  women  have  two-thii"ds  of  what  is  allowed  the  men,  and 
the  children  one-third.  The  children's  allowance  is,  I  think,  too 
little,  ana  I  have  been  obliged  in  sevei'al  instances  to  order 
children  half  the  men's  allowance,  or  two-thirds,  as  the  women 
are  allowed. 

The  wooden  ware  sent  out  were  too  small ;  they  are  called 
bowls  and  platters,  but  are  not  larger  than  pint  basons.  There 
was  not  one  that  Avoidd  hold  a  quart. 

As  the  candles  sent  out  will  not  last  more  than  two  years,  I 
wish  to  know  if  it  is  the  intention  of  Government  to  furnish  the 
settlement  with  that  article  for  any  longer  term. 

The  requisites  for  mending  the  men  and  women's  cloaths  and 
shoes,  as  well  as  some  kind  of  bedding  for  them,  are  very  neces- 
sary, and  some  kind  of  covering  will  be  wanted  for  the  children. 
This  is  not  an  expense  that  will  be  necessary  to  continue  aftei'  a 
number  of  settlers  are  in  the  colony,  for  then  the  convicts  will 
have  some  resources  ;  at  present  they  have  none. 

Amongst  our  many  wants  a  few  proper  people  to  superintend 
the  convicts  has  been  mentioned,  and  we  are  at  a  great  loss  for 
the  necessary  jieople  to  attend  the  stores  and  see  the  provisions 
issued.  The  con-sicts  who  are  proper  for  this  are  those  who  ha^s'e 
had  some  little  education,  and  they  are  the  greatest  villains  we 
have.  In  fact,  there  is  no  choice  of  persons  of  any  class,  and  I 
am  obliged  to  continue  such  as  we  have  in  places  for  which  they 
prove  themselves  veiy  unlit  subjects. 

The  paint  I  have  desired  is  chiefly  for  the  gun-carriages,  boats, 

The  knowing  when  the  time  expires  for  which  the  convicts 
have  been  transported  is  very  necessary,  many  of  whom  will 
desire  to  return  ;  and  there  are  many  that  will  be  a  burthen  to 
Government,  and  who  I  should  be  glad  to  send  away.  This  I 
mentioned  more  particularly  in  a  former  letter. 

Copies  of  the  order  and  instructions  given  to  the  Commandant 
of  Norfolk  Island  are  inclosed,*  as  likewise  what  articles  are 
ordered  to  be  purchased  at  the  Cape. 

The  good   behaviour  and   industry  of   two    convicts,  

and    have   induced   me    to   request  that   their   families 

may  be  sent    to  them.f     The  men  are  at  Norfolk  Island,  and 

*  Ante,  pp.  136-13S.        f  The  request  was  complied  with.     Post,  p.  254. 

NEAVS    TROil    NORrOLK    ISLAND.  185 

which  they  do  not  wish  to  leave  after  the  time  for  which  they       1^88 
have  been  transported  expires.     The  names  and  places  of  abode     2S  Sept. 
of  these  two  families  are  inclosed. 

An  account  of  the  artificers  belonging  to  the  detachment  who  Ai-tificers' 
have  been  employed  as  such  is  inclosed  in  my  letter  to  Lord  ' " 
.Sydney.  You  wijl,  sir,  be  so  good  as  to  inform  me  what  they  are 
to  lie  paid  a  day ;  and,  as  the  ships  that  may  come  out  will  bring 
many  necessarys  which  these  people  stand  in  need  of,  they  hope 
that  money  will  be  sent  out  to  pay  them,  as  bills  would  be  attended 
M'ith  great  loss  and  inconvenience. 

The  carpentei's  belonging  to  the  transports  had  notes  given  to  Carijenters' 
them  for  what  they  had  earned,  at  the  rate  of  three  shillings  per     ° 

The  master  carpenter  of  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius  and  the  master 
carpenter  of  the  Supply,  armed  tender,  have  been  paid  by  bills  at 
the  rate  of  three  shillings  per  day.  The  rest,  carpentries  and  sawyers, 
have  been  paid  by  bills  at  the  rate  of  two  shillings  per  day. 

The  master  smith,  who  belongs  to  the  Sirius,  has  no  allowance  The  master 

.  .  .  .  smith 

for  his  work,  as  I  have  written  by  the  ships  that  sailed  in  July  ' 
to  request  he  may  be  established  in  the  settlement  with  such  an 
allowance  as  may  be  judged  proper. 

The  Golden  Grove  is  now  ready  to  sail  with  one  midshipman.  Detachment 
one  Serjeant,  one  corporal,  and  five  privates,  twenty  men  and  ten  ]sland"^^°''^ 
women  convicts.     These  will  make  the  number  on  Norfolk  Island 
sixty,  and  I  send  eighteen  months'  provisions.    The  Fishburn  will 
be  ready  to  sail  by  the  time  the  (iolden  Grove  returns,  and  both 
ships  shall  sail  immediately  for  England.         I  have,  «ic.. 

A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 
My  Lord,  28th  September,  1788. 

Extracts  from  my  letters  by  the  ships  which  sailed  in  July 
accompany  this  letter,  and  I  have  now  the  honor  of  informing 
your  Lordship  that  the  Supply  sailed  for  Norfolk  Island  the  17th  Noi-foik 
of  July,  and  returning  the  2Gth  of  August,  brought  me  the 
following  particulars  from  the  Commandant  of  that  island.*  He 
says  that  immediately  after  being  landed  they  proceeded  to  clear 
ground  suflicient  for  building  huts  for  themselves  and  a  store-house, 
the  whole  island  not  affording  a  single  acre  free  from  timber. 
They  were  landed  on  the  south-west  end  of  the  island,  a  rough 
sketch  of  which  I  received  from  that  officer,  and  have  the  honor 
of  enclosing  your  Lordship.  The  bay  in  which  they  laiuletl  is 
sheltered  by  a  reef  of  coral  rock,  through  which  there  is  a  jiassage 
for  a  Ijoat,  Ijut  which,  with  the  tide  of  flood  when  the  Avind  is 
westerly,  makes  the  landing  dangerous  ;  and  a  midshipman  who 
was  ordered  to  lay  within  the  reef,  in  order  to  attend  the  boat.s 

*  Despatches  were  sent  from  Norfolk  Island  on  the  11th  August. 



Rich  land. 

A  fine 


1788       coming  on  shore,  imprudently  letting  the  boat  drive  into  the  surf, 
28  Sept.     was  lost  with  four  men.     This  was  the  second  time  the  boat  had 

Landiiio-        been  overset  with  that  midshipman  in  her,  and  the  first  time  one 

daji^erous.    man  was  lost. 

The  want  of  a  good  landing-place,  and  security  for  vessels  in 
the  winter,  is  the  only  thing  to  be  wished  for,  the  island  being  in 
every  other  respect  one  of  the  finest  in  the  world.  The  earth  is 
very  rich^mould  to  the  depth  of  five  and  six  feet  whei-ever  they 
have  dug  so  deep,  and  all  the  grain  and  garden  seeds  which  have 
been  put  into  the  ground  growing  in  the  most  luxuriant  manner. 
This  island,  from  the  great  quantity  of  pumice-stone  found  there, 
must  formerly  have  been  a  volcano,  the  mouth  of  which,  it  is 
probable,  will  be  found  on  the  top  of  a  small  mountain  near  the 
middle  of  the  island,  which  he  has  named  Mount  Pitt,  f  The  island 
is  exceedingly  well  watered,  a  strong  stream,  which  rises  at  or 
near  Mount  Pitt,  running  through  a  very  fine  valley — sufiiciently 
strong  to  turn  a  mill,  though  divided  into  several  branches  ;  and 
very  fine  springs  of  water  are  found  in  different  parts  of  the  island. 
There  are  several  small  bays,  and  there  are  some  hopes  of  finding 
a  better  landing-place,  but  the  necessity  of  employing  everyone  in 
sheltering  themselves  and  stores  from  the  weather,  the  small 
number  of  people,  only  seventeen  men  and  six  women,  and  the 
whole  island  being  covered  with  wood,  which  a  sort  of  supple-jack, 
interwoven  with  the  trees,  renders  almost  impassable,  have  hitherto 
prevented  its  being  examined.     With  this  small  number,  Mr.  King 

Cultivation,  has  cleared  sulficient  ground  to  have  vegetables  of  every  kind  in 
the  greatest  abundance ;  three  acres  in  barley,  part  of  which  had 
been  first  sown  with  wheat,  but  none  of  which  came  up,  the  grain 
being  injui'ed  by  the  weevil,  and  gi'ound  was  ready  to  receive  rice 
and  Indian  corn,  when  the  Supply  was  there.  All  his  people  were 
in  good  houses,  and  he  says  that  he  has  no  doubt  but  that  within 
three  years  they  shall  be  in  such  a  situation  as  to  support  them- 
selves, with  the  assistance  of  a  small  proportion  of  salt  provisions, 
and  that  they  will  not  stand  in  need  of  that  after  the  fourth  year. 
They  have  fish  in  great  abundance,  some  turtle  in  the  season,  great- 
number  of  pigeons,  and  have  found  the  plantain  growing  wild. 
The  flax-plant  (some  roots  of  which  I  shall  send  by  the  Sirius  to 
the  Cape,  to  be  forwarded  to  England)  is  found  very  luxuriant 
all  over  the  island,  growing  to  the  height  of  eight  feet ;  unfortu- 
nately, the  person  I  sent,  who  calls  himself  a  flax-dresser,  cannot 
prepare  it,  as  this  plant  requires  a  different  treatment  in  the 
dressing  to  what  the  Eui'opean  flax-plant  does.  Your  Lordship, 
I  presume,  will  order  proper  persons  to  be  sent  out,  by  which 
means  that  island  will,  in  a  very  short  time,  be  able  to  furnish  a 
considerable  quantity  of  flax.  The  pine-trees,  in  the  opinion  of 
the  carpenter  of  the  Supply,  who  is  a  good  judge,  are  superior  to 
any  he  has  ever  seen ;  and  the  island  affords  excellent  timber  for 

t  In  honor  of  the  Ptiir.e  Minister,  t  Le  Bif^ht  IIoi  culh  Willii  ni  r!tt. 

The  people 
well  housed. 

Fish,  turtle, 





ship-builcHn£;,  as  well  as  for  masts  and  yards*,  M-ith  which  I  make       17£8 
no  doubt    but  his  Majesty's  ships  in   the  East   Indies  may  be      28Sept 
supplied,  as  likewise  with  pitch  and  tar,  the  only  difficulty  being  piue~tiniber. 
the  want  of  a  good  landing-place,  and  I  have  not  the  least  doubt 
but  that  one  will  be  found  in  some  of  the  small  bays,  or  if  not, 
Mr.  King  proposes  blowing  up  two  or  three  of  the  small  rocks 
which  make  the  x-eef  dangerous,  but  if  distippointed  in  both,  there 
Avill  be  no  danger  in  the  summer-time  ;  and  I  am  assured  by  the 
master  of  the  Supply  it  Avill  be  safer  for  a  ship  to  load  with  masts 
and  spars  at  Norfolk  Island  than  it  is  in  Riga  Bay,  where  so 
many  ships  load  yearly. 

The  Supply  has  been  twice  to  the  island,  but  in  this  season  we 
haA'e  blowing  weather,  and  that  has  prevented  our  receiving  any 
spars.     The  Golden  Grove  will  sail  the  beginning  of  October,  with  Another 
one  petty  officer,  a  serjeant,  corporal,  and  six  marines,  twenty  men  for  Norfolk 
and  ten  women  convicts,  and  eighteen  months'  provisions  for  the  i^iaud. 
island ;  and  by  that  ship  I  expect  spars,  some  of  which  shall  be 
sent  to  the  Commissioners  of  His  Majesty's  Navy,  that  they  may 
be  properly  examined,  as  I  believe  the  wood  is  nearly  as  light  as 
the  best  Norway  masts,  and  grows  to  a  most    extraordinary  size.  Great  pine- 
some  of  the  trees  measuring  from  one  hundred  and  sixty  to  one  ''"'^'^^' 
hundred  and  eighty  feet,  and  rise  eighty  feet  without  a  branch  ; 
the  turpentine  from  them  is  veiy  white,  and  in  the  opinion  of 
those  who  have  seen  it  is  of  the  purest  kind.     The  fern-tree  is 
likewise  found  of  a  good  height,  measuring  from  seventy  to  eighty 
feet,  and  affords  good  food  for  the  hogs,  sheep,  and  goats,  all  which  Thriving 
thrive  ;  and  I  shall    send  them  what  live  stock   we    now   have  ^'^'^  ^'°°  ' 
remaining  of  what  was  purchased  on  account  of  Government.     No 
<]uadrupeds  have  been  seen  except  rats,  which  at  present  overrun  Rats. 
the  island,  but  which  the  cats  and  terrior  dogs  intended  to  be  sent 
will,  I  hope,  soon  destroy ;  until  that  is  done,  their  crops  must  suffer 
very  considerably.      There  are,  likewise,  great  plenty  of  cabbage- 
trees,  but  not  a  single  Ijlade  of  grass  has  been  seen  on  the  island,  No  grass. 
the  pigeons,  sheep,  and  goats  eating  the  leaves  of  the  shrubs  and 
of  particular  trees,  with  which  they  grow  very  fat.      Two  canoes 
were  found  on  the  rocks,  probaVjly  driven  from  New  Zealand. 

They  had  not  had  such   heavy  storms  of  thunder  as  we  have 
experienced,  and  the  people  have  been  very  healthy.     I  think 
this  island  will  answer  the  most  sanguine  expectations,  and  am 
satisfied  that  the  officer  who  commands  there  will,  in  a  very  few  ^.^^^ 
years,  not  only  put  that  island  in  a  situation  to  support  itself,  but  inospects. 
to  assist  this  colony. 

As  soon  as  the  rains  permitted  the  getting  the  provisions  on 
shoi-e  from  the  two  I'emaining  store-ships,  they  were  cleared, 
except  of  the  spirits,  which  are  on  board  of  one  of  them,  and 

•  other  experts  were  of  a  different  opinion.     Post,  p.  400.     The  timber,  when  tried,  was 
fouiid  to  be  unfit  for  masts  or  j  ards.    See  Hint's  Description  of  Norfollt  Island,  post,  p.  420. 




28  Sept. 

Failure  of 

A  second 






Grain  from 
the  Cape. 



Cellar  for 

which  will  be  landed  the  end  of  this  month.  It  was  my  intention 
to  send  the  two  store-ships  away  together,  and  expected  they 
would  be  ready  to  sail  the  first  week  in  October,  and  the  Sirius 
was  ordered  to  be  i-eady  to  sail  about  the  .same  time  to  the  north- 
ward, in  order  to  procure  live  stock  ;  but  it  was  now  found  that 
very  little  of  the  English  wheat  had  vegetated,  and  a  very  con- 
siderable quantity  of  barley  and  many  seeds  had  I'otted  in  the 
ground,  having  been  heated  in  the  passage,  and  some  much  injured 
by  the  weevil.  All  the  barley  and  wheat,  likewise,  which  had 
been  put  on  board  the  Sup2:)ly  at  the  Cape  were  destroyed  l)y  the 
weevil.  The  ground  was,  therefore,  necessarily  sown  a  second 
time  with  the  seed  which  I  had  saved  for  the  next  year,  in  case 
the  crops  in  the  ground  met  with  any  accident.  The  wheat  sent 
to  Norfolk  Island  had  likewise  failed,  and  there  did  not  remain 
seed  to  sow  one  acre.  I  could  not  be  certain  that  the  ships  which 
are  expected  would  bring  any  quantity  of  grain,  or,  if  put  on  board 
them,  that  they  would  preserve  it  good  hy  a  proper  attention  to 
the  stowage,  to  the  want  of  which  I  impute  our  present  loss. 

The  colony  not  being  in  a  state  to  support  any  considerable 
quantity  of  live  stock,  many  being  under  the  necessity  at  j^re.sent 
of  frequently  killing  a  part  of  what  they  have  for  want  of  food 
to  support  them,  I  should  be  obliged  to  kill  what  the  Sirius 
might  procure,  and  which  could  not  be  expected  to  exceed  ten  or 
fourteen  days'  provision  for  the  settlement ;  and  we  now  have  not 
more  than  a  year's  bi-ead  in  store,  having  been  obliged  to  furnish 
the  Sirius  and  the  Supply  with  provisions.  On  these  con- 
siderations, but  more  immediately  from  the  fear  of  not  having 
grain  to  put  into  the  ground  next  year,  when  we  shall  liave  a 
more  considerable  quantity  of  ground  to  sow,  I  have  thought  it 
necessary  to  order  the  Sirius  to  go  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope 
in  order  to  procure  grain,  and  at  the  same  time  what  quantity 
of  iiour  and  provisions  she  can  receive.  Captn.  Hunter  is  like- 
wise ordered  to  purchase  what  necessarys  the  surgeon  of  the 
hospital  demands  for  six  months,  no  necessarys  of  any  kind, 
according  to  his  letter,  which  is  inclosed,  having  been  sent  out. 
Fifteen  pipes  of  wine  were  purchased  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  which 
were  all  that  could  be  procured  ;  and  I  presume,  as  thirty  pipes 
were  ordered,  the  remainder  will  be  sent  out  by  any  ship  that 
may  stop  at  Teneriffe.  I  have  only  ordered  a  sufficient  quantity 
of  necessarys  to  be  purchased  for  that  time,  as  a  demand  has 
been  made  in  my  first  letter  to  your  Lordship.  The  cellar  for 
receiving  the  spirits  will  be  finished,  and  the  Fishburn  store-ship 
cleared  and  ready  to  sail  by  the  time  the  Golden  Gi'ove  returns 
from  Norfolk  Island,  when  both  ships  shall  be  immediately  ordered 
to  England. 

I  send  the  store-ship  to  Norfolk  Island,  as  I  think  the  Supply 
may  be  necessaiy  in  the  harbour  while  the  Sirius  is  absent. 

rilOGRESS   AT   SYDNEY   COVE.  189 

Your  Lordship  will  see  by  the  returns  the  state  of  the  garrison       1788 
aiul  the  provisions    remaining  in  store.      What    the   Sirius  will     as  Sept. 
bring  will  be  mostly  flour,  and  that  she  may  take  on  board  as  Ljj^hT^ng 
large  a  (juantity  as  possible  I  have  ordered  some  of  her  guns  to  theSirius.° 
be  landed. 

I  presume  that  your  Lordship  will  see  the  necessity  of  this 
colony  having  always  a  certain  quantity  of  provisions  in  store. 

As  soon  as  the  8irius  sails  I  intend  going  up  the  harbour  Fresh 
to  the  ground  pointed  out  in  my  former  letters  as  more  easily  ground. 
cultivated  than  the  land  round  us,*  with  a  small  detachment, 
consisting  of  two  lieutenants,  one  captain,  twenty-five  non- 
commissioned and  privates,  and  forty  or  fifty  convicts,  who  will 
be  employed  in  cultivating  the  ground.  I  purpose  remaining 
with  this  party  until  they  are  settled,  and  have  no  doubt  when 
settlers  ct)me  out,  and  proper  people  to  superintend  the  convicts 
that  will  be  employed  for  the  Crown,  but  that  two  or  three  years 
will  give  this  country  a  very  different  aspect ;  and  in  the  mean- 
time the  clearing  the  ground  near  the  settlement  shall  not  be 

The  hutting  the  detachment  has  been  going  on  under  the  direc-  officei-s' 
tion  of  the  IMajor-Commandant.      The  officers  have  all  separate  '^o^es. 
houses,  and  except  one  or  two  are  now  under  cover.      The  barracks 
are  still  in  hand.     There  being  some  carpenters  and  sawyers  in  the 
different  companies,  1  ordered  them  to  be  employed  as  such  ;  and  it 
being  customary  to  pay  the  soldiers  when  so  employed,  and  Major 
Iloss  thinking  that  they  could  not  otherwise  be  set  to  work  as 
artificers,  I  have  inclosed  his  report  of  such  as  have  been  employed 
for  your  Lordship's  approbation.      I  have  likewise  the  honour  of 
inclosing  your  Lcjrdship  his  returns  of  such  officers  as  wish  to  be  Relief, 
relieved  at  the  expiration  of  the  three  years  for  which  they  were 
sent  outf,  and  of  those  who  are  desirous  of  remaining,  as  likewise 
copies  of  his  letter  and  my  answer  respecting  the  encouragement 
offered  by  Government  to  settlers. 

The  barracks,  officers'  houses,  hospital,  store-houses  for  the  use 
of  the  detachment  and  for  the  public  stores,  ai^e  buildings  that  Buildings, 
will   stand  fiir  some  years,   as  they  will  hereafter  be  walled  up 
with  brick  or  stone,  if  limestone  can  be  found  in  the  country,  or 
if  sent  out  as  ballast  in  the  transports. 

The  dfitachment  is  now  inclosing  ground  for  their  gardens,  and  KieWs  and 
we  have  al>out  six  acres  of  wheat,  eight  of  barley,  and  six  acres  '^'^'^ 
of  (jther  grain,  all  which,  as  well  as  such  garden  seeds  as  were 
not  spoiled,  promise  well ;  and  though  the  soil  is  in  general  a 
light  sandy  soil,  it  is,  I  belie\e,  as  good  as  what  is  commoidy 
found  near  the  sea-coast  in  other  2)arts  of  the  world.  The  great 
inconvenience  we  find  is  from  the  rocks  and  the  labour  of  clearing 
away  the  woods  which  suiTound  us,  and  which  are  mostly  gum- 
trees  of  a  very  large  size,  and  which  arc  only  useful  as  firewood, 

•  Ro6c  Ilill,  named  after  Mr.  G.  Rose,  Under  Seeretarj-,  The  Treasury.       f  Ante,  p.  165. 



28  Sept. 

Hea^•y  rain. 



Tlie  woman 

Want  of 


Lead,  iron, 
and  copper. 

Clay  for 

though  I  think  that  when  we  can  cut  them  down  in  the  winter  and 
give  them  time  to  season  they  may  be  made  useful  in  building. 

The  fish  begin  to  return  with  the  warm  weather,  but  I  fear  we 
shall  never  be  able  to  save  any  part  of  the  provisions  by  the 
quantity  that  will  be  taken. 

The  rainy  season  is,  I  hope,  nearly  over,  and  though  we  have 
had  very  heavy  rains  they  have  not  been  more  frequent  than  was 
expected,  and  were  chiefly  confined  to  a  few  days  near  the  full 
and  change  of  the  moon. 

The  climate  is  equal  to  the  finest  in  Europe,  and  we  very 
seldom  have  any  fogs.  All  the  plants  and  fruit-trees  brought 
from  the  Brazil  and  the  Cape  that  did  not  die  in  the  passage 
thrive  exceeding  well ;  and  we  do  not  want  vegetables,  good  in 
their  kind,  which  are  natural  to  the  country. 

With  respect  to  the  sending  to  the  Islands  for  women,  your 
Lordship  will,  I  believe,  think  that  in  the  present  situation  of 
this  colony  it  would  be  only  bringing  them  to  pine  away  a  few 
years  in  misery  ;  and  I  am  very  sorry  to  say  that  those  we  have 
are  most  of  them  very  abandoned  wretches.  Still,  more  women 
will  be  necessary  when  more  convicts  are  sent  out. 

Stone  houses  that  will  not  be  in  danger  from  fire  will,  if  pos- 
sible, be  erected  in  the  course  of  the  summer,  as  likewise  a  place 
of  worship ;  and  if  ships  coming  out  bring  limestone  as  ballast 
these  very  necessary  works  will  go  on  fast.  At  present  we  are 
obliged  to  lay  the  bricks  and  stones  in  clay,  and  of  course  to 
make  the  walls  of  an  extraordinary  thickness,  and  even  then  they 
are  not  to  be  depended  on. 

This  country  is  supposed  to  have  mines  of  iron  and  tin  or  silver 
by  those  who  have  been  used  to  work  in  mines ;  but  I  give  no 
encouragement  to  search  after  what,  if  found  in  our  present  situa- 
tion, would  be  the  greatest  evil  that  could  befal  the  settlement. 

A  convict,  used  to  work  in  the  Staffordshire  lead  mines,  says 
the  ground  we  are  now  clearing  contains  a  large  quantity  of  that 
metal ;  and  copper  is  supposed  to  be  under  some  rocks  which 
have  been  blown  in  sinking  a  cellar  for  the  spirits.  I  have  no 
doubt  but  that  the  earth  contains  iron  and  other  metals,  and  that 
mines  may  hereafter  be  worked  to  great  advantage.  The  red 
used  by  the  painters,  and  which  they  call  Spanish  brown,  is 
found  in  great  abundance  ;  and  the  white  clay  with  which  the 
natives  paint  themselves  is  still  in  greater  plenty ;  and  which 
the  Abbe  that  came  out  with  Monsieur  Perouse  as  a  naturalist 
told  me,  if  cleared  of  the  sand  (which  may  be  done  with  little 
trouble),  would  make  good  china.  Specimens  were  sent  to  Sir 
Joseph  Banks,*  and  a  stone  taken  out  of  a  slate  quarry  that  I 
thought  contained  some  metal. 

*  Mr.  Josiah  Wedf^fwood,  to  whom  a  sample  of  the  clay  was  submitted,  declared  it  to  be 
"an  excellent  material  for  pottery."  He  made  from  it  a  medallion,  which  is  now  in  the 
possession  of  R.  Tangye,  Esq.,  of  Birmingham. 


Your   Lord>;liip  will,   I  hope,  judge  it  expedient  to  send  out       1788 
settlei-s,   to  whom  a  certain  number  of  convicts  may  be  given  ;      2S  Sept. 
they,  my  Lord,  will  be  interested  in  cultivating  the  lands,  and  Another 
when  a  few  carpenters  and  bricklayers  are  sent  out  who  will  act  request 
as  overseers,  and  have  some  little  interest  in  the  labour  of  the 
convicts  who  are  under  their  care,  a  great  deal  of  labour  will  be 
done  by  them  who  are  employed  on  the  public  works.     I  have  in 
a  former  letter  mentioned  that  a  couple  of  decked  vessels  of  30 
or  -10  tons  burthen,  if  sent  out  in  frames,  and  two  or  three  good 
shipwrights,  wovdd  be  of  great  service. 

The  natives,  though  very  friendly  whenever  they  are  met  by  Attacks  by 
two  or  three  people  who  are  armed,  still  continue  to  attack  any 
of  the  convicts  when  they  meet  them  in  the  woods,  and  two  or 
three  have  been  lately  wounded  by  them.  I  have  been  with  a 
small  party  to  examine  the  land  between  the  harbour  and 
Broken  Bay  ;  we  went  as  far  as  Pittwater,  and  saw  several  of 
the  natives,  but  none  came  near  us.  There  are  several  hundred 
acres  of  land  free  from  timber,  and  very  proper  for  cultivation,  • 

when  a  small  settlement  can  be  made  on  the  coast.      On  our 
return  to  the  boats  near  the  mouth  of  the  harbour,  we  found 
about  sixty  of  the  natives,  men,  women,  and  children,  with  whom 
we  stayed  souie  hours  ;  they  were  friendly,  but,  as  I  have  ever  Friendly 
found  them,  since  they  find  we  intend  to  remain,  they  appeared  '"te>"cou«^e- 
l^est  pleased  when  we  were  leaving  them,  though  I  gave  them 
many  useful  articles ;  and  it  is  not  possible  to  say  whether  it 
was  from  fear  or  contempt  that  they  do  not  come  amongst  us. 
I  have  already  had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship  of  the  strange 
little  we  know  of  these  people.      Most  of  the  women,  and  all  the  <>"'^t'^"i^- 
female  children  I  saw  had  lost  two  joints  from  the  little  finger -of 
the  left  hand,  and  two  women  were  scarred  on  the  shoulders  like 
the  men,  the  first  I  had  seen.     The  women,  when  we  first  came 
on  the  beach,  were  in  their  canoes  fishing,  which  is  their  constant 
employment,    the  men  chiefly  employing  themselves  in  making 
canoes,  spears,  fizgigs,  &c. 

The  day  before  we  returned,  the  boat  that  was  waiting  for  us,  A  comi)at. 
near  the  liai-bour's  mouth,  saw  about  two  hundi'ed  men,  who 
assembled  in  two  parties,  and  who,  after  some  time,  drew  up 
opposite  to  each  other,  and  from  each  party  men  advanced  singly 
and  threw  their  spears,  guarding  themselves  at  the  same  time 
with  their  shields.  I  suppose  this  to  have  been  no  more  than  an 
exercise,  for  the  women  belonging  to  both  parties  remained 
together  on  the  beach ;  though  towards  the  end  of  the  combat 
they  are  said  to  have  run  up  and  down,  uttering  violent  shrieks. 
As  it  had  Vieen  supposed  that  many  of  the  natives  had  left 
this  part  of  the  coast  on  account  of  the  great  scarcity  of  fish,  the 
different  parts  of  the  harbour  were  examined  in  one  day,  and  the  Q„„nji„„ 
canoes  counted ;  not  more  than  sixty-seven  canoes  and  one  hun-  the  natives. 




23  Sept. 

Native  food. 


Tiie  native  s 
not  migra- 


Live  stock 

Pigs  do  well. 

died  and  thirty-three  people  were  seen ;  but  it  was  the  season  iu 
which  they  make  their  new  canoes,  and  large  parties  were  known 
to  be  in  the  woods  for  that  purpose.  I  went  a  few  days  after  to 
examine  the  coast  between  this  harbour  and  Botany  Bay,  in  which 
journey  few  of  the  natives  were  seen ;  but  a  young  whale  being- 
driven  on  the  coast,  all  we  met  had  large  pieces,  which  appeared 
to  have  been  lain  on  the  fire  until  the  outside  was  scorched,  in 
which  state  they  eat  it.  These  j^eople  last  summer  would  neither 
eat  shax'k  nor  stingray ;  but  the  scarcity  of  fish  in  the  winter,  I 
believe,  obliges  them  to  eat  anything  that  affords  the  smallest 
nourishment.  They  have  two  kinds  of  root  which  they  chew 
after  roasting ;  one  is  the  fern-root ;  they  eat  together,  that  is,  in 
families,  and  seldom  broil  their  fish  (the  only  way  they  ever  dress 
it)  for  more  than  a  few  minutes.  I  am  sorry  to  have  been  so 
long  without  knowing  more  of  these  people,  but  I  am  unwilling  to 
use  any  force,  and  hope  this  summer  to  persuade  a  family  to  live 
with  us,  unless  they  attempt  to  burn  our  crops,  of  which  I  am 
apprehensive,  for  they  certainly  are  not  pleased  with  our  remain- 
ing amongst  them,  as  they  see  we  deprive  them  of  fish,  which 
is  almost  their  only  support ;  but  if  they  set  fire  to  the  corn, 
necessity  will  oblige  me  to  drive  them  to  a  greater  distance,  though 
I  can  assure  your  Lordship  that  I  shall  never  do  it  but  with  the 
greatest  reluctance,  and  from  absolute  necessity. 

As  there  are  paths  which  are  much  frequented  between  this 
harbour  and  Broken  Bay,  I  apprehend  they  frequently  change 
their  situation  ;  but  have  no  reason  to  suppose  they  go  to  the 
northward  in  the  winter,  and  return  in  the  summer. 

The  kangaroo  is  the  only  animal  of  any  size  that  we  have  yet 
seen,  and  they  are  frequently  killed  ;  they  ai-e  of  two  sorts,  one 
seldom  weighing  more  than  sixty  pounds ;  these  live  chiefly  on 
the  high  grounds ;  the  hair  is  of  a  reddish  cast,  and  the  head 
shorter  than  the  large  sort,  some  of  which  have  been  killed  that 
weighed  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds ;  both  are  of  the  opossum 
kind,  and  the  young  ones,  several  of  which  have  been  taken, 
grow  veiy  tame  in  a  few  days,  but  none  have  ever  lived  more 
than  two  or  three  weeks. 

I  have  now  given  up  all  hopes  of  recovering  the  two  bulls  and 
four  cows  that  were  lost,  and  one  sheep  only  remains  of  upwards 
of  seventy  which  I  had  purchased  at  the  Cape  on  my  own 
account  and  on  Government's  account.  It  is  the  rank  grass 
under  the  trees  which  has  destroyed  them,  for  those  who  have 
only  had  one  or  two  sheep  which  have  fed  about  their  tents  ha^e 
preserved  them. 

Hogs  and  poultry  thrive  and  increase  fast.  Black  cattle  \\ill 
thrive  full  as  well,  and  as  we  shall  be  able  in  future  to  guard 
against  their  straying,  your  Lordship  will  please  to  determine 
whether  it  Avould  not  be  necessary  to  order  any  ship  that  was 

MOllTALITY    BILL.  193 

0(imiiig  to  the  settlement  with  provisions  to  purchase  at  the  Cape       ^788 
us  many  cows  as  could  be  conveniently  received  on  })oard,  with  a      28  Sept. 
couple  of  young  bulls.      But  the  ship  for  that  purpose  should  be  cattiefrom 
able  to  stow  them  between  decks;  and  I  beg  leave  to  observe  that  the  Cape, 
a  forty  or  tifty  gun  ship  that  brought  out  provisions  and  stores, 
leaving  her  guns  out,  would  answer  the  purpose  better  than  any 
transpi )rt,  and  at  once  stock  this  settlement.      Savu  is  at  too  great  a 
distance  for  the  Sirius  to  be  employed  on  that  service  to  any  extent. 
Your  Lordship  will,  I  hope,  excuse  so  long  a  detail  of  matters 
trifling  in  themselves,  and  which  I  should  not  have  dwelt  on  but 
that  I  wished  the  situation  of  the  colony  to  be  known  as  fully 
as  possible.  I  have,  etc., 

A.  Phillip. 

Return  of  men,  women,  and  children  belonging  to  the  settlement  Mortaiiiy 
that  have  died  since  the  13th  of  May,  1787.*  ^''"• 

Died  on  the  passage. 

Marines              ...  ...  ..  ...  ...  ...  1 

Do.      wives    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1 

Do.      children  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1 

Convicts — Men   ..  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  36 

Do.          women  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  4 

Do.          children  . .  ...  ...  . .  ...  5 

Total  number  dead  on  the  passage  ...  48 
Died  since  Lvnding. 

Marines               ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  3 

Do.      wives    ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  0 

Do.       children                        ...          ...          ...  ...  2 

Convicts — Men  (including  3  killed  by  the  natives)  26 

Do.          women         ...         ...         ...         ...  ...  12 

Do.          children       ...          ...          ...  9 

Total  number  dead  since  landing  ...         52 

Total  number  dead  since  leaving  England         100 
Eleven  men  and  one  woman  missing.     Four  executed. 

David  Collixs,  Secretary. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

Si)-,  September  28th,  1788. 

Lieutenant  Shortland,  who  sailed  fr-om  hence  the    13th  of 

•luly,  in  the  Alexander,  with  the  Friendship,   Prince  of  Wales, 

and  Borrowdale,  ti-ansports,  was  charged  with  my  dispatches  foi- 

the  Right  Honouraljle  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty.  shij>s  went  to  the  northward,  intending  to  follow  Captain  Carteret's 
Carteret's  track  between  New  Britain  and  New  Ireland.  "'^*^''" 

You  will  please  to  inform  their  Lordships  that  as  soon  after 
the  .sailing  of  those  ships  as  the  weather  permitted  the  two 
remaining  store-ships  were   cleared   of   the  provisions;  and  the 

0  '  Apparently  up  to  September  28th,  1788. 



•  1788 

28  Sept. 








Golden  Grove  was  immediately  hove  down  and  ordered  to  prepare 
for  sea,  the  Fishburn  being  obliged  to  remain  with  the  spirits  on 
board  untill  a  place  of  security  was  prepared.  Lieutenant  Ball 
sailed  the  20th  of  July  with  provisions  for  Norfolk  Island,  and 
returned  the  26th  of  August,  having  met  with  very  strong  gales 
in  his  passage,  and  very  indifferent  weather  while  he  was  off  the 
island.  From  Lieutenant  Philip  Gidley  King,  the  Commandant 
I  received  the  following  particulars.* 

The  having  a  settlement  on  Norfolk  Island,  and  the  extent  of 
this  harl^our,  as  well  as  the  great  necessity  there  will  be  of  pro- 
curing that  kind  of  wood  which  is  proper  for  building,  and  which 
is  not  to  be  got  even  at  present  but  with  the  labour  of  a  great 
number  of  convicts,  will  render  two  vessels  of  thirty  or  forty  tons 
of  infinite  service  to  this  settlement.  I  presume  they  might  be 
sent  out  in  frame,  but  it  will  be  necessary  to  send  a  few  ship- 
wrights to  put  them  together,  and  who,  as  well  as  a  mast-maker, 
and  one  that  understands  the  manner  of  tapping  the  pine-trees, 
will  be  of  great  service. 

I  inclose  the  state  and  condition  of  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius, 
and  Supply,  armed  tender,  the  returns  of  the  detachment  of 
marines,  and  the  returns  made  by  the  surgeon  of  the  hospital. 

The  Sirius  is  now  I'eady  to  sail  for  the  Cape,  and  the  Golden 
Grove  for  Norfolk  Island. 

The  sketch  of  Howe  Island  made  by  Lieutenant  Ball  is 
inclosed.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Skcretary  Stephens. 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  S.  Wales, 

Sir,  1st  October,  1788. 

Governor  Phillip  having  determin'd  to  order  the  Sirius 
to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  this  letter  will  be  convey'd  so  far  by 
Captain  Hunter,  who  is  to  sail  in  the  course  of  the  week. 

By  the  transports  which  sail'd  for  England  in  July  I  did 
myself  the  honor  of  transmitting  to  you,  for  their  Lordships' 
information,  two  sets  of  letters — one  set  by  Lieut  Shortland, 
agent  for  transports,  and  the  other  by  Lieut.  Maxwell,  of  the 
marines,  who,  with  Second  Lieut.  Collins,  had  been  ordered  home 
for  the  recovery  of  health. 

With  my  letters  I  transmitted  effective  lists,  made  up  to  the 
first  of  July,  a  general  return  of  the  detachment,  a  list  of  such 
necessaries  as  I  judged  we  should  be  in  absolute  want  of  for  the 
use  of  the  detachment  at  large,  as  well  as  such  articles  as  the 
surgeon  repoi'ted  to  me  to  be  indispensibly  wanted  for  our  sick 
in  quarters,  as  well  as  hospital.     I  likewise  took  the  liberty  of 

*  The  information  given  in  the  despatch   to   Lord  Sydney,  September  28th,   1788,   is 
repeated.     Ante,  pp   1S6-187 


expressing  to  their  Lordships  a  wish  that  they  would  please  to       1783 
authorize  the  person  who  furnishes  the  corps  with  slops  to  send      i  Oct. 
some  articles  of  clothino;  for  the  wives  and  children  of  the  soldiers,  ciothin^  for 
which,  when  issued,    can   be   charg'd  against  the   husbands'  or  women  and 
fathers'  pay.      I  also  mentioned  my  having  taken  the  lil)erty  of 
gratifying  the  earnest  request  of  the  detacliment  in  purchasing 
some  tobacco  from  the  master  of  one  of  the  transports  for  their  Tobacco, 
use,  and  my  having  drawn  bills  upon  their  Lordships  for  its  value. 
This  tobacco  is  in  charge  of  the  quarter-master,  and  is  charg'd 
against  the  men's  pay  as  it  is  issued  out  by  hLin. 

By  the  same  conveyance  I  found  myself  under  the  necessity  of 
laying  before  their  Lordships  a  copy  of  a  court-martial  held  here  Coun- 
the  18th  April  [March]*  with  copys  of  several  papers  relative  to  '"^'^^^l- 
the  said  court-martial,  with  an  observation  of  its  then  appearing  to 
me,  as  it  still  does,  that  the  proceedings  of  that  court-martial  tended 
to  endeavour  to  wrest  an  essential  power  out  of  the  hands  of  the 
commanding  officer,  and  if  suffered  to  pass  unnoticed  might  tend 
much  to  the  prejudice  of  the  service,  by  leading  astray  the  minds 
and  judgments  of  inexperienced  officers  who  might  otherwise  be 
well  dispos'd. 

It  is  with  much  regret  that  I  now  inform  their  Lordships  of  Neglect  of 
my  finding  my  fears  in  some  measure  verified,  in  a  shameful  inat-  '^'*'^®''^- 
tention  of  all  the  capta'ns  (Captn.  Campbell  excepted)  to  the 
errecting  the  barracks  for  their  companies ;  in  place  of  which 
their  attention  seems  to  have  been  chiefly  employ'd  in  the  errecting 
houses  and  outhouses  for  themselves,  their  servants,  and  stock, 
otherwise  I  am  convinced  the  whole  of  our  men  w^ould  long  ere 
now  have  been  comfortable  in  their  barracks.  As  a  proof  of  this 
inattention,  I  have  only  to  observe  that  tho'  the  barracks  for 
Captain  Campbell's  company  is  equally  large  with  the  others,  and  Captain 
has  been  entirely  constructed  by  such  men  only  as  he  could  find  exceptoi.^" 
in  his  own  company,  I  am  convinced  that  had  I  not  found  myself 
oljlig'd  to  deprive  him,  and  him  only,  of  the  use  of  the  whole  of 
his  working  men  for  some  time,  for  the  purpose  of  expediting  a 
store-house  for  the  reception  of  the  clothing  and  stores  of  the 
detachment  from  the  Sirius,  prior  to  her  going  to  sea,  all  his 
company  would  have  been  comfortably  settled  in  their  barracks 
long  ere  now.  And  yet,  even  as  it  is,  they  will  be  in  in  the 
course  of  the  next  week.  I  wish  I  could  say  when  the  others 
will  be  finish'd,  tho'  I  am  not  out  of  hope  but  that  the  plan  now 
pursued  two  or  three  months  more  will  nearly,  if  not  entirely, 
get  them  out  of  hand. 

The  backwardness  of  the  other  barracks  induced  me  to  ask  Capt.  Shea 
Captain  Shea  some  questions  respecting  his,   when,  in  place  of  ^round."^ 
such  answer  as  I  thought  I  had  a  right  to  expect  from  him,  he 
told  me  he  did  not  conceive  it  to  be  any  part  of  his  duty  to 
superintend  the  errecting  a  barrack  ff^r  his  company.     I  then 

•  See  despatch  and  enclosure  >.    Ante,  pp.  156-164. 




1  Oct. 

Refuses  to 
building-  of 




20  August. 

A  ffeneral 



31  August. 


told  him  that  as  he  had  at  first  undertaken  it,  I  judged  ho  sh(juld 
go  on  with  it,  but  if  he  thought  it  was  not  any  part  of  his  duty 
he  should  manfully  say  he  would  or  he  would  not  do  it,  to  which 
he  replied,  in  the  presence  of  Captain  Campbell,  that  he  would 
not.  On  receiving  this  answer,  I  found  myself  oblig'd  to  infornt 
the  Governor  of  it,  who  seem'd  astonish'd  at  the  idea  that  any 
officer  should  not  suppose  it  a  part  of  their  duty  to  attend  to  the 
errecting  barracks  for  their  own  men.  I  then  observ'd  to  H. 
Excellency  that  Captain  Shea's  answer  might  have  proceeded 

from  passion,   and  the  vexation  of 


the  barrack  for  his 

company  so  much  neglected,  and  that  I  hoped  and  believed  he 
would  before  morning  see  his  error,  to  which  the  Governor  was 
pleas'd  to  I'eply  he  hoped  it  Avould  be  so,  and  that  he  would 
himself  be  over  in  the  morning  and  talk  to  him,  which  he  did, 
when,  to  his  ab  well  as  to  iny  very  great  surprize,  Captain  Shea 
told  him  twice,  in  the  presence  of  Captain  Collins,  Lieut.  G. 
Johnston,  and  Adjutant  Long,  that  he  did  not  conceive  it  to  be 
any  part  of  his  duty,  but  that  he  would  do  whatever  he  was 
order'd.  Leaving  Captain  Shea's  answer  to  be  determ'd  by  his 
Excellency,  in  whatever  way  he  might  think  proper,  I  requested 
that  he  Avould  (if  he  thought  it  a  part  of  the  duty  of  officers) 
please  to  give  out  such  an  oi'der  as  would  enable  me  to  oblige  the 
officer  to  attend  to  the  errecting  the  barracks.  In  consequence, 
his  Excellency  was  pleas'd  to  give  out  the  following  genei-al  order : — 

"  General  Oi'der. 

Head-quarters,  August  29th,  1788. 
Parole,  Garth  ;  C.  Sign,  Wiltshire. 

The  major-commandant  of  the  detachment  having  represented 
that  he  cannot  make  the  necessary  inquiry  into  the  manner  in 
which  the  barracks  erecting  for  the  detachment  is  carrying  on, 
from  some  of  the  officers  not  conceiving  it  to  be  any  part  of  theii- 
duty  to  direct  the  forwai-ding  of  that  work, — and  requesting  that 
such  orders  may  be  given  as  may  enable  him  to  oblige  them  to 
attend  that  service, — the  Governor  is  very  sorry  to  be  under  the 
necessity  of  giving  an  order  for  any  officer's  attendance  to  which 
is  undoubtedly  a  part  of  his  duty,  and  particularly  so  in  the 
present  situation  of  the  colony.  The  officers  by  every  means  in 
their  power  are  to  forward  the  erecting  the  barracks  belonging 
to  their  respective  companies,  and  make  such  report  to  their  com- 
mandant as  he  may  from  time  to  time  think  necessary  to  demand." 

And  I  soon  after  gave  out  in  the  publick  orders  for  the  detach- 
ment an  order,  of  which  the  following  is  a  coj^y  : — 

'' Battalion  Order. 

31  August,  1788. 
In  consequence  of  the  general  orders  of  the  29th  inst.,  it  is 
the  commanding  officer's  orders  that  the  captains  do,  or  cause 


iin  officer  of    their  company  to,  superintend    the  artificers  and  1783 

othei-s  employ'd  in  errecting  the  public  Ijarracks  for  their  respec-  ^j^.^ 

tive  companies,  by  preventing  such  artificers,  &c.,  from  absenting  — — 

themselves    during    the    woi'king-hours.        Mr.    Brewer,    who    is  barracks. 

appointed  to  direct  the  cari)enters  and  surveyors  in  the  works  to 

be  performed  by  them,  will  give  the  captains  and  officers  such 

information  as  they  may  think  necessary  for  forwarding  that  work." 

Xotwithstandinij  the  above  orders,  finding  the  same  degree  of  Special 

.,,       '^       .,    T        •  1      1  1     /•  I-  j^i       /-(  insti-uctions. 

inattention  still  prevail,  1,  with  the  approbation  or  the  Governor, 

and    the  advice  of   Mr.   Brewer,  the  architect   granted  by  the 

(lovernor  for  directing  the  artificers  and  sawyers  employ'd  on  and 

for  the   barracks,  ordered  that   the  whole  of  the  artificers  and 

sawyers  employ'd  on  the  three  left-hand  barracks  should  be  set  to 

work  on  only  one  at  a  time,  and  to  begin  with  Captain  Shea's. 

On  the  11th  September,  to  my  great  surprize  and  vexation,  Conflictins 
Mr.  Brewer  came  to  me  with  a  complaint,  saying  that  two  marine  orders. 
sawyers  employ'd,  and  paid  by  the  publick,  would  not  suffer  him 
to  bring  away  the  rafters  which  I  had  order'd  him  to  get  from 
their  pit,  they  saying  they  had  Captain  Tench's  positive  orders 
not  to  suffer  anything  to  be  taken  from  that  pit  without  his 
orders  and  permission. 

On  my  sending  the  adjutant  to  Captain  Tench  to  know  the 
reason  of  it,  he  denied  his  having  given  any  such  order.s.      This 
iinswer,  for  the  sake  of  discij^line,  made  me  judge  it  necessary  to 
liave  the  sawyers  tried  Iw  a  court-martial  for  disobedience   of  Anoilier 
orders,   etc.,  which  court-martial,   as  thinking    it    a  very  extra-  ^°artiai. 
ordinary  one,  I  take  the  liberty  of  enclosing  a  copy  of,*  by  which 
their  Lordships  will  not  only  see  the  absurdity  of  the  President 
iind  members,  l)ut  likewise  see  that  Cajijtain  Tench  makes  a  con-  captain 
.spicuous  figure  in  the  proceedings,  for,  by  his  own  evidence,  he  ac-  ^o,"^'jJ(^^_ 
knowledges  giving  the  order  the  men  mention  prior  to  my  order 
of  olst  August,  and  his  having  neglected  to  recall  that  order  on 
my  giving  the  other,  or  (as  is  the  invariable  rule  and  custom  of 
the  service,  and  for  the  observance  of  which  every  officer  com- 
manding a  company  is  answerable)  taking  care  that  all  orders 
issued  by  a  commanding  officer  shall  be  made  known  to  the  whole 
of  his  company,  and  more  especially  explaining  to  those  whom 
such  order  may  immediately  concern.     As  he  has  not  thought  it 
necessary  to  make  any  excuse  or  apology  for  this  neglect,  I  can- 
not but  be  of  opinion  that  it  clearly  proves  a  determin'd  resolution  obstruction. 
in  him  to  retaid  and  perplex,  as  far  as  in  his  power,  the  carrying 
on  the  service  in  the  manner  good  officers  would  wish  for. 

Should  this  conduct  apjjcai-  to  their  Lordships    in  the  same 
light  that  it  does   to  me,   I  hope  they  will   not  wonder  at   my 
entreating   (notAvithstanding  his  own  wish   of   remaining  three 
years  longer  in  this  country)  that  their  Lordships  will  please  to  J^^^^^'^ 
order  him  to  be  recall'd.     ^ly  reason  for  pressing  this  is,  there  requested. 

*  Post,  pp.  199-201. 





Why  Tench 
is  not  tried 
by  court- 

at  Rose  Hill. 




Prospects  of 



Military  as 

not  being  a  sufficient  number  of  officers  to  try  Captain  Tench, 
and  the  members  of  the  court-martial  of  the  18th  April  last,  else 
that  trial  would  have  taken  place  long  before  now,  and,  as  I  have 
some  doubt  whether  he  can  be  tried  for  any  other  crime  until 
his  first  offence  has  been  ti'ied,  I  have  not,  therefore,  reported 
him  to  the  Governor,  or  I  most  assuredly  would  have  had  him^ 
tried  on  a  charge  of  disobedience  of  oixlers,  neglect  of  duty,  and 
contempt  to  his  commanding  officer.  And  that  he  has  been  guilty 
of  those  crimes  the  enclos'd  copy  of  the  court-martial  will,  I  have 
no  doubt,  sufficiently  prove  to  their  Lordships  to  be  the  case. 

I  have  a  general  order  for  a  detachme't,  consisting  of  one 
captain,  two  subalterns,  two  Serjeants,  two  corporals,  one  drummer, 
and  twenty  privates,  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  set  out  for 
the  head  of  the  harbour  the  beginning  of  next  month.  This 
detachment  is  to  be  commanded  by  Captain  Campbell,  and  is 
intended  for  the  protection  of  some  convicts,  which  the  Governor 
is  going  to  send  with  him,  for  the  purpose  of  clearing  and  culti- 
vating some  ground  for  corn.  As  this  place  seems  the  most 
promising  spot  yet  seen  in  our  neighbourhood,  so  does  it  appear 
to  me  to  be  the  only  hope  of  raising  grain. 

Captain  Campbell's  zeal  and  attention  to  the  service  in  general, 
and  to  the  settlement  in  particular,  will,  I  am  well  convinced,  in 
this,  as  on  all  other  occasions,  induce  him  to  exert  himself,  in 
doing  himself,  and  causing  to  be  done  by  others,  not  only  every- 
thing he  may  be  commanded  or  instructed  to  do,  but  likewise 
everything  that  can  possibly  be  expected  or  wished  for. 

From  my  having  in  company  with  the  Governor  viewed  the  part 
of  the  country  they  are  going  to,  and  my  knowledge  of  Captain. 
Campbell's  attention  and  perseverance  in  forwarding  everything 
that  tends  to  the  good  of  the  public,  flatters  me  with  the  hope  that, 
under  his  fostering  hand,  the  scheme  may  succeed.*  But  should 
the  ground,  unfortunately,  not  answer  the  intended  purpose,  I 
shall  give  up  every  hope  of  finding  any  place  near  as  fit  to 
form  a  settlement  upon,  much  less  the  purpose  of  establishing  a 

When  it  was  supposed  the  Sirius  was  to  go  to  the  islands, 
and  that  the  transports  would  sail  for  Europe,  I  judg'd  it  necessary 
to  ask  the  officers  and  men  of  the  detachment  which  of  them 
would  wish  to  continue  in  this  country,  either  as  soldiers  or  settlers, 
and  which  of  them  would  wish  to  return  to  England,  at,  or  as 
near  as  conveniently  could  be,  the  time  mention'd  in  their  Lord- 
ships' letter  of  the  8th  October,  1786.t  As  that  return  was 
intended  to  be  sent  by  the  transports,  which  not  being  now  to 
sail  as  soon  as  was  expected,  I,  therefore,  do  myself  the  honor 
of  enclosing  it  by  the  present  conveyance  for  their  Lordships' 

*  The  settlement  (Rose  Hill)  was  a  success.     Post,  p.  306. 
t  Ante,  p.  -23. 


information.*  But  should  any  change  of  sentiments  take  place  in  1788 
the  minds  of  either  officers  or  men  before  sailing  of  the  transports  i  Ott. 
their  Jjordships  shall  then  be  made  acquainted  with  it. 

With  regard  to  myself,  I  have  only  to  observe  that  this  country  Ross  nr  t 
is  by  no  means  a  place  that  I  wish  to  continue  in,  nor  do  I  think  remain! 
that  any  constitution  can  stand  long  against  the  scorbutick 
attacks  natural  to  a  salt  diet,  and  I  see  not  the  most  distant 
prospect  of  our  being  able  to  get  any  other.  Yet,  nevertheless, 
should  their  Lordships  thiixk  it  necessary  to  continue  me  in  the 
command  for  a  year  or  two  longer  than  their  first  intention,  I 
shall  be  happy  in  obeying  their  commands. 

The  marines'  stores  having  been  just  landed,  and  being  now 
under  survey,  does  not  give  me  an  opportunity  of  letting  their 
Lordships  know  the  state  in  which  they  are  found ;  but  by  the 
transports,  which  I  understand  are  to  sail  in  six  weeks,  I  shall 
find  a  return  of  the  whole  issued,  damag'd,  and  remaining.  I 
beg  to  observe  that  there  is  now  no  clothing  in  the  store,  the  last  no  clothing. 
being  in  the  hands  of  the  taylors,  and  when  finish'd  will  be  given  '"^  ^*°'^^- 
to  the  men,  having  been  due  to  them  for  some  time.  Inclos'd 
you  will  receive  a  return  from  the  quarter-master  of  such  articles 
as  had  been  furnish'd  by  Mr.  Preater,  so  far  as  they  have  been 
survey'd.  Many  of  the  small  articles  would  have  been  issued 
long  ago,  could  we  have  got  them  on  shore  for  that  purpose. 

You  will  likewise  receive  with  this  the  effectire  lists  for  the 
two  last  quarters.  I  have,  &c., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

Proceedings  of  a  Battalion  Court-martial,  held  by  order  of  Major 

Roliert  Ross,  Port  Jackson,  September  11th,  1788.  "  Sept. 

Capt.  Shea,  President. 

Members  : — First.    Lt.    Shairp,    First    Lt.    Timins,   First    Lt. 
Davey,  Second  Lt.  Clarke. 

William  Strong,  private,  24th  Company,  and  Richard  Knight, 
private,   35th  Company,  brought  to  tryal  by  order  of  the  com- 
manding f)fficer  for  disobedience  of    orders,   in    preventing    the  Charge  of 
perscm  authorized  from  bringing  in  materials  to  errect  the  bar-  ent^e.*^ 
racks  f(jr  Captn.  Shea's  coy. 

Mr.  Brewer  prosecutes,  and  infoi^ms  the  court  that  the  rafters  T'le  case 
that  were  sawed  by  the  prisoners  being  wanted,  he  had  applied  to 
the  commanding  officer  to  have  them  brought  in,  when  he  gave 
orders  for  that  purpose,  desiring  him  to  go  himself  and  see  it 
done.  He  (Mr.  Brewer)  took  four  people  with  him,  and  went  to 
the  sawpits,  and  repeated  to  the  prisoners  Major  Ross's  ordeis  to 
take  them  away,  ordering  the  people  to  take  up  the  rafters,  upon 
which  William  Strfing,  p'te,  express'd  very  civilly  his  appre- 
hensions of  Captn.  Tench's  displeasure  should  he  permit  them  to 

*  Pest,  p.  201. 



11  Sepi. 



go  without  his  orders,  and  requested  that  a  written  order  might 
be  procured  of  Captn.  Tench  to  let  them  go.  As  there  were 
other  rafters  at  the  next  pit,  they  wished  he  would  take  them 
until  sucli  order  was  obtained  ;  that  he  took  the  other  rafters,  and 
did  not  strenuously  persist  in  taking  those  he  was  ordered  to  do  ; 
that  on  his  return  to  camp  he  acquainted  the  command'g  officer. 

Question  from  the  court  to  Mr.  Brewer. — Did  the  prisoners  at 
any  time  prevent  your  taking  away  the  rafters  ?  No,  they  did 
not,  but  only  requested  me  not  to  take  them,  for  the  reasons  befoie 


The  prisoners  being  put  on  their  defence,  call  upon  Captain 
Tench  to  inform  the  court  what  orders  he  had  given  them,  and 
deny  preventing  Mr.  Brewer  bringing  in  the  rafters.  Captain 
Tench  informs  the  court  that  the  sawpit  the  prisoners  worked  at 
was  dug  by  the  company,  and  all  the  timber  sawed  by  it  brought 
in  by  them,  and  since  the  publick  orders  for  the  sawpit  being 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Brewer  he  never  sent  any  orders  to 
the  sawyers  to  obey  Mr.  Brewer  or  not — that  the  piece  that  was 
then  sawing  was  put  on  the  pit  by  his  (Capt.  Tench's)  orders  some 
time  since,  and,  when  sawed  up,  suppos'd  it  would  be  converted 
to  the  use  of  the  battalion.  That  the  prisoners  are  men  of  very  good 
character,  and  have  always  done  their  work  to  his  satisfaction. 

Question  from  the  court  to  the  prisoners. — Did  you  ever  receive 
any  orders  to  obey  Mr.  Brewer  1     Answ'r. — No. 

The  court  are  of  opinion  that  the  prisoners  are  not  guilty  of  the 
crime  laid  to  their  charge,  not  having  received  any  directions  to 
obey  Mr.  Brewer's  orders,  and  do  therefore  acquit  them. 

Jno.  Shea,  Capt'n  and  President. 

Eevision  of 


The  court  having  met  agreeable  to  the  commanding  officer's 
orders,  to  revise  the  proceedings  of  the  aliove  court-martial,  find 
it  necessary  to  call  upon  Capt'n  Tench.  The  court  being  open, 
and  the  pi'isoners  brought  before  it, — 

Question  from  the  court  to  Capt'n  Tench. — Have  the  prisoners 
been  acquainted  with  the  battalion  orders  of  the  31st  of  August, 
1788,  respecting  the  carpenters  and  sawyers  being  under  the 
direction  of  Mr.  Brewer.  Anstv'r. — I  have  already  answ'd  the 
question,  by  saying  that  I  never  gave  orders  that  Mr.  Brewer 
should  or  should  not  have  the  stuff'  saw'd  up  at  the  pit.  Many 
months  ago  I  directed  the  sawyers,  on  digging  the  pit,  never  to 
suffer  any  stuff  saw'd  up  by  it  to  be  taken  away  without  my 
knowledge  or  approbation — that  I  have  desired  the  serjeant  and 
corp'ls  of  my  comp'y  at  hrst  landing  to  read  all  orders  to  them, 
and  have  frequently  since  repeated  them. 

Question  from  the  court  to  Serft  Smith,  of  Capt'n  Tench's  Co. — 
Was  you  orderly  on  the  31st  Aug't  last  1  Answ'r. — I  was.  Qiies- 
tion. — Did  you  read  the  orders    of   that    day  to  the  prisoners 



respecting  the  Scawyers  and  carpenters  being  under  the  direction       1788 
of  Mr.  Brewer/     Ayis'r. — 1  don't  recollect  I  did;  they  were  read     ii  Sept. 
to  the  conip'y,  and  I  never  received  any  order  to  carry  them  to 
the  men  at  the  sawpit. 

The  court  not  being  clear  of  the  legality  of  calling  in  fresh  Fresh  evi- 
evidence,  made  application  to  the  Judge- Advocate  for  his  opinion  jecteu. 
thereon,  in  ansWr  to  which  he  infonns  them  that  the  adducing 
of  fresh  testimony,  either  for  or  against  the  pi-isoners,  would  be  a 
new  tryal. 

The  court,   therefore,  takes  no  notice  of  the  questions  ask'd  Decision 
Serjeant  Smith,  and  that  having,  with  the  most  mature  and  strict 
deliberations,  I'econsidered  the  whole  of  the  pi'oceedings,  find  no 
cause  to  alter  their  original  opinion. 

Jno.  Shea, 
Capt'n  and  President. 

List  of  such  Officers,  Non-commission'd  Olficers,  Drummers,  and 
Privates  as  are  desirous  of  remaining  in  the  country  after  the 
time  their  Lordships  [Lords  of  tlie  Admiralty]  intended  to 
relieve  the  detachm't,  as  express'd  in  their  letter  of  the  8th 
October,  1786.     New  South  Wales,  1st  October,  1788  :— 

1  Oct. 

Names  and  Qlty. 

Desiroiis  of  reinainin;;  in  this  Country. 

Watlsin  Tench,  Capt. -Lieut. 
George  Johnston,  F.  Lieut. 

.lohn  .Johnstone,  do. 

James  Maitland  Shairp,  do. 

William  Dawes,  2nd  Lieut. 
53  I  William  Baker,  Serjeant 
I  George  Hemming,  Pte. 

2C  ■  Isaac  Farr, 


X     James  Manning       do. 

As  a  soldier  for  one  tour  of  3  yrs.  more. 

(  Having  been  so  short  a  time  in  this  country,  can- 
not determine  whether  he  would  wish  to  remain 
(     or  not ;  as  to  settling,  can  say  nothing. 

(Do.,  do.  ;  as  to  settling,  can  say  nothing  until  he 
I     knows  on  what  terms. 

(  Ueing  so  short  a  time  in  the  countrj',  he  cannot  yet 
)  judge  whether  he  would  wish  to  remain  or  not  ; 
1  a-s  to  the  settling,  until  he  knows  the  terms  and 
\     nature  of  the  grant,  can't  determine. 

As  a  soldier  for  one  tour  of  3  yrs.  more. 

As  a  soldier. 

As  a  soldier  for  3  yrs.  more. 

As  a  settler. 

As  a  soldier. 

Officers  and 
marines  who 
wish  to 
remain  in 
the  colony. 

All  the  Officers,  Non-commissiond  Officers,  Drummers,  and 
Private  men  of  the  detachm't  whose  names  are  not  express'd  in  tlie 
above  list  wLsh  to  return  to  England  at  the  time  propos'd  l)y  their 
Lord.ships' letter  of  the  8th  October,  1786,  or  as  soon  after  as  their 
Lordships  may  find  it  convenient. 

R.   Ross,  Major. 



14  Oct. 


Judge-Advocate  Collixs  to  Major  Ross. 

Head-quarters,  Sydney  Cove,  14th  October,  1788. 
I  have  to  request  you  will  be  pleased  to  transmit  one  of 
the  enclosed  papers*  to  the  Right  Honuurable  the  Lords  Commis- 
sioners of  the  Admiralty,  and  lay  the  other  before  his  Excellency 
the  Governor.  I  have,  &c., 

David  Collixs, 

17  Oct. 

martial  on 

Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  New  South  Wales, 
Sir,  17th  October,  1788. 

Having  on  the  1st  inst.  occasion  to  trouble  your  Excellency 
with  a  letter  i-equesting  you  would  be  pleas'd  to  order  a  general 
court-martial  to  be  assembled  for  the  trial  of  Quarter-master 
James  Furzer,  for  neglect  of  duty,  contempt,  and  disrespect  to  his 
commanding  oilicer,  which  letter,  prior  to  its  being  left  at  your 
Excellency's  house,  I  sent  by  the  adjutant  to  Mr.  Furzer,  telling 
the  adjutant  at  the  same  time  that  my  motive  for  doing  it  was  in 
consequence  of  the  friendship  I  had  for  Mr.  Furzer,  and  that  by 
his  seeing  the  letter  he  would  have  a  choice  in  his  power  of  having 
the  buisiness  inquir'd  into  by  a  general  court-mai'tial,  or  if  he 
judg'd  any  other  method  better  or  safer  for  himself  he  would  then 
Explanation,  know  what  to  do  ;  but  as  Mr.  Furzer  declares  that  had  my  motive 
for  sending  him  that  letter  been  sufficiently  explained  at  the  time 
he  would  then  have  done  what  he  this  morning  did,  and  which  he 
hopes  would  have  had  the  wish'd  for  effect  in  preventing  the 
unfortunate  steps  that  have  since  taken  place. 

1  have  the  pleasure  of  assuring  your  Excellency  that  Mr.  Furzer 
has  now  taken  such  steps  as  ai'e  becoming  him,  both  as  an  officer 
and  a  gentleman,  and  fully  satisfies  me  that  the  like  will  not 
happen  again,  and  as  my  disposition  has  ever  been  a  wish  rather 
to  convince  than  punish,  I  therefore  hope  that  from  the  same 
motive  your  Excellency  will  be  pleas'd  to  grant  my  request  that 
Proceedings  my  letter  to  your  Excellency,  together  with  your  warrant,  may  be 
withdrawn  in  so  effectual  a  manner  as  never  to  appear  to  the 
prejudice  of  either  party.  I  have,  &c., 

R.  Ross,  Major. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.! 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 
My  Lord,  27th  October,  1788. 

I  am  very  sorry  to  be  under  the  very  disagreeable  necessity 
of  troubling  your  Lordship  with  the  following  particulars,  but  the 
very  unpleasant  situation  of  the  detachment  doing  duty  in  this 

*  CoUins's  opinion  on  officers'  objections  to  sit  on  court-martial.     Post,  p.  210. 
t  A  similar  despatch  was  sent  to  the  Admiralty. 


27  Oct. 

with  the 

COURT   OF   INQnilY.  203 

(;ountry,  from  the  discontents  between  the  Commandant  and  the       1788 

otiicers,  will,  I  presume,  satisfy  your  Lordship  of  that  necessity,      27  Oct 

as   I   am  sorry  to  say   it  is  not  in  my   power  to  restore  that 

liarmony  which  is  so  very  requisite  in  our  situation. 

Having  received  a  letter  from  Major  Ross  requesting  a  general  ^^un-'^*' 

court-martial  on  an  officer*  for  neglect  of  duty,  contempt,  and  aiaatiaJ. 

disrespect  to  him,  I  issued  a  warrant  for  assembling  a  general 

court-martial  ;  but  the  thirteen  senior  officers,  when  assembled, 

declared  that  they  could  not  sit  as  members  of  a  general  court-  Officers 

.  •  1  •        rciusG  to  Sit 

martial  under  that  warrant,  being,  as  a  part  of  his  Majesty  s  marine 

forces,  amenable  only  to  the  authority  of  the  Commissioners  for 
executing  the  office  of  Lord  High  Admiral  of  Great  Britain.  The 
warrant  was  issued  under  the  authority  of  his  Majesty's  Com- 
mission for  assembKng  general  courts-martial,  but  they  declined 
sitting  under  the  Act  of  Parliament  made  for  the  Army. 

Having  assigned  their   reasons  in  writing  to  Major   Ross  (to  Their 
whom  the  warrant  was  directed),  I  have  the  honor  to  enclose 
your  Lordship  a  copy.f 

Though  the  letter  from  the  commanding  officer  of  the  detach-  • 
ment  was  very  sufficient  grounds  for  ordering  the  court-martial, 
if  the  officer  could  have  been  tried  on  the  spot,  as  it  was  now 
determined  that  there  was  no  legal  authority  in  this  country  for 
ordering  a  general  court-martial  on  any  part  of  the  marine  corps, 
and  the  officer  accused  declared  himself  innocent  of  every  part 
of  the  charge,  I  ordered  a  court  of  enquiry  to  be  assembled  to  Court  of 
enquire  into  the  particulars  of  the  charge,  and  to  report  whether  o"jeJ.^ti_ 
there  was,  or  was  not,  sufficient  ground  for  a  general  court- 
martial,  intending,  if  the  court  of  enquiry  reported  that  they  found 
sufficient  ground,  to  order  a  court  of  enquiry  to  examine  fully 
into  the  charge  and  to  report  their  opinion,  which  was  the  only 
means  I  had  left  of  doing  justice  to  both  parties,  as  no  court- 
martial  could  be  held  ;  for  though  I  knew  that  courts  of  enquiry 
always  preceded  courts-martial,  yet  in  the  present  mstance  I  was 
fully  satisfied  that  the  warrant  I  had  issued  for  holding  the 
court-martial  was  totally  done  away  [with]  by  the  officers  having 
denied  the  legality  of  it,  as  far  as  it  respected  themselves,  and  con- 
sequently a  coui't  of  enquiry  perfectly  regular ;  and  I  had  reason 
to  that  both  parties  would  have  consented  to  such  a 
determination,  no  other  being  possible,  under  our  present  circum- 
stances. The  court  of  entjuiry  met,  and  I  received  the  following 
answers,  signed  by  the  President : — That  had  the  business  been  Result 
referred  to  them  before  the  application  for  a  court-martial  they 
might  then  have  proceederl  with  the  consent  of  both  parties,  V)ut 
that  at  present  they  thought  themselves  precluded  from  making 
any  enquiry,  and  only  reported  that  an  application  from  a  com- 
manding officer  was  always  deemed  a  sufficient  ground  for  a 
general    coui-t-martial   (which  was  never   doubted).      They  had 

*  Quarter-master  Furzcr.     Ante,  p   202.  t  Post,  pp.  205,  206. 




27  Oct. 




The  original 



Taken  by 

13  Oct. 

legally  sit. 

refused  to  sit  as  membei's  of  the  court-mai"tial,  not  deeming  tlie 
waiTant  legal,  with  respect  to  themselves,  as  being  marine  officers, 
and  they  now  refused  to  make  any  enquiry  because  that  warrant 
had  been  issued. 

To  order  an  officer  to  return  to  his  duty  under  the  same  com- 
manding officer  A\'hom  he  was  accused  of  treating  with  contempt 
or  disrespect,  or  to  let  him  remain  vmder  arrest  until  he  could 
be  tried  in  this  country,  might  be  attended  with  very  disagreeable 
circumstances,  for  of  seventeen  officers  composing  the  detachment 
five  have  been  put  under  arrest  by  their  commandant,  and  are 
only  returned  to  duty  by  my  order  until  a  sufficient  number  of 
officers  to  form  a  general  court-martial  can  be  assembled,  as  I 
ha^■e  in  a  former  letter  had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship. 

I  therefore  ordered  the  evidence  on  both  sides  to  be  taken  l)y 
the  Judge- Advocate,  and  intended  to  send  them  home  with  the 
officer,  but  before  that  could  be  done  I  received  a  letter  from 
Major  Ross,  informing  me  that  the  officer  had  fully  satisfied  him 
respecting  the  charge,  and  desiring  that  he  might  be  permitted 
to  withdraw  his  request  for  a  court-martial.  I  therefore  ordered 
the  officer  to  return  to  his  duty. 

When  the  warrant  was  granted  for  assembling  a  general  court- 
martial,  I  did  not  know  that  an  Act  of  Parliament  had  been 
passed  for  a  limited  time,  by  which  the  marines  serving  in  America 
had  been  tried  ;  nor  did  anv  officer  in  the  detachment  entertain 
a  doubt  of  the  propriety  of  their  sitting  under  a  warrant  issued 
Ijy  the  authority  of  his  Majesty's  commission,  until  the  evening 
before  the  court  was  to  assemble,  when  the  doubt  arose,  on  the 
Judge- Advocate's  reading  over  the  oath. 

The  present  situation  of  the  detachment  will  be  obvious  to 
your  Lordship.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 


Captaix  Campbell  to  Major  Ross. 

Sydney  Cove,  Poi-t  Jackson, 
Sir,  13th  October,  1788. 

The  officers  assembled  by  your  order  for  the  purpose  of 
holding  a  general  court-martial  beg  leave  to  acquaint  you  that 
not  conceiving  they  can  legally  sit  as  members  of  a  court-martial 
under  any  other  than  a  warrant  from  the  Admiralty,  enclose  you 
their  reasons  for  that  opinion,  which  they  request  you  will  lay 
before  his  Excellency  the  Governor,  and  afterwards  transmit  a 
copy  of  the  same  to  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Lords  Commissioners  of 
the  Admiralty. 

They  further  request  they  may  be  allowed  to  accompany  you  to 
his  Excellency  with  the  statement  of  their  ojiinion. 

I  have,  &c., 

Jas.  Campbell,  Captn. 

officers'  objections  to  sit.  205 

[Enclosure.]  1788 

Officers'  Objections.  ^'^^^^ 

Tin:  (jtticers  of  marines,  assembled  by  order  of  their  commanding 
officer,, for  the  purpose  of  holding  a  general  court-martial, 
l)eg  leave  to  state  the  following  particulars  : — 

Tin:  Leirislature  every  vear  passes  an  Act  for  the  regulation  of  Act  of 
,.,,.,  •",•''  1-1  1  •  1  -j-i  •      Parliament, 

his  Majesty  s  marnie  forces  while  on  shore  in  any  ])lace  within 

the  realm  of  Great  Britain,  or  in  any  other  of  his  Majesty's 
dominions,  which  Act  empowers  the  Lord  High  Admiral,  or  three 
or  more  oi  the  Commissioners  for  executing  that  office,  to  grant 
a  commission  to  any  officer  of  the  said  forces,  not  under  the 
degi-ee  of  a  field  officer,  for  holding  general  courts-martial  at  any 
place  within  the  intent  and  meaning  of  the  Act,  and  to  make 
articles  for  the  punishment  of  mutiny  and  desertion.  By  this  Articles  of 
Act  of  Parliament,  and  by  these  Articles  of  War,  the  marine  forces  ^'^'''■• 
have  always  been  regulated  and  governed,  except  during  the  late 
war  in  America,  when  the  marines  serving  in  that  country  were 
included  in  the  provisions  of  an  Act  of  the  same  Legislature, 
pass'd  in  the  year  1775,  for  the  purpose  of  amending  and  render- 
ing more  effectual  in  his  Majesty's  dominions  in  America  an  Act 
for  punishing  mutiny  and  desertion,  and  for  the  better  payment 
of  the  Army  and  their  quarters. 

At  the  succeeding  sessions  the  usual  Act  for  the  regulation  of  parliament. 
the  marine  forces  while  on  shore  was  passed,  that  is  for  the 
regulation  of  such  part  of  the  coi-ps  as  were  not  in  America,  for 
the  marines  were  included  in  the  Act  for  the  punishment  of 
mutiny  and  deserti(jn  amongst  the  trf)ops  serving  in  that  country; 
and  at  all  general  courts-martial  where  marine  oiiicers  sat  in 
conjunction  with  those  of  the  land  forces,  or  appear'd  before  a 
military  tribunal,  they  were  guided  and  directed  by  the  articles 
of  war  for  the  Ariiiy. 

In  the  oath  prescribed  by  the  (Marine)  Act  of  Parliament  the 
members  swear  not  to  divulge  the  sentence  of  the  court  until  it 
shall  have  been  approved  by  the  Lord  High  Admiral,  or  three  or 
more  of  the  Commissioners  for  executing  that  office.      Nor  does  it  ^^'^^^^ 
appear  in  that  Act  of  Parliament  that  they  can  assemble  for  the  martial  can 
trial  of  any  marine  officer  or  .soldier  but  by  warrant  from  the  1^"' fvan-a*!u!' 
Admiralty.     The  Judge- Advocate  is  also  directed  to  transmit  the 
original  proceedings  and  sentence  of  eveiy  court-martial  to  the 
Secretary  of  the  Adm'lty,  as  no  sentence  can  be  put  in  execution 
until  a  report  shall  have  been  made  of  the  whole  proceedings  to 
the  Board.      Neither  can  a  commissd  marine  officer  be  dismiss'd 
the  service  except  by  an  order  from  his  Majesty,  or  by  the  sen- 
tence <^f  a  general  court-martial,  approved  by  theii-  Lordships. 

Hence  it  plainly  appears  that  this  Act  of  Parliament  is  meant  ^.j^gj^, 
for  the  internal  rei'ulation  of  the  marine  forces,  and  that  whenever  le-jislation 




13  Oct. 


Only  tlie 








to  law. 

it  is  intended  they  shall  be  under  any  other  a  particular  Act  of 
the  Legislature  has  been  deemed  necessary. 

The  situation  then  of  that  part  of  the  corps  of  marines  that 
is  serving  in  New  South  Wales,  under  the  Grovernment  of  bis 
Majesty's  G-overnor-in-Chief  and  Captain-General  of  that  territory, 
is  attended  with  the  following  peculiarities  : — 

A  commission  has  issued  from  his  Majesty  empowering  the 
said  Governor-in-Chief  to  assemble  general  courts-martial  for  the 
trial  of  any  officer  or  soldier  of  the  troops  under  his  command,  and 
to  confirm  or  set  aside  their  sentence. 

The  usual  Act  of  Parliament  for  the  regulation  of  the  marine 
forces  while  on  shore,  passed  a  month  or  two  before  the  departure 
of  the  detachment  from  that  corps  ordered  for  New  South  Wales, 
without  any  alterations  or  new  provision  being  made  for  their 
particular  situation.  A  Judge- Advocate  was  appointed  by  the 
Admi'lty,  who  was  instructed  in  their  warrant  to  keep  the  Act  of 
Parliament  constantly  for  his  rule.  No  other  power  than  the 
Admiralty  is  authorized  to  grant  a  warrant  for  their  holding 
general  courts-martial,  and  the  members  are  sworn  to  the  same 
oath  of  secrecy  as  their  brethren  at  home.  The  prisoner  also  is  to 
wait  the  approval  of  the  Admiralty  before  he  can  know  his  fate. 

Under  all  these  circumstances  and  considerations,  the  officers 
directed  to  assemble  for  the  purpose  of  holding  a  general  court- 
martial  are  humbly  of  opinion  that,  being  officers  of  his  Majesty's 
marine  forces,  they  cannot  sit  for  that  purpose  under  the  warrant 
of  his  Excellency  the  Governor,  and  beg  leave  to  represent  the 
unpleasant  situation  they  feel  themselves  placed  in,  hoping  that 
this  statement  of  it  may  be  transmitted  to  the  Right  Hon'ble  the 
Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty,  under  whose  direction 
they  always  consider  themselves,  and  from  whom  they  hope  such 
remedy  will  be  applied  as  their  Lordships  may  think  expedient. 

At  the  same  time  they  solicit  that  in  this  business  they  may  be 

understood  to  be  acting  only  in  conformity  to  an  Act    of   the 

British  legislature  passed  expressly  for  their  regulation  v/hile  on 

shore  in  any  part  of  his  Majesty's  dominions  ;  and  that  they  have 

not  in  any  shape  been  wanting  in  the  respect  that  belongs  to  the 

high   authority  of  his   Majesty's    commission,   or   to  the   officer 

invested  with  it  in  this  country. 

Jas.  Campbell,  Captain. 

Jno    Shea,  do. 

Watkx.  Texch,  Capt.-Lieut. 

CrEO.  Johnston,  1st  Lieut. 

Jno.  Creswell,  do. 

RoBT.  Kellow,  do. 

John  Poulton,  do. 

Camp,  Sydney  Cove,  13th  October,  1788. 

David  Collins,  Judge-Advocate. 

Jno.  Johnstone,  1st  Lieut. 
Js.  M.  Shairp,  do. 

Thos.  Davey,  do. 

Thos.  Timins,  do. 

Ralph  Clarke,  2nd  Lieut. 
Wm.  Dawes,  2nd  Lieut. 


GovERXOR  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney.  ^"^^^ 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson,  30  Oct. 

My  Lord,  30th  October,  1788. 

By  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius  I  had  the  honor  of  informing 
your  Loi'dship  of  my  reasons  for  sending  that  ship  to  the  Cape  The  Sirius 
of  Good  Hope* ;  the  loss  of  all  the  seed  wheat,  and  the  greatest  ca"pe!°  ^^^ 
part  of  the  other  grains  and  seeds,  brought  from  England,  which 
had  been  heated  in  the  long  passage,  and  very  little  of  which, 
when  sown,  ever  vegetated ;  all  the  seed  wheat  put  on  board  the 
Supply  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  had  likewise  been  destroyed 
by  the  weevil  ;  and  after  sowing  the  ground  a  second  time  with 
what  seed  had  been  brought  from  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope  there  did  not  remain  sufficient  to  sow  a  single  acre  ; 
and  the  crops  in  the  ground  are  exposed  to  various  accidents  in 
our  present  situation. 

The  Sirius  sailed  the  2nd  instant,  to  go  round  the  South  Supplies 
Cape ;  and  Captain  Hunter  has  directions  to  purchase  for  the  use  purchased, 
of  the  gari'ison  what  flour  the  ship  can  receive,  after  having  com- 
pleated  his  own  provisions  ;  the  quantity  will  not  be  very  consider- 
able (at  present  we  have  18  months'  bread  in  store).  Necessarys 
for  the  hospital  were  likewise  ordered  to  be  purchased,  none  of 
any  kind  being  sent  out  either  for  the  detachment  or  convicts 
after  they  landed. 

Your  Lordship  will  see  by  my  former  letters  the  little  progress  Cultivation 
Ave  have  been  al)le  to  make  in  cultivating  the  lands,  and,  I  presume,  ^^°^" 
the  necessity  of  a  few  proper  persons  being  sent  out  to  superintend 
the  convicts,  as  well  as  settlers,  who  have  been  used  to  cultivation ; 
for  at  present  this  settlement  only  affords  one  person  that  I  can 
employ  in  cultivating  the  lands  on  the  public  account.  Most  of 
the  officers  have  cultivated  a  little  ground,  but  it  is  merely  for 
their  own  conveniency,  and  none  more  than  a  single  acre,  except 
the  Lieutenant-Governor,  who  has  about  three  acres.  I  have 
sixteen  at  a  small  farm  on  the  public  account. 

It  must,  my  Lord,  be  settlers,  with  the  assistance  of  the  convicts.  Request  for 
that   will   put    this    country    in    a   situation   for    supporting    its  repeated 
inhabitants ;  nothing  but  the  uncertainty  of  the  time  in  which 
my  letters  may  reach  England,  and  the  possibility  of  those  last 
written  being  the  first  received,  would  make  me  trouble  your 
Lordship  in  this  letter  with  a  repetition  of  what  I  have  fully 
explained  in  my  former  letters — that  people  who  are  not  convicts 
are  necessary  for  the  stores,  from  which  provisions  or  stores  are  store- 
delivering  almost  hourly,  and  that  we  want  for  superintending  the  "weepers 

•j_i  1  1  1  1  ■        T       ,.'^.  ,.,°,         necessarj'. 

convicts  such  as  have  been  brought  up  in  the  line  in  which  they 
are  to  Vje  employed. 

If  the  ships  that  bring  out  provisions  were  such  as  could  receive 
on  board  black  cattle  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  T  think  we  shall  in 
future  be  able  to  preserve  them  ;  and  a  ship  to  remain  here  as  a 

*  Ante,  p.  188. 




30  Oct. 

kUled  by 

The  natives 



hold  aloof 

Officers  and 

asked  to 
assist  in 

They  refuse. 

store-ship  would  be  attended  with  many  advantages.  It  is  still  a 
doubt  whether  the  cattle  we  lost  have  been  killed  by  the  natives, 
or  if  they  have  strayed  into  the  country.*  I  fear  the  former,  and 
am  sorry  to  say  that  the  natives  now  attack  any  straggler  they 
meet  unarmed ;  and  though  the  strictest  orders  have  been  given 
to  keep  the  convicts  within  bounds,  neither  the  fear  of  death  or 
punishment  prevents  their  going  out  in  the  night ;  and  one  hafi 
been  killed  since  the  Sirius  sailed.  The  natives,  who  appeal- 
strictly  honest  amongst  themselves,  leave  their  fizgigs,  spears,  tfec, 
on  the  beach,  or  in  their  huts,  when  they  go  a-tishing  ;  these 
articles  have  been  taken  from  them  by  the  convicts,  and  the 
people  belonging  to  the  transports  buy  them  at  the  risk  of  being 
prosecuted  as  receivers  of  stolen  goods,  if  discovered.  The  natives, 
as  I  have  observed,  revenge  themselves  on  any  they  meet  unarmed  ; 
it  is  not  possible  to  punish  them  without  punishing  the  innocent 
with  the  guilty,  and  our  own  people  have  been  the  aggressors. 

The  natives  still  refuse  to  come  amongst  us,  and  those  who  are 
supposed  to  have  murthered  several  of  the  convicts  have  removed 
from  Botany  Bay,  where  they  have  always  been  more  troublesome 
than  in  any  other  part.  I  now  doubt  whether  it  will  be  possible 
to  get  any  of  those  people  to  remain  with  us,  in  order  to  get  their 
language,  without  using  force ;  they  see  no  advantage  that  can 
arise  from  us  that  may  make  amends  for  the  loss  of  that  part  of 
the  harliour  in  which  we  occasionally  employ  the  boats  in  fishing. 

If  my  former  letters  have  reached  your  Lordship  the  situation 
of  this  settlement  is  known,  and  as  most  of  the  officers  have 
declined  any  kind  of  interference  with  the  convicts,  except  when 
immediately  employed  by  themselves,  the  little  progress  made  in 
clearing  land  that  requires  so  much  labour  will  be  accounted  for. 
A  letter  sent  from  the  Admiralty  to  the  commanding  officers  of 
marines  at  Portsmouth  and  Plymouth  is  what  the  officei"s  say 
they  govern  themselves  by,  and  in  which  they  say  no  extra  duty 
is  pointed  out.  What  I  asked  of  officers  was  so  very  little,  and 
so  far  from  being  what  would  degrade  either  the  officer  or  the 
gentleman  in  our  situation,  that  I  beg  leave  to  report  once  more 
to  your  Lordship  the  request  I  made  soon  after  we  landed,  and 
which  was  made  in  the  followijig  woi"ds  : — "That  officers  would, 
when  they  saw  the  convicts  diligent,  say  a  few  words  of  encourage- 
ment to  them,  and  that  when  they  saw  them  idle,  or  met  them 
straggling  in  the  woods,  they  would  threaten  them  with  punish- 
ment." This  I  only  desired  when  officers  could  do  it  without 
going  out  of  their  way  ;  it  was  all  I  asked,  and  was  pointedly 
refused.  They  declared  against  what  they  called  an  interference 
with  convicts,  and  I  found  myself  ol^liged  to  give  up  the  little  plan 
I  had  formed  in  the  passage  for  the  government  of  these  people, 
and  which,  had  even  that  been  proposed  to  the  officers,  required 
no  more  from  them  than  the   hearing  any  appeal  the  overseer 

Ante,  p.   140. 


might  find  it  necessary  to  make,  and  a  report  from  the  officer  to       1788 
me,  or  to  the  Judge- Advocate,   if  he  thought  it  necessary,  but      30  Oct. 
which  never  has  been  asked  of  the  officers,  as  they  declined  any 
kind  of  interference. 

The  Golden  Grove  store-ship  sailed  for  Norfolk  Island  the  2nd  ^'orfoik 
of  October,  with  provisions  and  some  stores,  and  carried  a  midship- 
man, two  seamen,  a  serjeant,  corj)oral,  and  tive  j^rivates,  with 
twenty-one  men  and  eleven  women  convicts.     Their  numbers  will 
be  increased  in  the  course  of  the  summer. 

The  Fishburn  is  now  fitting  for  sea,  that  she  may  sail  with  the 
Golden  Grove,  as  soon  as  that  ship  returns  from  Norfolk  Island. 

The  same  reason  which  makes  me  trouble  your  Lordship  with 
tedious  extracts  from  my  former  letters  makes  it  necessary  to 
point  out  in  this  letter  that  we  at  present  depend  entirely  for 
pro\-i.sions  being  sent  from  England ;  and  I  beg  leave  to  observe 
that  if  a  ship  should  be  lost  in  the  passage  it  might  be  a  very 
coixsiderable  time  before  it  could  be  known  in  England.  The  Sirius,  liixietieb. 
from  the  length  of  the  voyage,  would  not  be  able  to  supply  this 
settlement  from  the  Cape,  and  though  the  Islands  may  furnish 
refreshments  in  great  abundance  to  one  or  two  ships,  if  the  Sirius 
was  employed  between  the  Islands  and  this  settlement,  the  quantity 
procured  would  be  but  .small  for  so  great  a  number  of  people  ;  but, 
my  Lord,  I  hope  a  very  few  years  will  put  this  country  in  a  situation  Prospects, 
to  support  itself,  for  I  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  what  land  has 
been  cleared  in  a  very  flourishing  state. 

I  am  now  preparing  to  go  up  the  harbour  with  a  small  detach-  Anewsettle- 
ment  of  one  captain,  two  lieutenants,  and  twenty  privates,  who  ™^"  " 
are  to  protect  some  convicts  intended  to  clear  land  near  the  head 
of  the  harbfjur,*  where  it  is  a  fine  open  country,  ha^dng  very  little 
timber,  and  being  perfectly  free  from  underwood. 

The  Supply  remains  here,  as  I  think  that  vessel  necessary  in  the 
harbour  at  present,  and  which  was  my  reason  for  sending  the 
store-ship  to  Norfolk  Island. 

Returns  of  the  detachment  and  the  quantity  of  provisions  in 
store  are  enclosed  to  Mr.  Nepean.  I  have,  (fee, 

A.  Phillip. 

Judge- Advocate  Collins  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

Dear  Sir,  loth  November,  1788.  i5Xo\. 

I  beg  leave  to  trouble  you  with  the  enclosed  paper.     It  con-  General 
tains  my  opinion  on  the  question  respecting  general  courts-martial  ^"artiai. 
in  this  country,  and  the  expedient  that  I  proposed  for  getting  over 
the  difficulty  that  was  started  by  myself,  and  adopted  by  the  officers 

I  beg  you  to  rest  assured,  and  through  the  whole  of  your 
consideration  on  this  affair,  to  take  this  with  vou — that  nothinj,' 

P  *  Rose  Hill. 




10  Nov. 

and  law 

13  Oct. 

legally  act, 

but  shnulfl 
sit  and  ask 

16  Nov. 

would  give  me  more  pain  than  to  be  thought  to  start  difficulties 
for  the  sake  of  throwing  obstacles  in  the  way  of  the  service. 
The  doubts  that  occurred  to  me  were  deemed  satisfactory  to  the 
officers  of  marines  here,  and  the  resolution  adopted  that  you  will 
find  among  the  public  letters  from  the  Governor.  I  sincerely 
wish  the  expedient  I  proposed  had  also  been  adopted. 

I  sincerely  hope  you  enjoy  your  health,  and  remain,  with  great 
esteem, —  David  Collins. 

I  should  be  glad  of  a  fresh  supply  of  paper,  and  would  be 
extremely  obliged  to  you  if  you  would  order  Cooper  to  send  me 
Blackstone's  Reports,  any  author  that  treats  on  costs,  and  any 
law  pubHcation  of  note  that  has  appeared  since  my  departure, 
with  whatever  Acts  of  Pai'liament  you  may  think  necessary. 

[Enclosure.  ] 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 

13th  October,  1788. 
To  the  question,    "  Whether  a  general  court-martial  formed  of 
marine  officers   can  assemble  by  virtue  of  a  warrant  from   his 
Majesty's  Governor-in-Chief  of  this  territory,  having  a  commis- 
sion to  gi'ant  the  same," — 

I  reply,  I  am  of  opinion  that,  being  marine  officers,  they  cannot 
comply  with  the  directions  of  the  Act  of  Parliament  passed  for 
their  regulation  while  on  shore  in  any  part  of  his  Majesty's 
dominions,  and  hold  a  general  court-martial  under  the  warrant  of 
his  Excellency  the  Governor  of  New  South  Wales. 

But  vvhen  I  consider  the  time  that  must  elapse  before  a  remedy 
can  be  applied — when  I  consider  how  much  his  Majesty's  service 
may  and  must  suffer  from  the  want  of  a  tribunal  to  which  officers 
should  be  amenable — when  I  consider  that  although  the  sti^ict  letter 
of  the  law  is  against  their  sitting,  it  has  been  clearly  the  intention 
of  every  branch  and  department  of  his  Majesty's  Government  that 
there  should  be  such  a  tribunal  in  this  country,  I  am  of  opinion 
that,  waving  the  privilege  of  being  assembled  in  conformity  with 
their  own  Act  of  Parliament,  they  should  sit  under  the  authority 
of  the  King's  commission  and  Governor  of  this  territory,  throw- 
ing themselves,  with  the  strong  j^lea  of  necessity,  on  the  Right 
Honourable  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  for  pro- 
curing them  an  indemnification  for  their  having  so  acted. 

I  have,  &c., 

David  Collins, 

Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson, 
My  Lord,  Novenil)er  16,  1788. 

Since  I  closed  my  letter  of  the  30th  of  October  to  your 
Lordship  the  Golden  Gi'ove  has  arrived  from  Norfolk  Island,  where 


the  people  and  provisions  were  landed,  and  from  whence  I  have       1788 
received  the  most  favourable  accounts.     They  have  vegetables  in      13  Oct. 
great  abundance,  as  well  as  fish.     The  grain  that  had  been  sowed  q^^^ 
after  the  tu-st  had  failed  (from  having  been  heated  in  the  passage,  accounts 
or  injui'ed  by  the  weevil)  promises  a  great  increase.      The  soil  is  xorfoik 
extremely  rich,  and  to  the  depth  of  many  feet  wherever  they  island. 
have  dug ;  the  people  very  healthy,  and  perfectly  satisfied  under 
an  officei',  who  will  in  less  than  two  years  render  that  island  ^^^ '**''*"'' *'^ 
independent  of  this  colony  for  the  necessarys  of  life,  if  we  can  independent 
procure  black  cattle  to  send  him.*     He  will  have  an  additional  '"ars? 
number  of  people  in  the  course  of  the  summer.     A  few  honest, 
industrious  families  would  then  find  themselves  happy  in  a  good 
climate,  as  healthy  as  this  settlement  (and  no  place  can  be  healthier), 
with  a  rich  land,  easy  of  cultivation,  and  where  the  storms  of 
thunder  and  heavy  rains  have  not  been  felt.      The  flax-plant  will  Flax, 
supply  the  settlers  on  that  island  with  rope  and  canvas,  as  well 
as  a  considerable  part  of  their  cloathing,  when  they  can  dress  it 
properly  :    Ijut   a   person   experienced  in  dressing  flax  is  much 
wanted,   as  well  as  a  few  good  husbandmen,  for  those  we  have 
been  able  to  send  there  are  not  only  in  general  idle  and  abandoned, 
but  ignorant.     A  cocoanut  that  was  as  good  as  if  just  taken  from 
the  tree,  and  a  small  piece  of  wood,  said  to  resemble  the  handle 
of  a  flyflap,  as  made  in  the  Friendly  Islands,  and  which  did  not 
appear  to  have  been  long  in  the  water,   have  suggested  an  idea 
that  some  island  which  is  inhabited  lays  at  no  great  distance,  but 
which  my  present  situation  does  not  permit  me  to  determine. 
The  remains  of  two  or  three  canoes  have  been  found  on  the  rocks. 
Tiie  Golden  Grove,  in  her  passage  from  Norfolk  Island,  saw  a 
very  dangerous  reef,  the  south  end  of  which  lay  in  the  latitude  A  danfrcrous 
of  29"  25'  south,  longitude  159'  59'  east.f     It  appeared  from  the  ^'^^ ' 
N.E.  by  X.  to  N.  when  they  were  four  leagues  from  it,  but  no 
judgment  can  be  formed  how  far  it  extends  to  the  northward. 

T   had  the  honor  of  informing  your  Lordship  of  my  intentions  Port 


of  lixing  a  settlement  near  the  head  of  the  hai'bour,J  and  I  have 
lately  passed  several  days  in  examining  the  country.  The  land 
is  good,  and  though  there  is  none  we  can  take  possession  of  at  a  fresh 
present  which  can  be  cultivated  without  clearing  the  ground  of 
the  timber — for  if  the  trees  are  at  the  distance  of  thirty  or  even 
fifty  feet  the  roots  spread — the  labour  there,  nevertheless,  Avill 
not  exceed  the  fourth  part  of  what  is  required  in  our  ])resent 
situation,  and  there  the  land  appears  to  be  the  best  I  have 
seen  in  this  country ;  and  as  far  as  I  could  examine,  which  was 
for  a  couple  of  miles  round  the  spot  on  which  I  have  flxed,  I 
think  the  country  as  fine  as  any  I  have  seen  in  England.     I  had  country. 

*  The  anticipation  was  not  realised.     It  was  not  known  at  this  time,  however,  that  so  many 
convicts  would  be  sent  to  Norfolk  Island  as  was  afterwards  determined, 
t  Post,  p.  215. 
:  Rose  Hill. 



16  Nov. 

A  soldier 

The  people 

Flax  and 

Black  sand. 


of  the 


A  bad 

an  officer  and  ten  men  with  nie,  which  I  left  to  finish  a  small 
redoubt,  and  in  a  few  days  the  remainder  of  the  detachment  will 
be  sent  up  with  some  convicts. 

A  soldier  has  been  lately  missing,  who,  I  suppose,  lost  his  way 
in  the  woods,  and  has  either  been  killed  by  the  natives  or  died  by 
a  fit,  to  which  he  was  subject. 

Except  the  old,  and  those  who  brought  incurable  complaints 
with  them,  the  people  are  very  healthy.  The  weather  is  now 
settled,  and  the  two  store-ships  are  ready  to  sail,  and  intend 
going  round  the  South  Cape. 

A  small  quantity  of  flax,  as  I  received  it  from  Norfolk  Island 
is  enclosed  with  the  despatches.  A  plant  that  produces  pepper, 
and  supposed  to  be  the  same  as  the  East  India  pepper,  is  found 
in  great  plenty  in  Norfolk  Island.  Several  roots  of  this  plant, 
and  some  of  the  pepper,  are  sent  to  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  who  I 
have  requested  to  inform  your  Lordship  or  Mr.  Nepean  if  it 
proves  to  be,  as  supposed,  the  black  pepper  used  in  England. 

In  sinking  a  well  the  sand  was  thought  to  contain  a  very  large 
proportion  of  metal,  a  small  quantity  of  which  is  sent  by  the 
two  ships.  It  has  been  twenty-four  hours  in  a  strong  fire,  but 
we  could  not  get  it  to  melt.     I  suppose  it  to  be  blacklead.* 

I  have,  (kc, 
A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean.! 
Marine  Quarters,  Sydney  Cove, 

My  Dear  Sir,  16th  NoA^ember,  1788. 

I  do  not  feel  myself  at  all  at  ease  with  respect  to  you,  as 
I  much  fear  you  expect  to  hear  from  me  by  every  ship  which  sails 
from  here.  The  truth  of  the  matter  is  that  I  have  no  one  thing 
to  communicate  to  you  that  can  give  you  either  pleasure  or  satis- 
faction, for,  unless  I  attempted  to  give  you  a  description  of  this 
country,  and  of  the  hardships,  mortifications,  and  I  had  almost 
said  cruelties,  we  are  obliged  to  submit  to,  I  have  no  subject 
worth  taking  up  your  time  with. 

From  our  Governor's  manner  of  expressing  himself,  for  he  com- 
municates nothing  to  any  person  here  but  to  his  secretary  (Capt. 
Collins),  he  has,  I  dare  say,  described  this  country  as  capable  of 
being  made  the  Empire  of  the  East.  But  notwithstanding  all  he 
may  from  mterested  motives  say — and  as  this  letter  is  only  for 
your  own  private  perusal — I  do  not  scruple  to  pronounce  that  in 
the  whole  world  there  is  not  a  worse  country  than  what  we  have 
yet  seen  of  this.  All  that  is  contiguous  to  us  is  so  very  barren 
and  forbidding  that  it  may  with  truth  be  said  here  nature  is 
reversed ;  and  if  not  so,  she  is  nearly  worn  out,  for  almost  all  the 

*  A  sample  was  submitted  to  Mr.  Josiah  Wed8'\\ood,  who  pronounced  it  to  be 
species  of  plumbago  or  blacklead." 
t  A  private  letter. 

'a  pure 

EOSS'S    ACCOUNT   OF    THE    COLONY.  213 

seeds  we  have  put  into  the  ground  has  rotted,  and  I  have  no       I'^^B 
doubt  but  will,  like  the  wood  of  this  vile  country  when  burned      16  Nov. 
or  rotten,   turn  to  sand.     This  latter  is  a  fact    that  has    been 
proved,  and  will,   I  much  fear,   be  fatally   felt  by  some  of  its 
present  inhabitants.     I  say  the  present,  because  if  the  Minister 
has  a  true  and  just  description  given  him  of  it  he  will  not  surely  No  more 
think  of  sending  any  more  people  here.     If  he  does,  I  shall  not  should  be 
scruple  to  say  that  he  will  entail  misery  on  all  that  are  sent  and  sent. 
an   expense   on    the   mother  country   that  in    the  days  of  her 
greatest  prosperity  she  was  not  equal  to,  for  there  is  not  one 
article  that  can  ever  be  necessary  for  the  use  of  man  but  which 
must  be  imported  into  this  country.      It  is  veiy   certain  that 
the  whole  face  of  it  is  covered  with  trees,  but  not  one  bit  of 
timber  have  we  yet  found  that  is  tit  for  any  other  purpose  than 
to  make  the  pot  boil.     Of  the  general  opinion  entertained  here 
oi  the  wretched  prospect  we  have  before  us  I  cannot  I  think  A  wretched 
give  you  a  moi'e  convincing  proof  than  that  every  person  (except 
the  two  gentlemen  already  mentioned,  whose  sentiments  I  am 
perfectly  unacquainted  with)  who  came  out  with  a  design  of  re- 
maining in  the  country  are  now  most  earnestly  wishing  to  get  away 
from  it. 

You  will,  no  doubt,  see  a  copy  of  the  return  which  I  am  going 
to  send  to  the  Admiralty,  as  the  Governor  has  requested  it  for 
your  office.  It  is  a  return  of  that  part  of  the  marine  detach-  ^'arines  who 
ment  that  wish  to  remain  in  this  country,  and  the  purposes  for 
which  they  wish  to  stay.*  I  think  this  return  [will]  open  people's 
eyes  more  than  a  volume  writ  upon  the  subject  would. 

There  is  an  effort  making  for  clearing  some  land  for  "corn  at  Rose  Hill, 
the  head  of  this  harbour.  The  party  gone  and  to  go  ai"e  to  be  under 
the  care  and  protection  of  your  old  friend  Campbell,  who  is  to  have 
two  officers  and  twenty  marines  with  him.  His  perseverance  and 
attention  to  the  forwarding  the  public  service  in  general  is  too 
well  known  to  require  my  saying  anything  on  that  head,  unless  it 
is  to  assure  you  that  his  abilities  ever  since  his  arrival  here  has 
been  constantly  employed  with  the  most  sedulous  attention  to  the 
success  of  this  settlement  in  particular,  and  was  I  in  a  situati(jn 
that  would  admit  my  doing  it,  I  most  assuredly  would  make  the 
Secretary  of  State  acquainted  with  his  worth.  But  as  that  is  Campbell's 
not  the  case,  I  dare  say  you  will  think  it  a  justice  due  to  any 
man,  much  more  in  the  present  instance,  for  your  old  acquaint- 
ance, whom  I  am  sure  you  wished  to  ser\  e.  I  flatter  myself  you 
will  have  pleasure  in  representing  him  as  he  deserves,  and 
possiWy  by  that  means  procuring  for  him  that  for  which  he  has 
served  so  long  for.f  *  *  *  * 

11.  Ross. 

*  Ante,  p.  201. 

t  The  latter  part  of  this  letter  is  omitted  by  the  transcriber  as  being  devoid  of  public 




IG  Nov. 


of  ships. 

for  Norfolk 

with  the 

for  the 


A  marine 

Governor  Phillip  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson,  November  16,  1788. 

By  his  Majesty's  ship  Sirius,  that  sailed  from  hence  for  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  the  2nd  of  October,  I  had  the  honor  of  trans- 
mitting, for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Commissioners,  particu- 
lars respecting  this  settlement  and  Norfolk  Island,  with  such 
drawings  of  that  and  Lord  Howe  Island  as  I  had  received  from 
the  lieutenants  King  and  Ball. 

A  survey,  made  by  Captain  Hunter  and  the  officers  of  the 
Sirius,  of  this  harbour  was  sent  with  my  dispatches  in  July,  under 
the  care  of  Lieutenant  Shortland. 

The  loss  of  all  the  seed  wheat  and  most  of  the  other  grain  and 
seeds  that  Avas  brought  from  England,  by  being  heated,  was  my 
reason  for  sending  the  Sirius  to  the  Cape.  You  will,  sir,  please 
to  inform  their  Lordships  that  the  Fishburn  is  now  ready  for  sea. 
The  Golden  Grove  sailed  for  Norfolk  Island  the  2nd  of  October. 
Both  ships  will  sail  for  England  as  soon  as  that  ship  returns. 

I  thought  it  necessary  to  keep  the  Supply,  tender,  here  in  the 
absence  of  the  Sirius,  which  was  my  reason  for  sending  the 
Golden  Grove  to  Norfolk  Island  ;  and  I  ordered  the  master  of  the 
Supply  on  board  that  ship,  as  he  is  acquainted  with  the  island, 
where  the  landing  is  difficult.  Eighteen  months'  provisions  and 
stores,  with  a  petty  officer,  one  sergeant,  one  corporal,  five  privates, 
two  seamen,  twenty-one  men,  and  eleven  women  convicts,  were 
sent  in  the  Golden  Grove.  These  make  the  number  of  people  on 
Norfolk  Island  sixty-one,  and  more  will  be  sent  in  the  course  of 
the  summer. 

The  natives  now  avoid  us  more  than  they  did  when  we  first 
landed,  and  which  I  iijjpute  to  the  robberies  committed  on  them 
by  the  convicts,  who  steal  their  spears  and  fizgigs,  which  they 
frequently  leave  in  their  huts  when  they  go  out  a -fishing,  and 
which  the  people  belonging  to  the  transports  purchase,  though 
every  possible  precaution  has  been  taken  to  prevent  it.  This  the 
natives  revenge  by  attacking  any  stragler  they  meet,  and  one 
convict  has  been  killed  since  the  Sii'ius  sailed. 

The  advantages  attending  a  ship  of  the  line  as  a  store-ship  in 
this  harbour  I  have  observed  in  my  former  letters.  Such  ship 
might  bring  a  considerable  quantity  of  black  cattle  from  the  Cape, 
as  I  presume  she  would  have  few  guns  on  board.  One  or  two 
small  vessels  of  thirty  or  forty  tons  would,  likewise,  be  employed  to 
great  advantage,  and  which  I  beg  leave  to  submit  to  their  Lord- 
ships' consideration.  The  necessity  of  a  regular  supply  of  pro- 
visions has  been,  likewise,  pointed  out  in  my  former  letters,  as- 
the  resources  this  country  affords  at  present  are  very  trifling. 

A  marine  has  been  lately  missing,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether 
he  lost  his  way  in  the  woods  and  was  killed  by  the  natives,  or 
whether  he  died  in  a  fit,  he  being  subject  to  fits. 


The   Golden   Grove   returned  from    Norfolk   Island    the   10th       1788 
instant,  having  landed  the  provisions  and  people.     In  her  return     ic  Nov. 
they  fell  in  with  a  dangerous  reef,  on  which  the  sea  broke;  very  j^  dangerous 
liigh.      The  south  end  of  the  reef  only  was  seen,  which,  by  Mr.  reef. 
Blackburn's  account  (the  master  of  the  Supply),  is  in  the  latitude 
of  29°  25'  S.,  longitude  155"  59'  E.*     It  extended  from  N.E.  by 
N.  to  north,  but  the  weather  did  not  permit  him  to  examine  how 
far  it  extends  to  the  northward.     They  were,  when  the  bearings 
were  taken,  four  leagues  from  it,  with  light  airs  of  wind.     It  shall 
be  examined  in  the  course  of  the  summer. 

The  accounts  I  have  received  from  Norfolk  Island  are  equally  ^'^^'^j*^'  ^^ 
favorable  with  those  first  received.  Vegetables  of  every  kind  are  island. 
there  in  abundance.  The  corn  they  have  sown  promises  well,  and 
the  landing  may  be  made  much  safer  than  it  is  at  present.  The 
two  store-ships  have  each  a  lower  yard  and  top-gallant  masts  from 
that  island,  which  I  have  ordered  them  to  deliver  at  Deptford 
Yard,  by  which  it  may  be  determined  how  far  the  pine  of  that 
island  may  be  useful.  We  still  continue  clearing  the  land  near 
us,  and  some  convicts,  with  a  small  detachment,  are  settled  near 
the  head  of  the  harbour,  where  the  ground  is  better  and  less  timber 
to  clear  itwa.j. 

The  two  store-ships  are  now  nearly  ready  for  sea.     The  state  and  ^^"^^''.'^{qJ?^ 
condition  of  his  Majesty's  armed  tender  Supply  is  inclosed.      The  sea. 
store-ships  are  to   endeavour  to   make   their  passage   round  the 
South  Cape. 

During  the  winter  we  had  frequently  very  heavy  gales  of  wind.  Gales. 
several  from  the  eastward  ;    but  the  weather  is  now  settled,  and 
we  have  had  less  rain  in  the  winter  than  Avhat  I  have  generally 
known  in  that  season  on  the  Brazil  coast. 

Some  driftwood,  a  cocoanut,  and  a  small  piece  of  wood  like  the 
handle  of  a  fly-flap,  such  as  are  made  in  the  Friendly  Islands, 
having  been  driven  on  shore  at  Norfolk  Island,  not  appearing  to  {^"j^l^J^^ 
have  been  long  in  the  water,  have  suggested  an  idea  there  that  island. 
some  inhabited  island  is  at  no  great  distance. 

I  have,  &c., 
A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens. 
Sir,  Marine  Q'rs,  Sydney  Cove,  16th  Nov.,  1788. 

Since  I  did  myself  the  honor  of  writing  to  you  on  the  1st 
October  by  Captain  Hunter,  who  was  ordered  to  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope,  I  found  myself  under  the  necessity  of  ordering  an 
officer  into  confinement,  but  as  it  has  ever  been  my  wish  rather  An  anest. 
to  convince  than  punish,  I  directed  the  adjutant  to  show  the 
officer  the  letter  I  had  written  to  the  Governor-,   re(i[uesting  a 

*  Middleton  Reef,  named  after  Sir  Charles  Middlcton,  Comptroller  of  the  Navy.  The 
"  Directory  of  the  South  Pacific  Ocean  "  pives  the  latitude  of  the  "west  elbow"  of  the  reef 
2!)"  27'  40"  S.,  and  the  longitude  159°  3'  38"  E. 


1788  general  court-martial,  telling  him  at  the  same  time  my  motive  for 
16  Nov.  doing  so  was  that  if  he  felt  himself  sensible  of  the  impropriety  of 
his  conduct  he  would  then  know  what  he  had  to  do,  and  that 
then  the  letter  would  not  be  sent ;  but  if,  on  the  contrary,  he 
preferred  a  trial  by  court-martial,  my  letter  would  immediately  be 
transmitted.  To  this  the  adjutant  bro't  me  an  answer  that  it  was 
very  well,  and  he  had  no  objection  to  a  general  court-martial. 
A  general  In  consequence  of  my  application,    the  Governor  sent  me   a 

martial.  warrant  for  the  assembling  a  general  court-martial,  which  was 
accordingly  ordered,  and  was  for  sojne  days  prevented  from 
meeting  by  the  indisposition  of  one  of  the  members.  This  officer 
(Capt.  Meredith)  continuing  to  grow  worse,  it  became  necessary 
to  order  another  member,  which  was  done.  On  the  13th  October 
the  officers  ordered  to  compose  the  court  assembled  agreeable  to 
orders.  Soon  after,  Capt.  Campbell,  who  was  to  have  been  the 
President,  delivered  me  a  letter  with  a  paper  inclos'd,  of  which 
No.  1  is  a  copy,"^  and  which,  at  his  and  the  request  of  the  other 
officers  who  were  to  have  compos'd  the  court,  I  have  the  honor  of 
inclosing,  for  their  Lordships'  information,  together  with  a  letter 
and  paper  given  to  me  at  the  same  time  by  the  Judge-Advocate, 
of  which  No.  2  is  the  original.!  The  Judge- Advocate's  motive  for 
giving  me  this  paper  I  find  myself  yet  at  a  loss  to  account  for, 
nor  can  I  possibly  here  omit  observing  that  there  did  not  seem 
Doubts  as  to  to  be  a  doubt  entertained  of  the  Governor's  being  sufficiently 
Its  legality,  authorized  to  order  a  general  court-martial  till  the  Judge- Advo- 
cate called  upon  Captain  Campbell,  and  in  my  presence  told  him 
it  was  his  opinion  that  being  marme  officers  they  could  not 
legally  sit  under  a  warrant  from  the  Governor,  as  there  was  no 
power  deligated  to  him  for  that  purpose,  either  by  Parliament  or 
the  Admiralty. 

The  court-martial  being  now,  as  their  Lordships  will  see  by  the 

above  paper,  out  of  the  question,   the  Governor,   without  with- 

A  court  of     clrawincf  the  warrant  or  returning  my  letter,  order'd  a  court  of 

influiry,  '-^  .  , 

enquiry  to  assemble  and  enquire  into  the  charge,  and  report 
whether  there  was,  or  was  not,  sufficient  grounds  for  a  court- 
martial.  The  report  of  this  court  was  made  to  the  Governor  by 
Captain  Campl^ell,  from  whom  I  understand  that  he  did  not 
think  himself  at  liberty,  under  the  above  circumstances,  of  enter- 
ing into  the  enquiry,  and  that  the  court  only  gave  an  opinion 
that  an  application  from  a  commanding  officer  had  ever  been 
deem'd  sufficient  grounds  for  granting  a  general  court-martial. 
At  this  stage  of  the  business  the  Governor  judg'd  fit  to  send  the 
The  accused  Judfje- Advocate  to  the  officer  in  confinement,  to  inform  him  that 

to  be  .  .  . 

ordered        he  should  Send  him  to  England  by  the  first  ship,  together  with 
home.  ^Y\e  charge  against  him. 

At  this  time  I  received  a  letter  from  the  officer  purporting 
that  the  adjutant  did  not  at  the  time  I  sent  him  with  my  letter 

*  Ante,  pp.  205-206.  t  See  enclosure  in  CoUins's  letter  to  Nepean.     Ante,  p.  210. 


inform  him  of  my  motives  for  so  doing,  else  he  would  have  done       1733 
everything  in  his  power  to  have  the  letter  stopt,  and  express'd     le  Nov. 
inuch  sorrow  at  his  having  been  so  long  kept  in  ignorance  of  my  Anapoiogj-. 
intentions.     This  circumstance  I  communicated  to  the  Governor, 
who  told  me  it  was  then  too  late,  for  as  the  warrant  had  been 
granted  the  letters  could  not  be  recall'd,  and  that  he  found  him- 
self under  the  necessity  of  sending  them  to  England.     This  reply, 
I  must  confess,  mortitied  me,  l)ut  on  my  receiving  the  necessary 
apology  from  the  officer  I    wrote  a   letter  to  the  Governor,  of 
which  No.  3  is  a  coi^y,*  in  consequence  of  which  he  ordered  the  The  officer 
officer  to  return  to  his  duty,  but  has  not  given  up  the  letters.         duu"!"*  ^^ 

In  our  present  situation  their  Lordships  will  see  the  impos- 
sibility of  our  holding  a  general  court-martial  til  such  time  as 
the  difficulties  mentioned  in  the  paper  No.  1  ai'e  removed,  which 
I  am  convinced  their  Lordships  will  cause  to  be  done  as  soon 
as  possible. 

I  am  sorry  to  inform  their  Lordships  that  on  the  26th  October 
James  Rogers,  a  private  marine,  in  the  15th  Company,  who  had 
for  some  time  been  employ'd  in  sawing,  was  returning  to  his 
liutt,  and  the  distance  to  it  not  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile, 
yet  in  that  short  distance  he  is  suppos'd  to  have  lost  his  way  and  Lost  in 
wandered  in  the  woods  till  he  was  starved,  for  he  has  not  since  ^^^  "*  ' 
Ijeen  heard  of.  I  have  repeatedly  sent  all  the  officers  and  men  off 
duty,  with  all  the  dogs  they  could  collect,  in  search  of  the  body, 
but  all  to  no  purpose.  It  being  impossible  for  a  man  to  exist  in 
the  woods  of  this  country,  even  supposing  him  to  have  his  arms, 
which  was  not  this  man's  case,  and  as  he  had  always  heexx  looked 
upon  as  one  of  the  best  and  quietest  men  in  the  detachment,  I  have 
no  doubt  of  his  being  dead,  and  have  thex'efore  set  him  off  as  dead 
in  the  effective  list. 

Another  unfortunate  circumstance  has  lately  happened,  which 
I  have  pain  in  I'elating.  On  the  6th  inst.  a  quarrel  happen'd 
overnight  between  Thomas  Bulmore,  a  marine,  and  some  of  his 
comrades.  It  had  not  been  so  effectually  settled  that  night  as  to 
prevent  them  from  going  out  the  next  morning,  which  they  unfortu- 
nately effected  without  the  knowledge  of  either  commissioned  or 
non-commissioned  officers.  From  the  Ijruises  or  blows  that  Bulmore  a  marine 
received  in  the  quarrel  he  died  on  the  10th.  Four  of  the  marines  S^^^"* 
are  now  in  confinement  for  it,  and  to  be  tried  by  the  criminal 
court  f.  Should  that  coui't  have  determined  their  fate  before  the 
ship  sails  their  Lordships  shall  be  made  acquainted  with  it. 

In  my  last  letter  I  inform'd  you  of  my  having  an  order  for  a 
detachment  to  be  in  readiness  for  the  head  of  the  harbour  the  Rose  Hill, 
first  week  in  October.     It  was  only  a  few  days  ago  that  a  part  of 

*  Ante,  p.  202. 
t  They  were  found  guilty  of  manslaughter,  and  sentenced  to  200  lashes  each.    Post,  p.  220. 




IC  Nov. 



Bad  paper. 

Island  fla.x. 

that  detachment  was  sent  up  to  protect  some  men  order'd  to  errect 
a  store-house  for  provisions.  The  rest  will,  I  beleive,  in  the  course 
of  a  few  days  be  ordered  to  join  those  already  sent. 

In  my  last  letter  I  informed  their  Lordships  with  the  state  of 
the  barracks  errecting  for  the  detachment.  Captain  Campbell's 
company  has  for  some  time  been  in  the  one  errected  for  his  company, 
but  to  say  when  the  other  companys  will  be  in  theirs  it  is  now 
impossible  for  me  to  say,  though  I  much  fear  that  it  will  not  be 
for  some  months,  as  all  the  artificers  have  been  drawn  off  from  us 
for  purposes  that  his  Excellency  imagin'd  to  be  of  more  importance 
than  the  getting  the  detachment  under  proper  cover.  I  have, 
Avith  the  Governor's  assistance,  contrived  to  have  hammocks  foi* 

our    men. 





m  general  very  bad,   I  hope  their 


Lordships  will  be  induced  to  direct  the  Navy  Board  to  send  a 
sufficient  number,  with  the  bedding  which  we  want  much  for  the 
detachment.  My  reason  for  preferring  hammocks  to  standing 
beds  is  that  they  are  much  more  easily  kept  clean,  and,  of  course, 
more  healthy  for  the  men. 

The  blacksmiths  employ'd  by  the  Governor  are  kept  in  such 
constant  employ  as  to  render  it  impossible  for  me  to  get  them  to 
attend  to  the  arms  of  the  detachment.  Two  of  our  firelocks  have 
been  in  their  hands  for  the  last  three  months,  and  are  now  in  the 
same  state  as  when  sent  to  them.  This  makes  me  fear  that  I 
shall  be  under  the  necessity  of  employing  one  of  our  own  men, 

who  is  a  gunsmith. 

Should  it  be  so  I  shall  endeavour  to  engage 

him  upon  the  same  terms  with  the  people  of  that  description 
employ'd  at  the  different  divisions,  which  will,  I  hope,  meet  with 
their  Lordships'  approbation. 

The  Governor  has  informed  me  that  he  will  order  the  detach- 
ment to  be  compleated  from  the  party  of  marines  serving  on 
board  the  Supply,  armed  tender.  If  he  does  before  the  ships  sail 
their  Lordships  will  see  it  by  the  general  return. 

T  am  sorry  to  say  that  the  paper  supplied  for  the  use  of  the 
detachment  is  so  spungy  and  of  so  inferior  a  quality  as  to  be 
almost  totally  useless  from  its  having  got  damped  and  mildew'd 
upon  the  passage.  I  therefore  request  that  their  Lordships  will 
please  to  order  me  to  be  supplied  with  those  articles  of  a  better 
quality,  and  some  of  a  larger  kind  than  what  was  sent  before. 

With  this  letter  I  transmit  for  their  Lordships'  information  a 
copy  of  the  effective  list  for  the  last  quarter,  a  general  return  of 
the  detachment,  and  an  account  of  the  issues  and  remains  of  the 
quarter-master's  stores.* 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Dear  Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson,  16th  Nov.,  1788. 

In  the  box  which  contains  my  despatches,  on  board  the 
Golden  Grove,  I  have  put  up  some  flax,  as  received  from  Nor- 

*  Note  by  transcriber : — "  Name  of  R.  Ross  omitted,  though  from  him  direct." 

TllIAL    OP    MARINES.  219 

folk  Islaiul.     1  have  before  ol)sei-ved  they  have  no  person  who       1788 
understands  how  to  manage  it.     There  is  likewise  a  small  box     16  Nov. 
with  sand,  which  I  suppose  to  contain  blacklead.     One  paper  in 
that  box  contains  what  was  in  as  strong  a  tire  as  we  could  make 
for  twenty-four  hours,  but  did  not  melt.      I  have  sent  a  small  ^ji^j'^j^^aT'Jfnd 
quantity  by  the  Fishburn    to   Sir  Joseph    Banks.        Here   is  a  vegetable. 
tree,  of  which  we  have  whole  forests,  from  the  leaves  of  which  is 
distilled  an  essential  oil  that  appears  to  be  equal  to  oil  of  pepper- 
mint.*     The  returns  of  the  detachment,   state  of  the  sick,  and 
quantity  of  provisions  in  store  for  the  detachment  and  convicts 
(not  including  the   ships'  companies  of  the  Sirius  and  Supply, 
who  nuist  Ije  hereafter  victualled  from  the  store),  are  inclosed. f 

Two  lower  yards  were  cut  at  Norfolk  Island  for  the  two  store-  Spars, 
ships,  and  the  masters  have  my  directions  to  deliver  them  at 
Deptford  Yard.     By  those  spars  they  will  be  able  to  determine 
the  quality  of  the  wood. 

I  have  mentioned  the  situation  of  Lieutenant  King,  who  is  the 
Commandant  of  Norfolk  Island,  in  my  former  letters  to  Lord 
Sydney  and  yourself  ;  and  you  will  now  permit  me  to  mention  Mr. 
Jamison,  the  surgeon,  who  is  surgeon's  first  mate  of  the  Sirius.  Sui-freon 
He  is  a  very  good  man,  and  if  the  surgeon  was  to  die  would 
lose  his  chance  of  promotion  ■  at  the  same  time,  if  the  Sirius 
leaves  the  station,  he  would  not  be  entitled  to  any  pay  from  the 
Navy  Board.     At  present  he  has  only  the  pay  of  surgeon's  mate. 

I  have,  &c., 
A.  Phillip. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  17th  November,  1788.  17  Nov 

The  flax  contained  in  this  box  is  from  Norfolk  Island. 
I  have  mentioned  in  my  former  letters  the  want  of  a  person  Nm-foik 
that  understands    the  preparing  and   manufacture  of    flax.      If 
properly  dressed,  I  think  it  would  be  superior  to  any  that  grows 
in  Europe. 

Of  the  cotton  seed  brought  from  England  \ery  little  vegetated. 

I  have,  &c., 
. A.  Phillip. 

Major  Ross  to  Secretary  Stephens. 
Marine  Quarters,  Sydney  Cove, 
Sir,  New  South  Wales,  18th  Nov.,  1788.  is  Nov. 

I  have  to  infonn  you,  for  their  Loi'dships'  information,  that 
since  my  letter  of  yesterday's  date  the  criminal  court  have  acquitted 

*  See  note  to  memo,  by  Sir  Joseph  Banks.     Post,  p.  283. 

t  In  the  return  of  the  civil  establishment  enclosed  eleven  ofBcersare  mentioned,  including 
Governor,  Lieutenant-Governor,  Jud'^e-Advocate,  cha])!ain,  conmiissary,  surgeon,  surveyor- 
^'eneral,  three  assistant  surgeons,  and  acting  provost-marshal.  The  military  force  I'onsisted 
of  1(!0  privates,  major,  two  captains,  two  captain-lieutenants,  eight  first  lieutenants,  three 
second  lieutenants,  adjutant  second  lieutenant,  quarter-master  first  lieutenant,  and 
Judge- Advocate  (David  Collins). 


^'''88       the  marines  (that  were  tried)  of  willful  murder,  and  brought  it  in 
IS  Nov.      manslaughter,  and   have   sentenced  them  to  two  hundred  lashes 
each.  I  have,  &c., 

R.   Ross,   Major. 

Mr.  D.  Considen*  to  Sir  Joseph  Baxks.    (Banks  Papers.) 
Sir,  Port  Jackson,  Nov.  18,  1788. 

From  the  intimacy  v.'hich  subsisted  between  you  and  my 
friend,  Capt.  Charles  Hamilton,  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  send- 
ing home  some  birds  and  a  kangaroo  skin,  properly  stuffed,  to  your 
care,  to  be  forwarded  to  him  as  soon  as  possible.  At  the  same 
time  I  beg  your  acceptance  of  five  birds  and  a  kangaroo  skin — all 
properly  prepared  and  stuffed.  I  have  likewise  sent  two  living 
opossums  (one  for  you,  the  other  for  Captain  Hamilton),  and  two 

Animals  and  beautiful  paroquets  alive  (one  for  Mrs.  Charles  Hamilton,  the 
other  for  your  daughter).  I  sincerely  wish  they  may  reach  you 
safe.  Understanding  you  were  a  naturalist  as  well  as  a  botanist, 
I  have  sent  you  some  beetles,  viz.,  tAvo  species  from  S.  America, 
and  some  flowei'-seeds  (such  as  I  could  at  present  collect  in  this 
country),  and  specimens  of  two  sorts  of  gum,  the  production  of 
this  country,  the  one  red  and  the  other  yellow.  The  first  is  the 
red  astringent  gum  well-known  in   England ;  the   other,  I  have 

Gnm.  taken  the  liberty  of  naming  the  balsam  to  be  of  New  South  Wales. 

These  I  have  used  medicinally,  and  found  them  to  answer  my  most 

Sweet  tea.  sanguine  expectations.  I  have  sent  you  some  of  the  sweet  teaf  of 
this  country,  which  I  recommend,  and  is  generally  used  by  the 
marines  and  convicts.  As  such  it  is  a  good  anti-scorbutic,  as  well 
as  a  substitute  for  that  which  is  more  costly. 

This  country  produces  a  variety  of  flowers  and  shrubs  totally 
unknown  in  Europe,  and  five  or  six  species  of  wild  myrtle,  some  of 
which  I  have  sent  to  you  dried.  An  infusion  of  the  leaves  of  one 
sort  is  a  mild  and  safe  astringent  in  the  dysentery.     We  have  a 

Flowers  and  large   peppermint-tree,   which    is    equal,    if    not  superior,   to    our 

s.         English  peppermint.     I  have  sent  you  a  .specimen  of  it.     If  there 

is  any  merit  in  applying  these  and  many  otlier  simples  to    the 

benefit  of  the  poor  wretches  here,  I  certainly  claim  it,   being  the 

first  who  discovered  and  recommended  them. 

Many  of  the  shrubs  are  now  in  bloom,  and  many  more  have  not 
yet  ripened  their  seed.  Therefore,  I  cannot  send  you  that  variety  I 
could  wish  ;  out  I  will  inake  it  my  business  during  my  residence  here 
to  send  you  some  by  every  opportunity,  should  it  be  pleasing  to  you. 
You  are  probably  surprised  I  have  not  given  you  some  account 
of  the  country,  ifec,  when  I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  addressing 
you  at  all.  For  this  I  l)eg  leave  to  refer  you  to  Capt.  Hamilton,  to 
whom  I  have  given  a  short  sketch  of  it,  together  with  my  opinion. 

*  Assistant  Surgeon. 

+  The  native  sarsajiarilla.     The  herb  is  a  common  article  of  trade  amongst  Sydney  herba- 
lists.— Maiden's  "Useful  Plants  of  Australia,"  p.  203. 

AN    officer's   ACCOrXT   OF    PORT    JACKSON.  221 

I  bad  forgot  to  say  that  the  red  gum  is  produced  by  two  very       1783 
difterent  sorts  of  trees,  and  that  the  yellow  gum  is  the  production     18 Nov. 
of  a  small  tree  of  the  palmette  kind,  the  seed  of  which  I  have  sent  Red  aiid 
to  you.      It  grows  on   a   stalk  from  6  to  12  feet  long,  and  very  yellow  gum. 
much  resembling  a  cane,  out  of  the  centre  of  the  top  of  the  tree, 
which  is  from  3  to  7  feet  high,  and  the  circumference  from  18  to 
24  inches;  the  external  surface  appears  as  if  burned,  but  upon 
examination  it  is  only  a  black  vein,  which,  if  powdered,  becomes 
of  a  red  colour.  1  am,  &c., 

r>.    CONSIDEN. 

Memo,  of  such  things  as  I  have  sent  to  you  and  Capt.  Hamilton 
by  the  Golden  Grove,  transport,  of  London,  Wm.  Sharp,  master: — • 

Eight  paroquets,  prepared  and  stuffed  ;  a  nameless  bird,  pre- 
pared and  stufied;  flying  squirrel,  prepared  and  stuffed ;  2  American 
beetles,  prepared  and  stuffed;  some  seeds,  all  in  one  box;  2  live 
paroquets,  in  a  cage  ;  2  live  opossums,  male  and  female ;  2  kan- 
garoo skrus,  stuffed ;  and  some  of  the  native  spears. 

Extract  from  a  letter  written  by  an  ofiBcer  of  the  marines,  dated 
Port  Jackson,  18th  November,  1788  (Banks  Papers).* 

Havixg  experienced  a  long  tho'  favourable  voyage  from  England, 
we  arrived  at  Botany  Bay  on  the  20th  of  January  last,  where  we 
expected  to  lay  a  foundation  for  a  colony,  but  I  am  sorry  to  say  Botany  Bay 
the  country  for  several  miles  round  the  bay  does  not  afford  a  spot  ^^isappoiiit- 
large  enough  for  a  cabbage  garden  fit  for  cultivation.      The  bay 
itself  is  beautiful  and  capacious,  but  open  to  the  south-east  winds 
which  prevail  there  at  a  certain  season.      It  is  surrounded  with 
rocks,  sandhills,  and  swamps,  all  which  are  covered  as  thick  as  you 
can  possibly  imagine  with  trees  and  underwood.     You  may  easily 
suppose  our  disappointment  was  great  in    having   our   sanguine 
hopes    so    soon    frustrated ;    however,    during    our    dilemma    his 
Excellency  the  Governor  explored  the  coast  to  the  northward,  and 
in  a  few  days  returned  with  the  pleasing  account  of  having  dis- 
covered the  finest  harbour  in  the  world,  viz.,  Port  Jackson,  so  Poit  Jack- 
named    by    Capt.   Cook.      On  the  following  morning  we  quitted  ®°"" 
Botany  Bay  wich  pleasure,  and  anchored  in  Sidney  Cove,  Port 
Jackson,  in  the  evening  of  the  same  day. 

Port  Jackson  is,  without  doubt,  the  finest  harbour  in  the  known  Thn  "finest 
world.      It  extends  from  15  to  20  miles  into  the  country,  forming  the  worW." 
beautiful  bays  and  coves  on  every  side,  with  deep  water  everywhere 
for  ships  of   any  burthen.      Sidney  Cove,  which    is  the  seat  of 
Government,  is  5  miles  within  the  entrance  of  the  harbor.     The 
country  all  round  the  harbor  is  similar  to  that  of  Botany  Bay, 
only  more  rocky,  some  few  spots  excepted,  which  may  admit  of 
cultivation  with  a  deal    of  labor.      The  soil  is  in  general  sandy,  Sandy  soil, 
and  no  fresh-water  river  or  spring  has  as  yet  been  discovered ;  some  water 

*  Sir  Joseph  Banks's  handwriting. 




18  Nov. 

and  nun. 



Trees  and 


The  natives. 

still,  fresli  water  is  found  in  many  places,  -which  is  only  the  over- 
flowing of  swamps,  consequently  can't  be  very  wholesome.  It  has 
on  our  arrival  here,  and  still  does  occasion,  many  complaints,  such 
as  dysentery  and  worms.  The  climate  is  tine  and  temperate,  and 
seems  to  be  considerably  influenced  by  the  moon,  as  we  have  a 
deal  of  thunder  and  lightning  at  every  change  of  that  planet, 
besides  torrents  of  rain.  The  lightning  has  done  some  damage  by 
killing  all  the  sheep  belonging  to  the  Lieut. -Govr.  and  others. 
"We  have  had  a  great  deal  of  rain  in  the  months  of  June,  July, 
and  part  of  August,  whicli  seem  to  constitute  the  rainy  season 

The  country,  as  far  as  we  know,  produces  few  quadrupeds.  The 
largest  is  the  kangaroo.  They  make  use  of  their  hind  legs  only 
in  jumping  or  escaping  from  their  enemies.  The  female  carries 
and  nurses  its  young  in  the  pouch  under  its  belly.  The  opossum 
is  next  in  size.  They  are  easily  tamed,  and  eat  anything.  There 
are  flying  squirrels,  a  spotted  animal  of  the  cat  kind,  but  larger- 
bodied,  extremely  destructive  to  fowls,  and  three  sorts  of  rats  ; 
the  kangaroo  rat,  whicli  partakes  of  that  animal ;  the  flying  rat, 
which,  by  the  assistance  of  its  bushy  tail,  flies  from  tree  to  tree, 
which  are  numerous  and  very  troublesome.  These  are  all  the 
quadrupeds  Ave  have  seen  here  yet,  except  the  native  dogs,  some 
of  which  are  large,  and  seem  to  be  of  the  fox  kind. 

The  birds  are  not  so  numerous  as  you  would  expect  in  a  wild 
country,  but  very  beautifull  in  general,  especialy  those  of  the 
parrot  tribe.  The  ostrich  is  here,  and  the  black  swan  ;  one  of  each 
has  been  killed,  and  several  seen  besides.  Many  other  birds,  large 
and  small,  which  I  can't  describe.  Twelve  miles  from  this  settle- 
ment I  have  shot  wild  ducks,  pigeons,  and  quails. 

The  country  produces  five  or  six  kinds  of  trees,  two  of  which  pro- 
duce the  same  sort  of  gum,  viz.,  a  red  astringent  gum  well  known 

oTow  to  an  amazing  size,  but  are 
The  only  tree  fit  for  building  or 
any  other  use  is  the  fir-tree,  and  even  that  is  bad.  There  are  here 
many  shrubs,  plants,  and  flowers  totally  unknown  in  Europe, 
some  of  which  have  been  used  medicinally  with  success  by  our 
surgeon,  Mr.  Considen,  particularly  the  yellow  gum,  as  a  substitute 
for  balsam  of  tolu. 

There  is  neither  ore  nor  mineral  as  yet  found,  except  iron, 
which  is  very  common,  and  a  small  portion  of  copper. 

The  natives  do  not  appear  numerous,  but  the  most  wretched  of 
the  human  race.  They  are  dressed  in  nature's  garb,  subsist 
cheifly  on  fish  and  roots  we  ai'e  unacquainted  with.  They  inhabit 
cheifly  the  cavities  of  rocks  and  trees  ;  their  miserable  huts,  which 
are  few,  are  constructed  of  the  bark  of  trees.  They  do  not  wish 
to  cultivate  our  acquaintance  or  friendship.  They  are  treacherous, 
for  they  have  murtherd  several  of  the  convicts  and  one  marine, 

in  England. 

scarce   worth  cutting  down. 

AN    officer's    account   OF    FORT   JACKSON.  223 

besides  wounding  many  more.      Indeed,  tliey  attack  every  person       1788 
they  meet  unarmed,  and  appear  civil  to  all  those  they  meet  armed,      is  Nov. 
This  is  what   induces    me  to  call  them  treacherous.     They  have 
spears  which  they  use  in  tishing  and  in  impaling  their  enemies, 
besides  stone  hatchets  and  chizels. 

The  kangaroo  is  a  very  timid  animal,  incredibly  strong  for  its  The 
size,  and  can  jump  faster  than  a  horse  can  run.      Its  flesh  is  not  kangaroo, 
bad  eating,  something  like  coarse  mutton. 

Having  given  you  a  sketch  of  the  country,  I  shall  leave  you  to 
form  your  own  opinion  of  it.  At  the  same  time  I  beg  to  give 
mine,  which  is,  that  it  will  never  answer  the  intentions  of  Govern- 
ment, for  two  reasons  :  first,  because  it  is  at  too  great  a  distance 
from  every  trading  country  ;  and  secondly,  it  will  never  make  any 
return  to  the  mother  country,  nor  can  it  support  itself  independent 
of  the  mother  country  these  twenty  years.  I  could  adduce  many 
other  reasons  besides  these. 

I  shall  now  say  a  few  words  about  the  internal  management  of 
affairs  in  this  country.  About  six  months  ago  only  it  was  for- 
tunately discovered  that  there  was  not  above  eight  months'  flour  in 
the  colony.  The  consequence  was  that  a  council  was  convened, 
and  the  vSirius  ordered  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  for  a  supply  of 
that  necessary  commodity  and  the  rations  lessened.  It  was  like-  scarcity 
wise  judged  necessary  by  his  Excellency  to  order  a  detachment  of  "^^^'^■ 
marines  and  convicts  to  a  place  about  14  miles  distant  to  cultivate 
the  land,  which  is  thought  by  those  who  pretend  to  understand  it 
to  be  better  soil  and  easier  of  cultivation  than  any  nearer  to  us. 
However  plausible  this  may  appear,  still  the  detachment  is  not  yet 
gone  (a  few  convicts  excepted),  and  the  season  so  far  advanced 
that  it  is  impossible  they  can  raise  grain  time  enough  to  prevent 
the  impending  danger  in  case  any  accident  should  happen  to  the 

An  elegant  bi-ick  house  is  built  for  the  Governor,  and  another 
of  hewn  stone  for  the  Lieut.-Govr.  A  hospital  was  began  on  our  i"ents.^^ 
arrival  here,  and  is  not  yet  half-flnished,  nor  flt  to  receive  an  object. 
Two  store-houses  were  bungled  up,  and  are  now  in  a  tottering 
condition.  Private  convenience  is  the  chief  study,  and  I  am  sorry 
to  add  that  neither  order,  mode,  nor  regularity  has  appeared  in  any 
department  in  this  colony.  About  four  months  since  every  gentle-  0^^"^°^ 
man  had  a  grant  of  two  acres  of  land,  and  a  labourer  to  clear  and 
cultivate  them.  I  can  assure  you  that  my  brother  ofticers  and 
myself  have  been  at  a  great  deal  of  trouble  and  expence  to  effect 
this,  and  now,  when  we  were  likely  to  reap  the  fruit  of  our  labour, 
the  men  are  taken  from  us  to  be  sent  with  the  detachment  above 
mentioned,  and  I  myself  am  ordered  on  the  same  service.  We  have 
been  here  between  nine  and  ten  months,  and  we  are  not  as  yet  all 
hutted.  You  will  hardly  believe  me  when  I  say  that  we  ourselves 
have  been  obliged  for  the  want  of  assistance  to  cut  thatch  and 




18  Nov. 

No  proper 

by  Sir 


3  Jan. 

wattles  for  our  hntts,  and  now  that  I  have  nearly  compleated  mine 
I  must  quit  it,  and  willingly  obey  orders.  I  have  lived  in  a 
marquee  since  I  arrived  here,  and  am  likely  to  continue  it  much 
longer.  We  have  labor'd  incessantly  since  we  arrived  here  to 
raise  all  sorts  of  vegetables,  and  even  at  this  distant  period  we 
can  barely  suj^ply  our  tables,  his  Excellency's  not  excepted.  This, 
together  with  the  miserable  state  of  the  natives  and  scarcity  of 
animals,  are  convincing  proofs  of  the  badness  of  the  country.  You 
will,  no  doubt,  have  a  flattering  public  account,  but  you  may  rely 
upon  what  I  have  advanced.  Every  gentleman  here,  two  or  three 
excepted,  concur  with  me  in  opinion,  and  sincerely  wish  that  the 
expedition  may  be  recalled." 

Note  hy  Sir  Joseph  Banks  : — N.B. — It  would  not  be  prudent  to 
rely  wholly  upon  what  this  gent  has  advanced,  especially  in  that  part 
of  his  letter  that  speaks  of  the  quantity  of  Hour  in  the  colony.  The 
public  return  of  provision,  dated  ISTov'r  16th,  1788,  is  as  follows  : — 

Months.  Months. 

Beef  and  pork  ...         20  Butter L3 

Flour  aud  rice  ...         IS  Pease  ...         ...         ...         16 

The  Sirius 



The  Cape 
Horn  route. 


Captain  Hunter  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sirius,  in  Table  Bay,  Cape  of  Good  Hope, 
Sir,  3rd  January,  1789. 

His  Excellency  M.  Van  de  Graave,*  Governor  of  this  settle- 
ment, having,  upon  my  arrival  here,  very  politely  offer'd  an  im- 
mediate conveyance  to  Europe  for  any  dispatches  I  might  have 
to  forward,  I  therefore  embrace  that  opportunity  of  informing 
my  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  that,  in  obedience  to 
an  order  from  his  Excellency  Arthur  Phillip,  Esq.,  Governor  of 
his  Majesty's  territory  of  New  South  Wales,  &c.,  <tc.,  a  copy  of 
which  I  send  enclosed,  together  with  the  state  and  condition  of  the 
ship,!  I  sailed  from  Port  Jackson  on  that  coast,  in  his  Majesty's 
ship  Sirius,  under  my  command,  on  the  2nd  day  of  October,  1788 ; 
but  Governor  Phillip  having  declined  to  direct  by  what  rout  I 
should  perform  the  voyage,  I  judged  that  at  that  season  of  the 
year  the  rout  to  the  eastward,  by  Caj^e  Horn,  promised  fairest 
for  an  expeditious  passage;  I  therefore  steered  for  the  South  Cape 
of  New  Zealand,  which  I  passed  on  the  12th,  and  made  the  coast 
of  Terra  del  Fuego  on  the  26th  November.  The  weather  off  Cape 
Horn,  altho'  the  summer  was  well  advanced,  was  so  exceedingly 
cold,  occasioned  by  the  vast  mountains  of  ice  which  we  daily  fell 
in  with,  that  the  sliip's  company,  who  had  been  upon  salt  pro- 
visions ever  since  we  left  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  outward  bound, 
and  without  any  kind  of  vegitable,  fell  down  very  fast  with  the 
scurvy.  I  arrived  in  this  bay  on  the  1st  January,  1789,  having 
buryed  three  seamen  on  the  passage. 

*  In  other  despatches  the  name  is  given  as  Von  Graaffe.      \  The  enclosures  are  not  recorded. 

THE    SlillUS    AT    TUE    CAPE.  225 

On  the  clay  I  sailed  from  Port  Jackson  the  ship  sprung  a  leak,       1789 
which  admitted  2  feet  4  inches  water  in  the  four  hours,  but  as      3  jan. 
before  my  arrival  here  we  had  discovered  it  to  be  about  two  or  ^  ^^~^ 
three  feet  below  the  wale,  starboard  side,  I  hope  to  be  able  to 
have  it  stoped  before  I  sail  on  my  return  to  the  coast  of  New 
South  Wales. 

I  transmit  by  this  opportunity  a  box  containing  dispatches 
from  Governor  Phillip,  directed  to  Lord  Sydney,  one  of  his 
Majesty's  Principal  Secretarys  of  State.  On  the  12th  of  July 
last  four  transports*  under  the  command  of  Lieutenant  Shortland  Transports, 
sailed  from  Port  Jackson  for  Europe.  They  took  tlieir  route  to 
the  northward,  and  might  possibly  have  called  at  Batavia.  They 
have  not  touched  here ;  I  therefore  imagine  they  may  have  passed 
on  to  St.  Helena  and  water'd  there  on  their  way  home. 

I  think  it  necessary,  in  case  Governor  Phillip's  dispatches  by 
the  above  transports  should  not  arrive  before  this  may  reach  the 
Admiralty,  to  mention  for  the  information  of  their  Lordships 
that  the  harbour  of  Port  Jackson,  which  is  about  4  leagues  to 
the  northward  of  Botany  Bay,  having  been  examined  and  found 
a  safe,  extensive,  and  commodious  harbour,  the  Governor  had 
fixed  the  seat  of  Government  there,  instead  of  Botany  Bay.  Its  Botany 
latitude  is  33"  50'  and  its  longitude  151°  25'  Et.  of  meridian  of  ^'''^'''■'*^'* 
Greenwich.  The  three  transports  chartered  by  the  East  India 
Company  for  Chinaf  were  discharged,  and  left  Port  Jackson  on 
the  6th  May  last ;  two  of  the  store-ships  remained  when  I  sailed, 
and  would  be  ready  to  sail  for  Europe  about  three  weeks  after 
my  departure. 

As  no  part  of  the  service  on  which  I  came  to  this  place  J  is  yet 
in  any  forwardness  I  cannot  give  their  Lordships  any  informa- 
tion upon  it,  but  will  leave  an  account  of  my  jjroceedings  to  be 
forwax-ded  fi'om  hence  after  my  departure,  if  no  opportunity 
should  offer  before  I  sail.  I  am,  &c., 

Jxo.  Hunter. 

Captain  Hunter  to  Secretary  Stephens. 

Sirius,  Table  Bay,  Cape  Good  Hope, 
Sir,  20th  January,  1789.  20Jan 

Upon  my  arrival  in  this  bay  an  opportunity  ofFer'd,  of 
which  I  availed  myself,  and  wrote  you  for  the  information  of  tlieir 
Lordships,  signifying  the  service  I  came  here  upon,  and  enclosing 
a  copy  of  my  orders  from  his  Excellency  Arthur  Phillip,  Esq.  In 
that  letter,  which  was  dated  the  3rd  instant,  and  goes  by  way  of 
Holland,  I  mentioned  that  four  of  the  transports  which  carried 
out  the  convicts  to  the  coast  of  New  South  AVales  had  sailed  fi-om 
Port  Jackson  in  the  middle  of  July  last,  under  the  command  of  pons.™'"* 

*  Alexander,  Prince  of  Wales,  Friendship,  and  Borrowdale.      Post,  p.  2-'6. 

t  Scarboroiigli,  Charlotte,  and  Lady  Penrhyn. 

J  Hunter  was  sent  to  the  Cape  for  supplies.    Aute,  p.  188. 



20  Jan. 

Ships  in 


A  transport 

The  sick 

Plan  of  Port 


Lieut.  Shortland,  the  agent  of  transports,  but  that  they  had  not 
touched  here  on  their  way  home.  Having  since  the  date  of  the 
above  letter  received  some  accounts  of  those  ships,  I  judged  it 
necessary  to  trouble  their  Lordships  with  such  information  as  I 
had  collected,  and  which  has  been  so  particularly  told  me  that  I 
have  not  the  smallest  doubt  of  its  authenticity.  A  Dutch  East 
India  ship  arrived  here  lately  from  Rio  de  Janeiro,  the  officers  of 
which  inform'd  me  that  two  ships  arrived  there  seperately  from 
the  east  coast  of  New  Holland  in  so  very  distressed  a  condition  by 
sickness  and  the  death  of  many  of  their  seamen  that  it  became 
necessary  for  the  boats  which  boarded  them  to  stay  and  bring 
their  ships  to  an  anchor  and  to  hand  their  sails.  Those  two  ships, 
from  the  very  particular  description  given  of  them,  are,  no  doubt, 
the  Prince  of  Wales  and  Borrowdale. 

A  Dutch  frigate  arrived  here  yesterday  from  Batavia,  by  the 
officers  of  which  T  am  informed  that  Lieutenant  8hortland  had 
arrived  at  that  port  in  the  end  of  November,  also  in  very  great 
distress  by  sickness  ;  that  out  of  the  two  ships  which  were  together 
(Alexander  and  Friendship)  they  had  lost  so  many  of  their  people 
that  it  became  necessary  to  destroy  one  ship  to  man  the  other  ;  the 
crews  of  Vjoth  were  put  on  board  the  Alexander  and  the  Friendship 
was  sunk  ;  and  that  the  Alexander,  when  she  came  into  the  road 
of  Batavia,  was  so  sickly  as  to  require  the  assistance  of  other 
ships  to  hand  their  sails  and  secure  the  ship,  but  when  this  frigate 
sailed  (13th  Decemr.)  their  sick  were  recovering  fast,  and  the 
Alexander  had  been,  by  the  assistance  given  them  from  other 
ships,  re-fitted  and  put  in  a  state  for  sea,  so  that  I  think  it 
probable  Lieutenant  Shortland  may  arrive  here  before  I  sail  on 
ray  return  to  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales. 

As  Mr.  Shortland  is  charged  with  Governor  Phillip's  dispatches, 
duplicates  of  which  I  think  were  on  board  the  Friendship,  with 
which  are  several  copys  of  the  plan  of  Port  Jackson,  it  is  not 
probable  that  their  Lordships  can  be  in  possession  of  any  sketch 
of  that  harbour  until  his  arrival.  I  have,  therefore,  reduced  the 
original  scale  upon  which  the  harbour  was  done  for  the  convenience 
of  the  present  conveyance,  and  send  by  this  opportunity  a  copy  of  it. 

I  shall  not  be  able  to  get  the  service  upon  which  I  came  here  so 
soon  executed  as  I  at  first  expected,  chiefly  for  want  of  boats. 
Governor  Phillip  having  found  it  necessary  to  keep  the  Sirius's 
long-boat  and  a  smaller  boat  for  the  use  of  the  settlement,  which 
reduced  ovir  number  to  two  six-oar'd  cutters,  and  there  is  much 
difficixlty  in  getting  craft  to  hire,  owing  to  the  great  number  of 
ships  in  the  bay  at  this  time.  I  am,  tfec, 

Jno.  Hunter. 

P.S. — This  letter  and  the  sketch  of  Port  Jackson  I  put  under 
the  care  of  Lieut.  Chevalier,  of  his  Maj.'s  15th  Hanoverian  Regt., 
who  has  promised  to  deliver  them  at  the  Admiralty  Office  himself. 

TTIE    SIRirS    AT    THE    CAPE.  227 

Captain  Hunter  to  Secretary  Stephens.  I'SQ 

Sirius,  Table  Bay,  Cape  Good  Hope,  is  Feb. 

Sir,  18th  February,  1789. 

I  beg  you  will  ])e  pleased  to  inform  their  Lordships  [the 
Lords  of  the  Admiralty]  that,  having  compleated  the  victualling 
of  his  Majesty's  ship  under  my  command  to  twelve  months,  and 
taken  on  board  :\n  additional  quantity  of  flour  for  the  use  of  his 
Majesty's  settlement  on  the  coast  of  New  South  Wales,  I  shall 
immediately  proceed  on  my  return  to  that  coast. 

On  the  20th  ult'o  I  took  the  opportunity  of  an  oflicer  in  his 
Majesty's  service  I'eturning  from  the  East  Indies  to  England  to 
write  you  a  few  lines  for  the  information  of  their  Lordships,  in 
which  I  mention'd  certain  accounts  Avhich  I  had  received  from  a 
Dutcli  frigate  from  Batavia,  resj^ecting  two  of  the  transports  Tlie  trans- 
which  left  Port  Jackson  in  July  last  under  the  command  of  P'''^^ 
Lieutenant  Shorthand,  the  agent,  who  arrived  here  last  night  in 
the  Alexander,  transport,  and  confirms  the  intelligence  I  gave 
their  Lordships  in  that  letter,  and  by  whom  I^ shall  forward  this 
to  England. 

I  have  been  so  fortunate  as  to  stop  in  a  great  degree  the  leak,  The  Sinus 
which  I  mentioned  in  a  former  letter  the  ship  had  sprung  on  the 
day  I  left  Port  Jackson,  but  as  I  imagine  we  shall  be  subject  to 
such  accidents  frequently  from  the  apparent  cause  of  the  last  leak 
(holes  left  by  the  decay  of  a  bolt  and  some  large  spikes  which 
fasten'd  on  the  skirting  board  under  the  wales)  which  gave  way 
by  the  working  of  the  ship,  I  shall  request  permission  from 
Captain  Phillip  on  my  arrival  at  Port  Jackson  to  lighten  and  To  be 
examine  the  ship  as  far  as  I  can  below  the  water,  for  I  find  by 
the  v.-arrant  ofiicers,  who  have  been  many  years  in  the  Sirius,  that 
the  copper  has  not  been  taken  off  her  bottom  since  she  was  first 
employed  as  an  arnid  store-ship,*  which  is  now  between  eiglit  and 
nine  years. 

I  have  been  able  since  my  arrival  in  this  bay,  as  will  appear  by  Recmiiii-.g. 
the  state  and  condition  of  the  ship  enclosed,   to  compleat  the 
slap's  company  Avith  British  subjects,  who,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  are 
in  great  numbers   here,  almost   every  foreign   ship  which  arrives 
liaving  some  on  l)oar(l.      The  Supply,  arm'd  tender,  being  short  of 
complement  when    I    sailed,   I  have   taken  on   board  a  certain 
number  to  compleat  her ;  but  I  must  beg  leave   to  trouble  their 
Lordships  with  an  account  of  certain  difficulties  which  attend  the 
management  of  this  business  by  taking  his  Majesty's  subjects  English 
out  of  foreign  sliips  here,  wliere  there  is  no  consul  to   settle  such  f°,^f'"re"„n 
matters.      In  conse(juence  of  a  letter  I  received  from  a  number  of  siiips. 
English  seamen  serving  in  a  Dutch   East  India  shij^,  requesting 
that  they  might  be  taken  under  the  protection  of  his  Majesty's 
flag,  I  made  application  to  the  Governor  for  the  men.     After  some 

'  She  was  then  called  the  Berwi'k.    Ante,  p.  24. 




1'''89  time  and  farther  application  from  me,  the  men  were  sent  to 
18  Feb.  prison  and  treated  rather  harshly,  at  which  I  expressed  my 
surprise,  and  sent  an  officer  to  demand  their  release.  The  men 
were  liberated  and  brought  on  board,  but  as  they  had  wages  due 
to  a  considerable  amount,  I  also  made  application  for  that,  but 
was  told  it  could  not  be  paid.  How  far  it  is  recoverable  I  confess 
myself  ignorant,  for  they  have  not  given  security  to  the  people. 
This  difficulty  in  recovering  wages  will,  when  generally  known 
amongst  seamen,  be  a  means  probably  of  disposing  them  rather 
to  remain  in  the  foreign  ships  than  to  offer  themselves  to  his 
Majesty's  with  the  certainty  of  loosing  all  the  pay  which  may  be 
due  to  them  ;  and  altho'  the  commanders  of  King's  ships  can 
demand  British  subjects  from  a  foreign  service,  yet  when  it  is 
against  the  consent  of  the  men  themselves,  they  fly  to  tlie 
Subterfuge,  subterfuge  of  calling  themselves  Americans,  which  I  find  is  very 
common,  and  it  is  very  difficult  to  detect  such  an  imposition. 

I  am,  <kc., 
Jxo.  Hunter. 

Governor  Phillip  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 

20  Feb. 



Major  Ross 
and  the 

Sydney  Cove,  February  20th,  1789. 
The  present  situation  of  this   colony  renders  it  necessary 
to  state  the  following  pai'ticulars,  and  which  you  will  please  to 
communicate  to  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Lord  Sydney. 

When  on  the  death  of  Captain  Shea,  who  died  the  2nd  of  Feb., 
1789,  Major  Ross,  as  commandant  of  the  detachment,  came  to 
inform  me  of  that  event,  I  observed  to  him  that  First  Lieut. 
George  Johnston,  then  doing  duty  as  my  Adjutant  of  Orders 
(and  who  was  then  present),  would  of  course  succeed  to  the  capt.- 
lieutcy.  whicli  then  became  vacant,  as  being  the  oldest  first 
lieutenant  in  the  detachment,  and  that  I  should  in  future  do  with- 
out an  adjutant,  as  there  were  so  few  officers.  No  direct  answer 
was  given  by  Major  Ross,  who  left  me,  and  sending  for  the 
Judge- Advocate  offered  him  the  company  vacant  by  the  death 
of  Capt.  Shea,  telling  him  he  was  directed  so  to  do  by  Lord 
Howe,  and  that  if  he  accepted  the  comy.  he  was  to  give  up  the 
appointment  of  Judge- Advocate  to  the  detachment.  This  offer 
being  declined,  any  interference  on  my  part  was  unnecessary  ; 
but  as  a  circumstance  of  this  kind  may  happen  in  future,  I  beg 
leave  to  observe  that  if  the  Judge- Advocate  had  accepted  of  the 
company  he  must  have  given  up  the  appointment  of  Judge- 
Advocate  to  the  settlement,  for  he  could  not  possibly  have 
attended  to  that  chai-ge,  siipposing  he  had  always  remain'd  at 
head-quarters,  but  which  could  not  have  been  the  case,  for  the 
captains  relieve  each  other  every  three  months  at  Rose  Hill  ; 
therefore,  if  officers  who  may  be  sent  out  in  civil  employs  are  at 
liberty  to  resign  the  place  they  hold  when  any  vacancy  happens 

SJR    JOSEPH    BANKS.  229 

in  the  detachment,  the  colony,  in  its  present  situation,  may  lose  an       1789 
otticer  who  is  immediately  necessary,  and  who,  as  in  the  present      20  Feb. 
instance,    cannot   be   replaced ;    nor  is  there  any  officer  in  this 
settlement  so  absolutely  necessary  as  the  Judge- Advocate,   who 
likewise  acts  as  a  Justice  of  Peace,   and  which  employs  a  very 
considerable  part  of  his  tune. 

When  this  circumstance  is  laid  before  Lord  Sydney,   I  doubt  The  civu 
not  but  his  Lordship  will  see  that  the  civil  Government  of  this  vursu"tife" 
colony  may  be  very  materially  atlected  by  directions  of  such   a  military. 
nature  being  given  to  the  commandant  of  the  detachment,  and  by 
him  carried  into  execution  without  the  knowledge  or  consent  of 
the  Governor,  and  which  I  presume  never  was  intended  by  Lord 
Howe.      The  tirst  information  I  received  of  any  such  offer  being 
intended  was  from  the  Judge- Advocate's  saying  that  he  would 
not  accept  the  offer. 

I  was  the  next  day  told  by  Major  Ross  that  he  intended  to  The  Go- 
give  commissions  to  the  officers  he  promoted  in  consequence  of  MajoTRoss. 
Captn.  Shea's  death,  and  some  days  afterwards  he  came  to  ask  me 
if  his  giving  his  son  a  commission  as  a  second  lieutenant  would 
meet  with  my  approbation.  As  Major  Ross  had  not  even  at  that 
time  mentioned  his  having  offer'd  the  company  to  the  Judge- 
Advocate,  or  made  any  reference  to  me  respecting  the  filling  up 
the  vacancys,  I  desired  he  would  excuse  me  from  giving  any 
approbation  to  that  appointment  in  particular. 

Captain  Lieut.  Meredith  as  succeeding  to  the  vacant  company,  New- 
First  Lieut.  Geo.  Johnston  succeeding  him  as  capt. -lieutenant. 
Second  Lieut.  R.  Clark  succeeding  to  the  first  lieutcy.,  and 
A.  J.  Ross  (who  appears  in  the  returns  as  a  volunteer  doing  duty 
without  pay)  as  being  appointed  a  second  lieutenant  in  the 
detachment,  were  afterwards  presented  to  me  as  such  by  their 
commandant.  I  have,  &c., 

A.  Phillip. 

Memorandum  by  Sir  Joseph  Banks  (Banks  Papers). 
The  following  memorandum,  written  upon  a  small  piece  of  paper, 
has  been  found  in  the  Brabourne  Collection.    The  handwriting 
is  that  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks  : — 

Feb.  1789. 
I   could  not  take  office  and  do  my  duty  to .  the   colony.      My  gjr  Joseph 
successor  would  naturally  oppose  my  wishes.      I  prefer,  therefore,  ^^g^^^^^g 
to  be  friendly  with  both  sides. 


Sir  Joseph  Banks  to  Under  Secretary  Nepkan. 
Sir,  London,  27th  April,  1789.  27Ap.-U. 

Concluding  that  it  will  be  thought  a  desirable  Ol)ject  to 
bring  home  for  His  Majestie's  botaiuc  garden  at  Kew  some  of 
the  many  beautifull  and  usefull  Plants  with  which  the  Country 




27  April. 




29  April. 

for  Port 

Ship  to  be 
fitted  out. 

Wine  and 
live  stock  to 
)ye  boujrht. 

to  be  sent. 

in  the  neighborhood  of  Jackson's  Bay  is  known  to  abound,  1 
beg  leave  to  suggest  to  you,  sir,  that  if  the  tafterell  of  the  ship 
Guardian  be  fitted  for  the  reception  of  Pots,  in  the  same  manner 
as  was  done  in  the  case  of  the  bounty,  and  one  Line  along  the 
sides  of  the  Great  Cabbin,  she  will  be  able,  without  any  incon- 
venience to  the  officers,  to  bring  home  a  great  number. 

If  this  plan  is  approv'd,*  I  shall  be  happy  to  pay  all  the  atten- 
tion in  my  power  to  the  Execution  of  it,  which,  as  the  Bounty  has 
been  so  lately  fitted,  cannot  be  a  matter  of  the  least  difficulty. 

I  have,  &c., 
—  Jos.  Banks. 

Lord  Sydney  to  The  Lords  of  The  Admiralty. 

My  Lords,  Whitehall,  29th  April,  1789. 

The  letters  which  have  been  received  from  Captain  Phillip, 
Governor  of  New  South  Wales,  representing  that  a  great  part  of 
the  provisions  sent  out  with  him  to  the  settlement  lately  madi' 
upon  that  coast  had  been  expended,  and  that  there  is  an  imme- 
diate occasion  for  a  further  supply,  together  with  certain  articles 
of  clothing,  tools,  and  implements  for  agriculture,  medicines,  (tc, 
for  the  use  of  the  convicts  now  at  that  place,  his  Majesty  has 
given  orders  that  one  of  his  ships  of  war  of  tw(^)  decks,  with  only 
her  upper  tier  of  guns,  shall  forthAvith  be  got  ready  to  carry  out 
the  said  provisions  and  stores.! 

I  inclose  to  your  Lordships  hereA\'ith  estimates  Nos.  1,  2,  3,  4, 
and  5 1  of  the  several  articles  which  are  supposed  to  be  indis- 
pensably necessary  on  the  present  occasion  ;  and  I  am  commanded 
to  signify  to  your  Lordships  his  Majesty's  pleasure  that  you  do 
give  orders  that  the  same  may  be  provided  and  he  pvit  on  board 
of  such  ships  as  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Admiralty  may 
appoint  for  the  execution  of  that  service. 

I  am  also  to  acquaint  your  Lordships  that  the  Lords  Commis- 
sioners of  the  Admiralty  have  been  directed  to  instruct  the  officer 
commanding  the  above-mentioned  ship  to  call  at  Teneriffe,  and 
purchase  twenty  pipes  of  wine,  and  also,  in  case  he  should  touch 
at  Rio  de  Janeiro  or  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  to  take  on  board  as 
many  black  cattle  or  other  live  stock  as  he  can  conveniently 
accommodate,  for  the  amount  of  which  he  is  directed  to  draw  bills 
upon  your  Lordships,  which  bills  it  is  his  Majesty's  pleasure  you 
do  discharge  whenever  they  appear,  provided  they  are  accom- 
panied by  proper  vouchers  and  certificates  that  the  articles  pur- 
chased shall  have  been  obtained  upon  moderate  terms. 

As  there  are  at  present  but  very  few  artificers  and  famiers 
amongst  the  convicts  now  in  New  South  Wales,  his  Majesty  has 
thought  it  adviseable  that  twenty-five  of  those  confined  in  the 

*  The  proposal  was  carried  out  in  a  modified  form.     Post,  p]i.  247-249. 

t  The  Guardian  was  chosen,  and  placed  under  the  commanil  of  Lieutenant  Riou. 

I  These  enclosures  are  not  recorded. 


hulks  in  the  river  wlio  ure  likely  to  be  the  most  useful  should  be  1789 
sent  out  in  the  ship  inteiuled  to  convey  the  pr<jvisions  and  stores,  29  April, 
and  that  about  eight  or  ten  persons  should  also  be  engaged  and 
take  their  passage  in  the  said  shiji,  to  be  emj)loyed  as  ovei'seeis  of 
the  convicts.  These  measures,  I  must  inform  your  Lordshi])s, 
have  been  strongly  recommended  by  Captain  Philli]!,  particularly 
the  latter,  from  his  having  found  by  experience  that  the  c(jnvicts 
placed  as  overseers  have  not  been  able  to  enforce  their  orders  and 
carry  that  connnand  which  persons  in  a  different  situation  would 
be  likely  to  do.  His  Majesty  has,  therefore,  directed  me  to 
endeavour  to  engage  the  above-mentioned  number  of  overseers,  overseers, 
and  to  desire  that  your  Lordships  will  make  provision  for  their 
Scxlaries  (which  will  not  exceed  forty  pounds  per  annum  each),  as 
well  as  for  reimbursing  the  Naval  Department  for  the  expences 
of  their  victualling,  and  that  of  the  twenty-five  convicts  before 
mentioned,  during  their  passage  out. 

I  understand  from  Mr.  Richards,  the  contractor  for  the  con- 
victs on  board  the  Lady  Juliana,  that  after  the  supplies  necessary 
for  the  voyage  are  put  on  board  there  will  still  be  room  for  any 
article  of  provisions  or  stores  which  may  he  wanting  in  New 
South  Wales.      His  Majesty  has,   therefore,    commanded    me  to 
signify  to  your  Lordships  his  farther  pleasure  that  you  do  order 
a  proportion  of  clothing,  tools,  instruments,  medicines,  ifcc,  equal  Clothing-, 
to  one-fourth  of  the  quantity  proposed  to  be  sent  out  in  the  ship  instmments, 
of  war  to  be  put  on  board  the  Lady  Juliana,  and,  in  addition  medicines, 
thereto,  as  many  provisions  as  she  can  conveniently  stow.      The 
Lady  Juliana,  in  case  she  should  touch  at  Rio  de  Janeiro  or  the 
Cape,  ought  also  to  take  on  board  any  live  stock  which  can  with-  ^^.g  g^^^.^^ 
out    inconvenience    he    accommodated    for    the    supply   of    the 
settlement.      It  will,  tlierefore,  be  necessary  that  your  Lordshijis 
should  cause  the  superintendent  or  the  master  of  that  ship  to  be 
furnished  with  j) roper  instructions  in  that  respect  previously  to 
her  sailing,  which  I  hope  and  expect  will  shortly  take  place. 

I  am,  ttc, 


P.S. — I  inclose  to  your  Lordships  an  account  of  the  several 
articles  which  Governor  Phillip  informs  me  he  has  authorized 
Ca2)tain  Hunter  to  purchase  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  wliicli  of  purchases  ai 
course  will  occasion  a  reduction  of  the  supplies  (particularly  of  ^'^o  Cape, 
the  surgeon's  necessaries)  to  be  sent  out  from  hence  in  the  ship 
now  under  dispatch.  

Secretary  Stephens  to  the  Under  Secretary  of  The 

Sir,  _  Admiralty,  12th  May,  1789.  ^'^^'^y- 

Having  communicated  to  my  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty 
your  letter  of  the  27th  ulto.,  signifying  the  desire  of  the  Board  of 


1789       Treasury  that  their  Lordships  would  recommend  a  lieutenant  of 

12  May.     the  Navy  proper  to  proceed  as  a  superintendant  on  board  the  Lady 

SupeTinten-  Juliana,    transport,    going  with   convicts   to   New    South  Wales, 

dent.  under  such  regulations  as  it  may  be  thought  expedient  to  adopt, 

I  am   commanded  by  their  Lordships   to   recommend   Lt.  Saml. 

Edwd.  Marshall  as  a  proper  person  for  such  employment. 

I  am.  Arc, 

Opinion  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks.  (Banks  Papers.) 

14  May.  May  14,  1789. 

As  the  scurvy  with  which  the  settlers  in  New  South  Wales  were 
afflicted  during  the  first  winter  of  their  residence  there  disappeared 
entirely  on  the  first  approach  of  the  spring,  as  their  supply  of 
culinary  vegetables  must  be  on  the  increase,  and  they  must  by 
Remedy  for  degrees  learn  more  and  more  the  use  of  those  which  are  found 
scurvy.  -virild  in  the  country,  and  as  the  later  returns  do  not  mention  the 
scurvy  as  a  disease  with  which  they  are  at  all  afflicted,  I  am  of 
opinion  that  it  will  be  useless  to  send  out  essence  of  malt  to  them 
as  a  medicine.* 

Sir  George  Yonge  to  The  Treasury. 
20May.  gi^^  "^.0.,  20th  May,  1789. 

The  King,  intending  that  the  detachment  now  serving  in 
New  South  Wales  should  be  relieved  and  brought  to  England, 
has  thought  it  advisable,  instead  of  replacing  them  with  another 

New  South ^  detachment  from  that  corps,  that  a  corps  of  infantry  should  be 
forthwith  raised  for  that  particular  service,  to  consist  of  four 
comp's,  each  of  1  capt.,  1  I't,  1  ensign,  3  serg'ts,  3  corp'ls,  2  drum- 
m'rs,  and  67  private  men,  with  the  usual  stafi'  ofF'rs ;  and  to  be 

A  major       commanded  by   a   major  having  a  comp'y.      I  am  to  acq't  3'ou 

mamiant.  therewith  for  the  information  of  the  Lords  Com'i-s  of  H.M.'s 
Treasury,  and  that  it  is  H.M.'s  P.  [pleasure]  that  the  said  corps 
should  be  placed  upon  the  establishment  from  the  24th  inst. 

Charges.  I  enclose  for  their  L'd'ps'  information  an  estimate  of  the  charge 

for  the  said  corps  for  365  days,  as  also  a  state  of  the  subsistence 
p.  d'm. 

Recruitinff-  H.M.  is  also  pleased  to  direct  that  the  major  and  capt'ns  shall 
each  raise  their  own  comp's,  receiving  for  each  approved  recruit 
the  sum  of  three  guineas,  by  which  arrangement  the  charge  of 
raising  300  men  (including  the  serg'ts,  corp'ls,  and  drum'rs)  will 
amount  to  £945.  I  am,  tkc, 

Geo.  Yonge. 

*  In  Sir  Joseph  Banks's  handwriting,  and  endorsed  by  him  :— "  Opinion  given  Maj'  13,  on 
the  subject  of  sending  essence  of  malt  to  Jackson's  Cove." 









Estimate  of  the  charge  of  a  corps 

of  foot 

consisting  < 

Df  four 

20  Slay. 

companies,  for  service  in  Ki 

e\v  South  Wales 

)  .~~~ 


Estimate  of 





1  major  conimandant  and  captain 

. .  • 

...     293 



3  captains — £171  7s.  Id. 

...     514 



4  lieutenants— £79  19s.  -td.      ... 

...     319 



4  ensigns— £62  16s.  7id. 

...     251 



1  chaplain 

...     114 



1  adjutant 

...       68 



1  quartenuaster... 

...       79 



1  surgeon 

...       68 



1  surgeon's  mate 

...       59 



12  Serjeants — £18  5s. 

...     219 



12  corporals— £12  3s.  4d. 

...     146 



8  drummers — £12  3s.  4d. 

...       97 



268  privates— £9  2s.  6d 








...     800 




...       87 



4  captains — each  £47  7s.  6d.    ... 




Allowances  to  paymaster 














"W.  Raleigh"*  to  Under  Secretary  Nepean. 
Sir,  Edinburgh,  May  23rd,  1789.  ^SMaj. 

It  is  much  to  the  credit  of  those  in  office  that  an  empire  has  a  new 
been  founded  in  the  south,  which  time  will  render  much  superior  ''"^p'''^- 
to  that  which  their  predecessors  have  lost  in  the  west.     It  is  the 
duty  of  every  good  citizen  to  give  the  new  colony  every  assistance 
his  pen  or  his  purse  can  afford.      The  following  suggestions  have 
flowed  from  the  best  motives,  and  I  hope  they  will  be  received  Suggestions. 
■with  candour.     In  looking  back  to  the  tottering  foundation  of  the 
colonies  of  Virginia  and  New  England,  I  find  the  first  settlers 
were  much  more  unfortunate  than  the  founders  of  the  present 
settlement  in  New  Holland.     Indeed,  the  latter  have  been  in  every 
respect  successful,  a  few  attempts  in  husbandry  excepted.     To  give 
the  colony  immediate  consistency,  it  is  humbly  recommended  that 
the  following  mode  of  culture  be  adopted. 

That  the  land  as  soon  as  cleared  be  prepared  for  sowing  ;  that  Directions 
oats  or  barley  be  sown  in  September  or  October  ;  that  wheat  be  tlon. 
never  attempted  except  in  the  very  best  land  ;  the  second  year 
the  land  be  laid  down  in  a  green  crop,  consisting  of  field-pease 
or  turnips ;  l)oth  these  will  ameliorate  the  soil,  while  the  former 
will  be  found  an  excellent  succedaneum  for  hay,  and  the  latter 

*  This  letter,  as  the  last  paraffrapli  shows,  is  anonymous.  "  W.  Raleigh"  |?  Walter 
Raleigh]  is  a  nom  de  plume.  The  writer  (>ronii><cd  to  send  further  communications,  but 
nothing  more  on  the  subject  has  been  found  in  the  Records. 


23  May. 




An  inland 

and  hemp. 


Cheap  live 


afiord  good  pasture  for  sheep  and  black  cattle.  Sheep  will  never 
fail  where  the  turnip  is  cultivated,  and  it  cannot  be  cultivated 
with  gi'eater  success  than  in  Xew  Holland.  The  third  year 
it  is  proposed  that  it  should  be  sown  again,  with  barley  or 
bean,  and  laid  down  in  clover,  rye  grass,  lucerne,  or  any  other 
European  grass.  The  land  in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Jackson  would 
in  this  manner  afford  sufficient  pasture  in  a  short  time  for  any 
live  stock  it  might  be  supplied  with,  while  the  turnips,  the 
peas,  and  the  other  intermediate  steps  of  the  proposed  mode  of 
culture  would  afford  present  security.  The  grass  in  an  uncleared 
country  we  cannot  expect  to  give  proper  nourishment  to  sheep 
or  cattle.  When  C*sar  landed  in  Britain  he  would  have  found 
the  country  execrable  for  farming  had  he  made  the  experament. 
It  may  be  proper  to  observe,  however,  that  'till  better  grass  can 
be  procured,  by  frequent  cuttings  with  the  scythe,  that  the 
natural  grass  may  be  much  improved  and  thickened  where  the 
ground  will  admit  of  it.  To  prepare  the  best  land  for  wheat,  it 
should  be  ploughed  frequently  (for  the  plough  must  not  be  excluded 
from  New  South  Wales,  if  provisions  for  the  colony  be  expected 
to  grow  there),  manured  with  the  algamarina  or  sea  weed  for  a 
whole  summer,  and  sown  with  wheat  in  March. 

Dampier  mentions  several  heaths  in  New  Holland  ;  if  they  can 
be  discovered  they'll  afford  good  present  feeding  for  sheep ;  if 
they  cannot,  perhaps  a  detachment  settled  at  the  foot  of  the 
hills,  about  sixty  miles  inland  from  Port  Jackson,  might  be 
benilicially  employed  in  rearing  and  feeding  sheep,  while  the 
situation  might  lead  to  discoveries  of  moi'e  value  than  we  are 
aware  of.  At  that  distant  situation  from  the  shore  they  would 
not  be  molested  by  the  natives,  who,  living  on  fish,  range  chiefly 
along  the  coast.  The  cattle  should  be  guarded  from  straying  by 
fences  of  good  strong  paling,  and  the  sheep  on  all  occasions  well 
herded.  The  seeds  of  all  the  kinds  of  European  grass  might  be 
sent  with  the  next  sailing  fleet,  and  no  article  can  be  of  greater 
use.  Flax  seed  and  hemp  seed  might  be  also  sent,  and  might  in 
time  clothe  and  employ  the  new  settlers. 

Perhaps  it  might  not  be  amiss  to  engage  two  or  three  young  men 
for  a  few  years,  and  send  them,  if  found  well  versed  in  the  secret  of 
agi'iculture,  to  direct  or  superintend  the  rural  labours  of  the  colony, 
to  husband  the  land,  and  improve  their  stock.  Their  stock  might 
be  much  better  increased  from  Lima  and  other  ports  on  the  western 
coast  of  South  America  than  from  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  It 
might  be  had  cheaper  from  the  Spaniards,  and  if  permission  be 
obtained  from  them  to  pay  in  European  goods  for  as  much  live  stock 
as  would  supply  the  new  colony  the  saving  would  be  immense. 
The  distance  is  not  much  greater,  and  it  is  much  better  sailing 
in  the  Pacific  Ocean  than  in  the  tempestuous  clunate  of  the  Cape. 
Strict  orders  should  be  given,  however,  not  to  attempt  carrying 



SUGGESTIONS    FROM    "  W.    R.VLEIGH."  235 

any  women  to  Botany  Bay  from  islands  in  the  South  Sea  ;  it  would       1789 
be  inevitiibly  attended  with  the  most  pernicious  consequences.  23  May. 

To  guard  the  settlement  eliectually  against  the   ferocious  in-  ij^f^^ 
cui-sions  of  the  natives,  the  following  remedy  is  humbly  recom-  against 
mended  :    That  a  regiment   consisting  of  six   hundred   men   be 
immediately  transported  thither;  that  two  hundred  of  them  be 
stati(-)ned  at  Botany  Bay,   two  hundred  at  Cape  Banks  or  any 
other  convenient  station  to  the  northward,  and  a  third  division 
of  ecjual  force  be  posted  on  some  favourable  spot  at  the  distance 
of  fifteen  miles  inland,  dii-ectly  westward  of  Port  Jackson.     This 
would  leave  a  wide  field  for  the  enterprise  and  industry  of  the 
colonists,  consisting  of  an  area  of  almost    twenty  miles  square,  Adeai-fieW. 
where    they    might    pursue    their     labours    in    perfect    serenity, 
without  being  harrassed  by  their  own  fears  or  by  the  insidious 
attempts  of  their  ferocious  neighbours.      To  add  to  the  civilized 
population  of  the  country,  as  well  as  to  the  happiness  and  comfort 
of  the  troops,  every  soldier  should  be  allowed  and  even  encouraged  soidieis' 
to  take  with  him  his  wdfe  and  family.     By  the  best  disciplined  f^^'^i^'es- 
forces  the  lines  are  never  so  well  manned  when  they  have  nothing 
at  stake  which  they  hold  dear  to  them. 

.Safe  in  their  cares  th'  auxiliar  forces  sleep, 
\\'hose  wives  and  infants,  from  tlie  dangers  far, 
Discharge  their  souls  of  half  the  care  of  war. 

The  troops  should  not  be  relieved  in  less  than  seven  years.     In  a  seven 
that  time  a  considerable  saving  might  be  made  in  clothing,  &c.,  ^'' 
iiearly  ecjual  to  the  expence  of  transportation.      A  canvass  frock 
and  blackstock  would  form  the  best  uniform  for  the  climate,  and 
a  part  of  this  by  proper  management  they  and  their  wives  might 
manufacture.     I  need  not  eidarge  on  the  benefit  of  stationing  a 
large  body  of  troops  in  New  South  Wales.    Should  any  disturbance  a  strong 
(which  God  forbid)  happen  in  the  East  Indies,  they  might  be  trans-  S''i'"'"'*°"- 
ported  thither  before  our  enemies  in  Europe  knew  anything  of  the 
matter:  but  reinforcements  fi-om  Europe  are  of  little  avail,  their 
immber  becomes  known  to  our  rivals,  and  they  despatch  troo])s 
equal  or  superior  in  number  to  them.   New  Holland  is  a  good  blind, 
then,  when  we  want  to  add  to  the  military  strength  of  India. 

These  are  the  first  effusions  of  a  series  of  economical  remarks  a  modest 
on  the  subject  which  you  will  receive  in  time.     I  have  taken  this  ''"^^'''*'^''- 
method  because  I  wish  to  be  unknown.     I  have  no  motive  but 
the  public  good.     No  person,   not  even  yourself,  shall  ever  know 
whence  this  proceeds,  and  I  give  my  honor  not  a  hint  of  it  shall 
ever  transpire.  I  am,  &c., 

W.  Raleigh. 

Six'KETARY  Stephens  to  Uxdek  Secretary  of  the  Theasurv. 
Sir,  Admiralty,  2Gth  May,  1789.  23May. 

Lieut.  Sanil.  Edwd.  Marshall  having  requested   to   decline  Superin- 
the  ajjpointment  of  superintendant  to  the  Lady  Juliana,  trans- 1';"^*^^"*- 



5  June. 

The  officers 
and  the 

refuses  to 

1789       port,  going  witli  convicts  to  New  South  Wales,  I  am  commanded 
26  May.      ^J  mj  Lords  Comm'rs  of  the  Adm'ty  to  acquaint  you  therewitli, 
and  that  Lt.  Thos.  Edgar  is  a  very  proper  person  to  be  employed 
in  his  stead.  I  am,  ifec, 


Governor  Phillip  to  Lord  Sydney. 

My  Lord,  Sydney  Cove,  Port  Jackson,  5th  June,  1789. 

I   am    sorry  to  be   under   the   disagreeable   necessity    of 
troubling  your  Lordship  with  the  enclosed  papers. 

The  letters  Nos.  1,*  2,t  and  3|  I  received  from  the  Judge- Advo- 
cate the  26th  of  April,  and  Major  Ross  the  next  morning  brought 
on  three  letters,  which  he  desired  I  would  read.  Two  of  those  letters 
were  copys  of  Nos.  2  and  3 ;  the  third  letter  was  from  Captain  Camp- 
bell to  Major  Ross,§  as  commandant  of  the  detachment.  It  stated 
that  as  he  had  always  understood  there  was  no  power  in  Major 
Ross  to  compel  the  officers  to  sit  as  members  of  the  criminal  court 
contrary  to  their  own  inclination,  he  desired  that  his  name  might 
not  in  future  appear  in  the  orderly-book  as  a  member  of  that  court. 

After  having  pointed  out  the  authority  by  which  the  criminal 
court  was  established,  how  much  it  was  the  officers'  duty  to  sit  as 
members  of  that  court  when  called  on,  and  the  obvious  necessity 
of  it,  I  informed  Major  Ross,  as  I  had  done  the  day  I  first  heard 
of  the  busyness,  that  the  Judge- Advocate  had  declared  in  the 
most  solemn  manner  that  he  never  had  intended  any  oli'ence  to 
Captain  Campbell  by  his  letter ;  and  as  1  saw  no  reason  for  that 
officer's  refusing  what  was  most  undoubtedly  a  part  of  his  duty, 
I  desired  that  he  would  think  seriously  of  the  consequences.  The 
precept  for  assembling  a  criminal  court  was  ready  to  be  issued 
as  soon  as  the  names  of  the  officers  were  inserted  who  were 
next  for  that  duty,  imd  if  Captain  Campbell  should  persevere  in 
refusing  that  duty  I  desired  to  have  his  reasons  in  writing. 
Major  Ross  soon  after  brought  me  a  letter,  of  which  No.  4  is  a 
copy,  1 1  and  as  he  told  me  Captain  Campbell  was  fixed  in  his 
opinion  that  the  sitting  as  a  member  of  the  criminal  court  was 
no  part  of  his  duty,  and  which  he  therefore  declined,  I  desired 
that  the  officer  next  on  the  roster  for  that  service  might  be  named 
Ross's  view_  in  his  room ;  but  Major  Ross  said  that  he  did  not  see  how  that 
could  be  done,  as  he  believed  that  I  should  find  the  officers  in 
general  of  opinion  that  the  sitting  as  members  of  the  criminal 
court  was  not  a  duty  to  which  they  were  obliged  to  submit,  but 
a  service  in  which  they  had  volunteered  it,  and  added  "  that  he 
knew  of  no  articles  of  war  to  compel  them." 

I  had  been  given  to  understand,  soon  after  the  commission  for 
establishing  the  crimmal  court  had  been  read,  that  the  officers 
thought  it  a  very  disagreeable  duty,  and  that  it  was  looked  on  as 
a  hardship  by  some ;  but  1  never  had  supposed  officers  thought  it 
a  service  which  they  were  at  liberty  to  decline  at  their  pleasure, 

*Post,  p.  240.         t  Post,  p.  241.        }  Post,  p.  241.        §  Post,  p.  242.         ||  Post,  p.  242. 

A  breach  of 

THE    OFFICERS    AND    THE    COURTS.  237 

and  I  observed    to    Mcajor    Ross  that  I   could  hardly  believe  it       ^''^^ 
possible  that  such  an  opinion  was  general,  but  which  would  be      5  June. 
known,  as  the  precept  for  assembling  the  court  shoukl  be  issued.  ^  disajciee- 
At  the  same  time,  being  desirous  to  restore  tranquillity,  if  pos-  '^^^^  «i"'y- 
sible,  1  consented  to  the  demand  then  made  by  Major  lloss  that 
a  court  of  inquiry  might  be  ordered  to  give  an  opinion  on  the  Judge-  Court  of 
Advocate's  letter  before  the  precept  was  issued,  and  after  having  pio"ounce 
pointed  out  the  consequences  that  must  follow  the  officers  refusing  °"*^® 
what  was  so  necessary  a  part  of  their  duty,  and  being  declared  Advocate's 
such  by  an  Act  of  Parliament,   required  no  articles  of  war  or  letter. 
particular  instructions  to  the  commandant  of  the  detachment,  I 
assured  him  that  while  there  were  ten  men  in  ye  detacliment 
officers  should  not  be  wanting  to  form  a  criminal  court. 

A  reference  to  the  officers  who  had  composed  the  court  at 
which  the  woman  in  question  had  been  a  witness  was  afterwards 
proposed,  but  those  officers  desired  to  decline  any  interference  ; 
and  the  court  of  inquuy,  when  assembled,  declared,  as  appears  in 
their  report  No.  5,*  that  they  did  not  think  themselves  to  be 
competent  to  give  an  opinion  on  a  private  dispute,  which  appeared  ^.P°^'?* 
to  them  to  involve  in  itself  a  point  of  law. 

It  may  be  necessary  to  inform  your  Lordship  of  the  manner  of  Constitution 
assembling  the  criminal  courts.  Those  assembled  on  our  first  courts, 
landing  were  composed  of  the  senior  officers  of  the  detachment 
and  of  the  Navy,  the  first  court  being  given  out  in  general  orders, 
after  which  a  roster  was  kept  for  that  service  by  the  adjutant  of 
the  detachment ;  and  when  it  was  necessary  to  assemble  a  court  the 
Judge- Advocate  sent  to  the  adjutant  for  the  names  of  the  officers 
next  for  that  duty,  whose  names  being  inserted,  and  the  precept 
signed  and  sealed  by  me,  is  then  shewn  to  the  different  officers  who 
are  to  compose  the  court,  Vjy  the  provost-martial,  and  which  is  always 
done  one  or  two  days  before  the  court  is  to  meet,  the  battalion 
orders  of  the  day  pointing  out  the  officers  of  the  detachment  who 
are  for  that  duty.f 

Since  landing  fifteen  criminal  courts  have  been  assembled,  and 
on  any  particular  occasion,  as  when  the  six  marines  were  tried  for 
robbing  the  stores,  the  senior  officers  in  the  detachment  composed  ^^j!°j!'^ 
the  court. 

The  court  of  inquiry  which  was  ordered  to  meet  on  the  Judge-  Findinsof 
Advocate's  letter,  having  reported  that  they  did  not  think  them-  fiKiuiry. 
selves  competent  to  judge  on  the  matter  laid  before  them,  that  court 
was  dissolved,  and  Major  Ross  came  to  inform  me  that  Captain 
Campbell  would  protest  against  the  report,  which  he  said  was  a  par- 
tial report,  in  stating  that  the  matter  before  them  was  of  a  private 

*  Post,  p.  243. 

t  Tn  a  despatch  to  the  Admiralty  of  the  same  date,  Phillip  says:  "The  senior  otlicers 
of  the  Navy  have  always  been  called  on  wlien  in  the  harhour."  As  tlie  despatch,  with  this 
exception,  is  identical  with  the  one  sent  to  Lord  Sydney,  it  is  nut  published  with  the 



5  June 




quences of 
refasal  to 

their  duty 

A  volunteer 
member  of 
the  court. 

accused  of 

nature,  and  desired  that  the  request  made  by  the  members  of  that 
court  for  copies  of  the  letters  hxid  before  them  might  not  be  granted. 

Captain  Campbell  afterwards  declined  making  any  protest 
against  the  proceedings  of  the  court  of  inquiry,  and  copies  of  the 
letters  wliich  they  thought  necessary,  in  order  to  justify  their 
proceedings  to  the  Admiralty,  were  given  them. 

The  adjutant  of  the  detachment  had  my  orders  to  give  the 
Judge- Advocate,  as  usual,  the  names  of  the  officers  who  were  next 
for  the  duty  of  the  criminal  court,  as  soon  as  the  court  of  inquiry 
had  made  their  report,  but  he  then  came  to  inform  me  that  Major 
Ross  did  not  choose  to  let  him  give  the  names  of  the  officers  at  the 
Judge-Advocate's  request,  and  desired  that  it  might  appear  in 
general  orders,  or  that  a  verbal  message  might  be  sent  him  from 
me.  The  message  was  sent,  and  in  the  names  given  to  the  Judge- 
Advocate,  Capt.  Campbell's  appear'd,  and  he  sat  the  next  day  as 
a  member  of  the  criminal  court.  I  had  sent  for  several  of  the 
officers  before  the  court  met,  in  order  to  point  out  to  them  the 
consequences  which  would  follow  their  refusal  of  so  essential  a  part 
of  their  duty,  and  the  officers  I  saw  on  that  occasion  assured  me 
that  they  had  never  doubted  its  being  a  part  of  their  duty,  after 
they  heard  the  Act  of  Parliament  and  the  commission  read,  which 
established  that  court,  but  Major  Ross,  afterwards,  on  the  6th  of 
May,  telling  me  that  he  was  still  of  opinion  that  many  of  the 
officers  did  not  think  the  sitting  as  members  of  the  Criminal  Court 
any  part  of  their  duty,  I  desired  that  Major  Ross  would  assemble 
the  officers,  that  their  separate  opinions  might  be  taken  on  that 
head.  By  the  report  No.  G,*  which  is  inclosed,  it  appears  that 
all  the  officers  thought  i1  a  part  of  their  duty,  and  Capt. -Lieut. 
Merridith  and  Lieut.  Timmins,  then  absent  from  head-quarters, 
have  since  declared  the  same. 

As  no  legal  inquiry  into  the  conduct  of  any  officers  can  be 
made  here,  and  Capt.  Campbell  was  the  only  officer  that  could  be 
called  on  to  sit  as  a  member  of  the  criminal  court  who  did  not 
think  it  a  part  of  his  duty,  I  judged  it  best,  for  the  quiet  of  the 
settlement,  to  let  him  sit  as  a  volunteer  when  his  name  was 
returned,  and  here  I  hoped  that  affair  would  have  rested  for  the 
present,  for  tho'  officers  had,  Avhen  I  sent  for  them  to  point  out  to 
them  the  necessity  of  obeying  the  precept,  mentioned  their  com- 
mandant's having  heard  their  opinions,  I  did  not  choose  to  ask 
any  questions  as  to  what  might  have  passed  between  them  and 
their  commandant ;  bvit  being  some  time  after  informed  that  the 
officers  had  been  assembled,  and  the  Governor's  conduct  in 
calling  on  Captain  Campbell  to  sit  as  a  member  of  the  criminal 
court  had  been  stated  to  them  by  Major  Ross  as  oppressive,  and 
that  endeavours  had  been  used  to  induce  them  to  join  in  Captain 
Camp])eirs  opinion  that  the  criminal  court  was  not  a  part  of 
their  duty,  1  then  thought  it  necessary  to  inquire  what  grounds 

Post,  p.  244. 

THE    OFFICERS    ANT)    Tl.Mi    COURTS.  239 

there  were  fur  such  a  report,  and  the  first  officer  I  spoke  to  on         ^®^ 
that  subject,  doulitinif  of  the  pi-opriety  of  saying  what  pass'd  at  a      5  J^'"*-'. 
meeting  to    wliioh    the    otticers    had    been    call'd    l)y    their   com- 
mandant, I  dii'ected  tlie  Judge- Advocate  to  send  for  some  of  the 
senior  officers  then  in  quarters,  and  to  ask  them  the  necessary  The  officers 
questions ;  and  the  adjutant,  who  liad  assemljled  the  officers  and  ^^'^^  '°"^ 
attended  the  meeting,  was  afterwards  sent  for.      By  the  answers 
given  by  those  five  officers  it  ai^jDcars  that  all  the  officers  at  head- 
(juartors  were  call'd  together  on  tlie  27th  of  April,  after  Major 
I  loss  had  brought  me  Cajit.  Campljell's  refusal  to  attend  the  duty 
of  the   cl.   court,  and  that  the  tenor  of  Major  Ross's  discourse  Ross's 
appear'd  calculated  to  induce  them  to  join  Capt.   Campbell  in  and"op?nion 
declining  the  duty  of  the  criminal  courts,  saying  that  he  had  told 
the  Governor  that  both  he  and  the  officers  at  large  considered 
that  service  as  what  they  had  volunteer'd,  not  as  a  duty ;   that 
the  Governor's  conduct  in  calling  on  Capt.  Campbell  or  on  officers 
for   that   service    was  oppressive,   and  that  he  thought   it   hard 
officers  should  be  obliged  to  sit  as  members  of  the  criminal  court, 
and  oppressive  to  the  highest  degree. 

The  consequences  which  must  have  followed  had  the  officers  in  unsettled  *^^ 
general  been  of  that  opinion  will  be  obvious  to  your  Lordship  ; 
but  as  no  legal  inquiry  could  be  made  respecting  the  conduct  of 
the  officer  to  whom,  as  the  Lieutenant-Governor  and  commandant 
of  the  detachment,  I  was  naturally  to  look  for  support,  and  from 
whom  the  situation  of  this  colony  at  the  time  call'd  for  an  address 
of  a  very  difTerent  nature,  I  did  not  think  it  proper  to  direct  any 
more  officers  to  be  sent  for  on  that  subject,  unless  Major  Ross 
should  desire  it,  when  the  officers  informed  him  they  had  been 
examined  respecting  that  meeting,  and  which  they  did  as  soon  as 
they  left  the  Judge-Advocate ;  and  being  asked  what  questions 
had  been  put  to  them,  they  desired  to  refer  him  to  the  Governor 
for  the  questions  and  their  answers;  but  Major  Ross  has  never 
mentioned  that  lousiness  to  me,  and  I  have  therefore  thought  it 
best  to  let  it  rest  in  its  present  state. 

The  answers  given  by  the  officers,  and  to  which  they  sign'd 
their  names,  are  inclosed.  No.  7*;  and  I  have  now,  my  Lord,  only  to 
rej)eat  my  regret  at  being  obliged  to  lay  a  business  of  this  kind 
l)efore  your  Lordship,  but  which  the  service  and  the  situation  of 
this  colony  renders  unavoidable  ;  and  as  the  discontents  in  the  f^fficcrsdis 

111-11  1  !•  c  contented. 

<letaclnnent,  whicli  liave  been  represented  in  my  former  letters, 
still  continue,  and  into  which  I  have  not  authority  to  make  a  legal 
inquiry,  I  can  only  inform  your  Lorxlship  that  those  discontents, 
whicli  have  existed  from  the  time  this  detachment  landed,  still 
continue.!     I  have,  (tc,  A.  Phillip. 

*  Post,  p.  245. 
t  Lord  Gronville,  who  had  succeeded  Lord  Sydney  at  the  Homo  Office  when  this  despatch 
reached  EM},'laiid,  referred  to  the  law  ollicors  of  the  Crown  the  question  as  to  wliether  the 
marine  officers  could  lawfully  refuse  to  sit  as  niendiers  of  the  criminal  court.     The  opinion 
!,'iven  was  that  the  officers  were  hound  to  act  if  called  upon.     Post,  pp.  402--JG3 




25  Api-n. 

Charge  of 

An  untruth- 
ful witness. 


ground  for 




Collins  and 

[Enclosure  No.  1.] 
Judge-Advocate  Collins  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  25th  April,  1789. 

Having  this  day  received  a  message  from  Captain  Campbell 
respecting  Mary  Turner,  one  of  the  evidences  on  the  late  trial  of 
the  soldiers  for  robbing  the  store-house,  I  beg  leave  to  lay  before 
your  Excellency  the  following  particulars  of  that  affair. 

It  appearing  to  the  members  of  the  court,  as  well  as  to  myself, 
on  the  examination  of  the  said  Mary  Turner,  that  she  had  not 
sworn  the  truth  in  giving  her  testimony,  on  her  being  told  to  with- 
draw, the  provost-martial  was  ordered  to  detain  and  keep  her 
apart  from  the  other  witnesses.  The  conviction  and  condemnation 
of  the  six  prisoners  very  shortly  followed,  and  the  court  was 

On  maturely  weighing  and  considering  the  whole  of  Mary 
Turner's  deposition,  and  comparing  it  with  those  of  the  other  wit- 
nesses, since  the  trial,  I  was  of  opinion  there  was  not  sufficient  proof 
to  affect  [convict  ?]  her  on  an  indictment  for  perjury  •  and  as  I  have 
always  wished  to  avoid  lightly  grounding  a  prosecution  against  the 
convicts,  from  the  bad  effect  it  might  have,  in  pointing  out  to  them 
how  far  they  might  offend,  if  they  could  but  withhold  sufficient 
proof,  I  had  dropped  for  the  present  any  thoughts  of  calling  on 
Mary  Turner  for  trial.  Neither  have  I  at  any  time,  since  then, 
heard  it  was  the  opinion  or  wish  of  any  member  of  that  court  to 
bring  her  to  trial,  until  this  morning,  when  I  was  informed  by 
the  provost-martial  that  Captain  Campbell,  one  of  the  members 
of  the  late  court,  had  inquired  of  him  if  she  was  in  his  custody, 
and  expressed  some  surprize  and  anger  on  being  told  she  was 
not.  As  to  this  latter  circumstance,  I  must  observe  to  your 
Excellency,  that,  having  no  place  of  confinement  or  custody  for 
female  offenders,  they  have  been  always  suffered  to  go  at  large 
until  wanted  for  trial. 

In  consequence  of  the  above  message,  I  wrote  to  Captain  Camp- 
bell a  letter,  wherein  I  informed  him  that  "  I  did  not  think 
myself  there  was  proof  sufficient  to  bring  her  to  trial,  either  for 
perjury  or  as  an  accessary  ;  but,  nevertheless,  if  he  was  of  a 
different  opinion,  and  would  let  me  know  what  charge  should  be 
exhibited,  it  should  be  done  " — for  as  I  did  not  myself  know  of 
any  proof  sufficient  to  establish  a  charge  against  her,  I  was  not 
certain  but  Captain  Campbell  might  be  informed  of  some  that  I 
was  not  acquainted  with.  I  beg  leave  to  trouble  your  Excellency 
with  a  copy  of  my  letter,  and  of  Captain  Campbell's  reply,  which 
I  received  this  afternoon  ;  and  have  now  only  to  add,  that  though 
I  think  the  conviction  of  her  being  guilty  of  perjury  may  be  clear 
in  the  breast  and  opinion  of  every  individual  of  the  last  court, 
yet  still  there  is  not  sufficient  proof  of  it  to  convict  her  in  the  eye 


of  the  law  ;  nevertheless,  as  Captain  Campbell  considers  her  as  a       1789 
prisoner  by  order  of  the  late  court,  and  thinks  she  ought  to  be     25  Ainii. 
delivered  by  a  due  course  of  law,  I  propose  to  bring  her  before  The  wiuiess 
the  court  that  is  to  assemble  in  the  next  week,  and  try  her  on  a  to  i^e  tried. 
charge  of  wilful  and  corrupt  perjui'y  at  the  late  trial. 

I  have,  (fee, 

David  Collins. 
[Enclosure  No.  2.] 

Judge-Advocate  Collins  to  Captain  Campbell. 

Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  25th  April,  1789. 

I  understand  l)y  the  provost-martial,  who  has  just  been 
with  me,  that  you  imagined  Mary  Turner  was  in  custody  ;  I  have  Mary 
to  acquaint  you  that  Mary  Turner  is  forthcoming  at  any  time    '^"''^'• 
she  may  be  wanted,  but  that  I  myself  have  at  present  no  thoughts 
of  calling  on  her,  as  I  do  not  think,  on  mature  consideration, 
there  would  be  sutHcient  proof  to  affect  [convict?]  her  either  as  an 
accessary  in  the  late  business  or  for  perjury  at  the  trial.     How- 
ever, if  you  ai^e  of  a  different  opinion,  and  wish  to  have  her  tried, 
she  may  be  brought  before  the  criminal  court  that  is  to  assemble 
on  Tuesday  or  Wednesday  next ;    in  such  case  I   should  wish  to 
have  timely  notice  of  the  charge  to  be  exhibited  against  her,  and  Notice  of 
what  witnesses  are  to  be  called  to  support  it,  that  the  necessary  charge, 
steps  may  be  taken.  I  have,  &c., 

David  Collins. 
[Enclosure  No.  3.] 

Captain  Campbell  to  Judge-Advocate  Collins.' 
Sir,  Sydney  Cove,  25th  April,  1789. 

In  answer  to  your  letter  of  this  day  I  have  to  say  that 
I  perfectly  well  remember,  at  the  last  criminal  court  held  in  this 
island,  when  Mary  Turner  was  ordered  to  withdraw  from  the  court 
she  was  by  yourself  ordered  into  the  custody  of  the  provost.  I  do  Arrest 
not  by  this  mean  to  say  that  it  was  entirely  an  act  of  your  own,  ordered, 
for  myself  among  others  desired  it  might  be  so,  as  we  then  apjjeared 
to  be  unanimously  of  opinion  that  she  was  a  very  proper  object  to 
make  an  example  of. 

When  the  provost  informed  you  this  morning  of  my  having 
desired  him  to  speak  to  you  about  the  woman  he  should  have 
likewise  informed  y(ju  that  I  had  innnediately  after  the  above  was 
dissolved,  and  on  my  seeing  the  woman  at  liberty,  desired  him  to 
make  my  compliments  to  you,  and  to  know  from  you  whether  he  „„  , 
had  not  misunderstood  the  orders  you  gave  him  in  court — to  take  the  order 
her  into  his  custody,  as  I  had  myself  been  one  of  the  members    "*°  '^^'^^  ' 
who  desired  it — nor  could  I  till  this  morning  possibly  account  for 
not  having  been  acquainted  with  your  opinion. 

Having  this  morning  by  accident  heard  that  a  criminal  court 
Would  be  assembled  the  beginning  of  next  week,  I  judged  it  a  \ 





25  April, 

The  Judge- 


discharge  of  a  part  of  my  duty  to  the  publick  to  know  what  was 
to  be  done  with  Mary  Turner,  sensible  that  no  power  on  this 
island  could  liberate  her  till  she  had  undergone  a  trial. 

I  therefore  sent  for  the  provost,  who,  to  my  great  surprise, 
had  the  assurance  to  tell  me  that  he  never  delivered  my  message 
to  you,  upon  which  I  ordered  him  to  go  and  do  it  without  loss 
of  time. 

Now,  sir,  you  have  the  cause  of  your  being  troubled  with  any 
message  from  me  this  morning.  How  far  such  a  message  might 
authorize  you  to  call  upon  me  as  a  prosecutor  I  know  not,  nor 
shall  I  at  present  comment  ujDon  it.  One  point  you  have  certainly 
gained  by  it,  that  you  have  effectually  precluded  Captain  Campbell 
from  sitting  as  a  member  of  any  criminal  court  that  it  may  be 
necessary  to  assemble  here,  and  of  Avhich  you  are  a  part. 

As  this  business  may  undergo  future  investigation  I  beg  leave 
to  recommend  it  to  you  to  keep  copies  of  such  letters  as  you 
may  choose  to  write  upon  the  occasion,  as  I  assure  you  I  shall  of 
mine.  I  at  the  same  time  think  it  proper  to  inform  you  that 
this  is  the  only  letter  you  will  receive  vipon  this  subject  from 

Sir,  (fee, 

James  Campbell. 
[Enclosvu'e  Xo.  4.] 

Captain  Campbell  to  Major  Ross. 

Sir,  Syclney  Cove,  27th  April,  1789. 

As  I  have  always  understood  that  you  are  not  in  possession 
of  any  power  to  compel  the  officers  of  the  detachment  under  your 
command  to  sit  as  members  of  the  criminal  court  established  in 
this  colony  contrary  to  their  own  inclinations,  I  have  to  request 
that  you  will  please  to  direct  the  adjutant  so  as  that  my  name 
may  not  for  the  future  appear  in  your  orderly  book  as  a  member 
of  that  court,  as  I  shall  be  extremely  concerned  to  be  recU^ced  to 
the  very  disagreeable  necessity  of  objecting  to  any  order  of  yours, 
or  any  other  my  superior  in  command. 

I  am  sensible  it  may  be  said  of  me  that  I  have  hitherto 
volunteered  or  acquiesced  in  being  in  my  turn  a  member  of  that 
court,  from  my  being  likewise  sensible  that  in  the  present  situation 
of  this  colony  such  power  could  not,  with  any  degree  of  propriety, 
be  vested  in  any  othei-  hands  l)ut  that  of  the  Navy  and  Army.  I 
have  farther  to  say  that  I  would  still  continue  the  same  line  of 
conduct  did  I  think  it  consistent  with  either  my  character  as  a 
gentleman  or  my  feelings  as  a  man. 

You  were  yourself  an  ear-witness  of  the  message  sent  by  me 

by  the  provost  to  the  Judge- Advocate  on  the  25th  instant,   to 

which  message  I  very  soon  after  received  the  inclosed  (in  my 

An  insulting  opinion)  most  insulting  letter.*    I  had  ever  been  taught  to  under- 

*  Ante,  p.  241. 

27  April. 



to  sit 


THE    OFFICERS    AND    THE    COURTS.  243 

stand  that  the  person  officiating  in  his  character  at  such  courts       l''^^ 
was  tlip  j^erson  to  carry  on  the  prosecution.      How  far,  or  even     ^TAinil. 
how  it  was  possible  for  hiiu  to  construe  my  message  into  a  beHef 
that  I  was  become  the  prosecutor,  I  know  not,  nor  can  I  possibly  Not  a 
imagine  why  he  should  call  upon  me  individuaUy  for  that  purpose,  prosecutor. 
as  in  his  letter  he  certainly  does,  unless  that  he  had  some  reason 
to  suppose  me  of  a  more  sanguinary  and  persecuting  spirit  than 
any  other  member  of  the  court  who  wished  the  woman  to  be 
taken  into  custody  for  her  having  (evidently  to  all  then 
perjured  herself.     The  consequence  of  not  using  every  possible 
means  to  prevent  so  dangerous  a  crime  from  getting  to  a  head  A  dangerous 
among  the  present  inhabitants  of  this  colony  is  too  obvious  to  '^'""*^' 
require  any  farther  remarks  upon  it,  and  I  am  convinced  that  the 
wish  of  exerting  every  means  in  their  power  to  prevent  it  Avas 
the  motive  of  that  court  for  desiring  the  woman  to  be  taken  into 

With  the  Judge- Advocate's  letter  I  take  the  liberty  of  inclosing  Appeal  to 
for  your  perusal  the  copy  of  my  answer  to  him,  with  the  humble  ^'^'i^'P- 
request  that  you  will  please  to  communicate  the  whole  to  the 
Governor,  to  the  end  that  he  may  be  convinced  that  I  never  had, 
nor  ever  will  have,  a  wish  or  desire  of  impeding  the  publick 
service,  and  I  have  no  doubt  but  that  both  him  and  you  will  do 
me  the  justice  to  say  that  I  have  used  every  means  ever  put  in 
my  power  to  promote  it. 

As  I  have  no  copy  of  any  of  the  papers  now  sent  to  you,  I  request 
that  you  will  please  not  to  part  with  any  of  them  unknown  to  me 
or  without  my  consent. 

I  have,  (tc, 

James  Campbell. 

[Enclosure  No.  5.] 

Marine  Officers  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Sir,  Port  Jackson,  28th  April,  1789.  Apni. 

Agreeable  to    the   general   and    battalion   orders   of   this 
morning,  we  the  following  officers,    1st  Lieut.  John  Poulden,   1st  The  court  of 
Lieut.  John  Johnstone,   and   1st  Lieut.  James  Maitld.   8hairp,  >ni""T- 
met  in  Captain  Campbell's  hut  at  eleven  o'clock,  and  after  read- 
ing the  letters  produced  in  court,  came  to  the  following  resolutions, 
viz. : — The  officei's  commanding  [constituting]  the  court,  uprtn  hav- 
ing read  and  considered  the  letters  which  passed  in  the  business 
now  before  them,  are  of  opinion  that  as  the  business  involves  in 
itself  a  point  of  law  and  a  pi-ivate  disagreement,  they  feel  them- 
selves incompetent  to  decide  upon  it — and  they  further  l)eg  of  your  No  decision. 
Excellency  that  copies  of  all  the  letters  which  have  passed  may  be 
given  to  them  (in  case  of  their  being  at  any  time  hereafter  called 
upo'i)  for  the  purpose  of  being  inclosed  and  sent  to  the  Lords  of  the 




Ackaii'alty,  which  they  thiiik  necessary  in  order  to  con%'ince  their 
Lordships  of  theii-  incompetency  to  decide  on  an  affaii"  of  such  a 
nature.  AVe  have,  &c., 

John  Poulden. 

6  Mav. 

Officers  as 
members  of 

to  Ross's 


G.  Johnston. 




J.  .Johnstone 

J.  M. 




head-quai*tei-s  : — 
inal  court  as  a 
with  an  Act  of 

[Enclosure  Xo.  6.] 
Major  Ross  to  Governor  Phillip. 

Marine  Quarters,  May  6th,  1789. 
In  compliance  with  your  Excellency's  command  of  tliis 
day's  date,  signihed  to  me  by  the  adjutant,  I  convened  the 
oflicei'S  of  the  detachment,  and  put  the  questions  directed  by 
your  Excellency,  and  receiAed  their  answers,  as  follows,  viz.  : — 
"  The  Governor  requests  that  Major  Ross  will  assemble  the  officeis 
of  the  detachment  now  at  head-quarters,  and  report  to  him 
their  separate  opinions,  '  whether  or  not  they  think  it  their 
duty  to  sit  as  members  of  the  criminal  court  estabhshed  m  this 
country.'  This  the  Governor  desires,  as  Major  Ross,  their  com- 
mandant, is  of  opinion  they  do  not  thixLk  it  a  part  of  their  duty. 
Captain  Campbell  having  already  given  his  opinion,  the  GoA'ernor 
does  not  wish  to  press  him  further  on  that  head. ' 

Major  Ross's  question  to    the  officers  of  the  detachment  at 
-"  "\i\'hether  they  look  upon  sitting  at  the  crim- 
military  duty,  or  an  exti'a  duty  in  compKance 
Parliament,  and  whether  they  had  any  know- 
ledge of  it  before  theii'  arrival  in  this  country  V 

Answer  by  Captain-Lieut.  Tench  : — I  had  no  knowledge  of  the 
Act  of  Parliament  pre\"ious  to  my  arrival  in  this  country ;  from 
the  moment  I  read  it  I  look'd  on  it  as  Captain  Tench's  duty  to  sit 
on  ci'iminal  courts  whenever  ordered,  and  still  look  on  it  as  such. 

Answer  by  Captain-Lieut.  Johnston  : — Smce  I  saw  the  Act  of 
Parliament  I  have  always  thought  it  my  duty  to  sit  on  criminal 
courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieutenant  Creswell : — I  had  never  seen  the  Act 
of  Pai'hament  in  England,  but  from  the  time  I  saw  it  I  conceived 
it  to  be  a  paii;  of  my  duty  to  sit  on  ciiminal  courts  when  ordered, 
and  not  an  extra  duty,  while  I  remain  in  this  country. 

Answer  by  Lieutenant  and  Quarter-master  Furzer  : — I  knew 
nothing  of  the  Act  of  Parliament  before  I  came  to  this  country, 
but  since  I  had  a  knowledge  of  it  I  always  conceived  it  to  be  a 
part  of  my  duty  to  sit  on  criminal  courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieutenant  Poulden : — Since  I  saw  the  Act  of  Par- 
liament I  have  always  thought  it  my  duty  to  sit  on  criminal 
courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieut.  J.  Johnstone  : — I  saw  the  Act  of  Parliament 
before  I  left  England,  and  always  conceived  it  to  be  a  part  of  my 
dutv  lij  sit  on  criminal  coui'ts  when  ordered. 

THE    OFFICERS   AND    'J'lIE    COURTS.  245 

Answer  by  Lieut.  J.  M.  Shaii-p  : — I  saw  the  Act  of  Parliament       1789 
before  I  left  England,  and  always  conceived  it  to  be  a  part  of  my      6  May. 
duty  to  sit  on  criminal  courts  when  ordered,  during  the  time  of  shairp" 
my  remaining  in  this  country. 

Answer  by  Lieut.  Da^•ey : — I  had  not  any  knowledge  of  the  Davey. 
Act  of  Parliament  until  I  came  into  this  country,  Ijut  since  that 
time  I  have  ever  conceived  it  to  be  a  part  of  my  duty  to  sit  on 
criminal  courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieut.  Clarke : — I  had  not  any  knowledge  of  the  Clarke. 
Act  of  Parliament  until  I  came  into  this  country,  but  from  the 
inoment  I  read  it  I  considered  it  as  a  part  of  my  duty  to  sit  on 
ci'iminal  courts  when  ordered,  while  I  remain  in  this  countrv. 

An.swer  by  Lieut.  Dawes  : — I  knew  nothing  of  the  Act  of  Par-  Dawes. 
1  lament  till  I  heard  it  read  in  this  countiy,  and  from  that  time  I 
considered  it  my  duty  to  sit  on  criminal  courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieut,  and  Adjutant  Long : — I  knew  nothing  of  the  Long. 
Act  of  Parliament  when  I  left  England,  but  since  I  heard  it  read 
in  this  country  have  considered  it  as  a  part  of  my  duty  to  sit  on 
criminal  courts  when  ordered. 

Answer  by  Lieutenant  Faddy  : — I  knew  nothing  of  the  Act  of  Faddy. 
Parliament  till  I  heard  it  read  in  this  countiy ;  since  that  time  I 
have  always  thought  it  my  duty  to  sit  on  criminal  courts  when 
ordered.  "  R.R.,  Major. 

[Enclosure  Xo.  7.] 
Ckimixal  Court. — Questions  to  Officers. 

Sydney  Cove,  28th  May,  1789.  28  May. 

It  having  been  reported  that  the  major-commandant  of  the  detach- 
ment did,  in  the  presence  of  many  of  the  officers,  declare  that  the 
Governor's  calling  on  Captain  James  Campbell  to  sit  as  a  member 
of  the  criminal  court,  established  by  Act  of  Parliament  for  the 
trial  of  criminal  causes  in  this  country,  was  oppressive,  and  that  An  oppres- 
the  said  major-commandant  did  publiekly  address  the  officers  then  Major*Ross^ 
present  in  order  to  induce  them  to  concur  with  Captain  Campbell  aciion. 
in  refusing  to  acknowledge  the  duty  of  the  criminal  court  to  be 
any  part  of  the  officers'  duty,  and  to  persuade  them  to  refuse  sit- 
ting as  membei's  of  the  said  criminal  court,  I  am,  in  consequence 
of  the  said  report,  desired  by  the  Governor  to  call  upon  such 
officers  of  the  detachment  who  were  present  at  that  meeting,  and 
to  put  the  following  questions  to  them,  in  order  that  it  may  be 
known  how  far  the  said  report  is  founded  in  truth. 

Question  1  : — Was  there  such  a  meeting,  and  what  reason  was  Questions 
assigned  by  the  major-commandant  of  the  detachment  for  assemb-  ^°  oncers, 
ling  the  officers  ? 

Question  2  : — Did  the  major-commandant  at  that  meeting  say 
that  the  Governor's  conduct  in  calling  on  Capt.  Campbell  to  sit  in 
his  turn  as  a  member  of  the  criminal  court  was  oppressive  ? 




23  May. 

Answers  ; 



Question  3  : — Did  he  ask  the  officers  to  join  Capt.  Campbell  in 
refusing  to  sit  as  a  member  of  that  court,  or  what  was  said  on 
that  subject  1 

Answer  to  question  1,  by  Captain-Lt.  Tench  : — The  meeting 
was  held  on  Monday,  the  27th  of  April,  by  order  of  the  major- 
commandant.  The  reason  he  assigned  for  such  meeting  was  to 
repeat  a  conversation  he  had  had  with  the  Governor,  to  lay  before 
them  a  letter  he  had  received  on  service  from  Capt.  Campbell  in 
consequence  of  a  correspondence  he  had  had  with  the  Judge- 
Advocate,  and  to  read  the  letters  Avhich  had  j^assed  between  them, 
all  of  which  were  read  to  the  officers  by  the  adjutant. 

Answer  to  question  2  : — To  the  best  of  my  recollection  the 
major-commandant  said  he  had  told  the  Governor  that  his  con- 
duct respecting  Capt.  Campbell  was  oppressive,  and  that  officei's 
were  not  to  be  driven  in  cases  where  they  did  not  feel  themselves 
at  ease  to  act,  they  were  not  to  be  compelled.  I  recollect  that 
the  major  made  use  twice  of  the  word  "oppressive"  in  speaking 
of  the  Governor's  conduct. 

Answer  to  question  3  : — He  did  not  ask  the  officers  to  join 
Capt.  Campbell  in  refusing  to  sit  as  members  of  the  criminal 
court,  but  it  is  my  opinion  that  the  whole  tenor  of  Major  Ross's 
conversation  pointed  that  way.  My  reason  for  thinking  so  is 
that  Major  Ross  more  than  once  mentioned  to  the  officers 
assembled  that  he  had  told  the  Governor  that  both  he  and  the 
officers  at  large  considered  the  sitting  as  members  of  the  criminal 
courts  as  ■\^'hat  they  volunteered,  not  as  a  duty. 

AVatkin  Tench, 

Captain-Lt.   of  Marines. 

Answer  to  question  1,  by  Lieut.  Creswell : — There  was  such  a 
meeting,  and  the  reason  assigned  was  to  read  the  letters  that  had 
passed  between  the  Judge- Advocate  and  Capt.  Campbell,  and  to 
mention  a  conversation  he  had  had  with  the  Governor,  and  to 
say  that  the  adjutant  had  a  question  to  put  to  the  officers  who 
composed  the  last  criminal  court. 

Answer  to  question  2  : — I  cannot  say  that  the  major-comman- 
dant said  that  the  Governor's  conduct  was  oppressive  in  calling 
on  CsLTpt.  Campbell,  but  I  vinderstood  him  that  he  had  told  the 
Governor  so,  and  that  officers  were  not  to  be  driven,  or  words  to 
that  effect. 

Answer  to  question  3  : — He  did  not  ask  such  a  question  ;  but 

as  far  as  opinion  goes,  the  tenor  of  his   conversation   seemed  to 

lead  towards  getting  officers  to  be  of  Captain  Campbell's  opinion. 

But  this  is  merely  opinion.  x         r^ 

•^    ^  John  Creswell. 

Answer  to  question  1,  by  Capt.-Lt.  Johnston  : — There  was  such 
a  meeting.  The  reason  assigned  was  to  lay  before  them  the  cor- 
I'espondence  between  the  Judge-Advocate  and  Captain  Campbell. 


Answer  to  question  2  : — The  officers  in  speuking  alxjut  the  duty       1739 
of  the  criminal  court,  one   of  them   said   it  was,   though   an   un-      23  May. 
pleasai\t  duty,  yet   certainly  a  part  of  their  duty ;  Major  Ross 
replied  it  was  an  oppressive  duty. 

Answer  to  question  3  : — I  do  not  recollect  that  the  major  asked 
the  officers  to  join  in  refusing  with  Captain  Campbell  to  sit  as 
members  of  the  criminal  court,  but  recollect  his  saying  that  officers 
were  not  to  be  driven,  and  believe  he  wished  them  to  concur  with 
Capt.  Campbell's  refusal.  ^^^^^^  Johnston. 

Answer  to  question  1,  by  Lieut.  Poulden  : — There  was   such  a  Poulden. 
jneeting,  and  the  reason  assigned  was  to  lay  before  it  the  letters 
from  the  Judge- Advocate  and  Captain  Campbell. 

Answer  to  question  2  : — I  do  not  recollect  that  the  word 
"oppressive"  was  applied  particularly  to  Capt.  Camjobell  being 
ordered  to  sit  at  that  court,  but  that  it  was  meant,  generally 
speaking,  of  that  duty. 

Answer  to  question  3  : — I  do  not  recollect  that  the  major  asked 
the  officers  to  concur  with  Captain  Campbell  in  refusing  to  sit  at 

^^'""^  '^•^^^•^-  John  Poulden. 

QuestioiT  to  Lt.  Long,  adjutant  of  the  detachment  : — Did  you  Long-, 
assemble  the  officers  of  the  detachment  by  direction  of  the  major- 
commandant  on  Monday,  the  27  th  of  April  1 

Answer  : — I  did. 

Question  : — Was  anything  said  at  that  meeting  by  the  major- 
commandant  that,  in  your  opinion,  tended  to  induce  the  officers 
present  to  decline  sitting  in  future  as  members  of  the  criminal 
court  ? 

Answer  : — Major  Ross,  when  speaking  of  the  duty,  and  on 
being  reminded  that  there  was  an  Act  of  Parliament  for  it,  said 
that  he  not  only  thought  it  hard  that  officei's  should  be  obliged  to 
sit  as  members  of  the  criminal  court,  but  oppressive  in  the  highest 
degree.  John  Long, 

Lieut,  and  Adjt.  Marines. 

Taken  and  subscribed  before  me, — David  Collins. 

Sir  Joseph  Banks  to  The  Rt.  Hon.  "VV.  W.  Grenville.* 
Dear  Sir,  Soho  Square,  June  7,  1789.  7juuc. 

In  consequence  of  conversations  held  with  yourself  and 
other  gentlemen  in  various  departments  of  Government,  in  which 
it  seemed  fully  agreed  that  it  would  be  proper  to  send  to  the  colony 
in  New  South  Wales  such  trees  and  plants  as  are  usefull  in  food  or 
physic,  and  cannot  conveniently  be  propagated  by  seed  in  potts  of  pfants'^for 

the  colony. 
*  William  Wyndhain  Grenville  (afterwards  Lord  Gren^  ille).     He  succeeded  Lord  Sydney 
at  the  Home  Office,  f^lh  June,  17W).     He  was  raiwed  to  the  Peerage,  25th  Noveiidter,  ITiK). 
The  letter  from  Sir  Josejih  Banks  is  not  official,  but  it  was  laid  before  the  King  and  the 
Lords  of  the  Admiralty,  and  was  acted  upon. 



23  May. 

A  crowded 

A  plant- 
"  coach.' 


may  be 

earth,  I  visited  the  Guardian,  now  under  order.s  for  New  South 
Wales,  on  Friday  last,  in  order  to  consider  of  the  most  commodious 
method  of  carrying  that  project  into  execution. 

I  found  that  her  cabbin  had  been  divided  into  births  for  the 
various  officers,  and  that  the  part  left  for  the  commander  was  not 
large  enough,  even  if  he  were  to  submit  to  great  inconvenience,  to 
answer  the  pui'pose  effectually,  and  that  the  rest  of  the  ship  was 
equaly  crowded  by  the  variety  of  stores,  &c.,  destined  for  her  freight. 

Finding  myself  in  consequence  of  this  reduced  to  the  necessity 
of  proposing  the  building  of  an  apartment  for  the  sole  purpose  of 
carrying  the  plants  and  the  person  allotted  to  take  care  of  them,  I 
proceeded  to  the  quarter-deck  abaft,  and  with  the  assistance  of  the 
builder  of  the  yard  and  the  master  of  the  ship  I  caused  the  form 
of  a  small  coach  to  be  chalked  out  upon  the  deck  in  such  a 
manner  as  they  both  agreed  would  not  be  at  all  in  the  way  of 
working  the  ship. 

It  is  li^  feet  long,  12|  broad  forward,  and  11 1  aft,  and  i.s  in- 
tended to  be  only  5  feet  high,  in  which  case  it  is  concluded  both 
by  the  builder  and  the  master  that  it  will  not  in  any  degree  impede 
the  sailing  of  the  ship. 

The  master  builder  informs  me  that  in  seven  or  eight  days  such  a 
coach  may  be  compleated.  I  explained  to  him  the  mode  in  which 
I  proposed  to  have  the  pots  and  the  superintendant  who  is  to 
have  the  charge  of  them  stowed  in  it,  the  practicability  of  which 
met  with  his  full  assent. 

If  it  is  intended  that  such  an  erection  should  be  made  I  will 
most  willingly  attend  at  Woolwich  and  finish  the  planning  of  it. 

Not  having  heard  anything  from  the  lieut. -commander  on  the 
subject,  I  wrote  to  him  a  full  account  of  the  plan,  and  left  the 
letter  for  him  at  Woolwich.  I  conclude  he  has  no  objection, 
but  if  he  has  I  shall  willingly  alter  it  as  far  as  I  possiby  can,  con- 
sistent with  the  main  object,  till  it  meets  with  his  approbation. 

Yours,  cfec, 
Jos.  Banks. 


Trees  and 

plants  for 



The  Right  Hon.  W.  W.  Grexville  to  The  Lords  of  The 

My  Lords,  Whitehall,  8th  June,  1789. 

Having  laid  before  the  King  a  letter  from  Sir  Jos'h  Banks, 
proposing  that  a  small  coach  may  be  erected  on  the  quarter-deck 
of  the  Guardian,  for  the  purpose  of  conveying  to  Port  Jackson, 
in  pots  of  earth,  such  trees  and  plants  as  will  be  useful  in  food  or 
2:)hysic,  and  cannot  conveniently  be  propagated  by  seed,  and  foi" 
bringing  from  thence  any  useful  productions,  I  have  the  honor 
of  transmitting  to  your  LordshijDS  a  copy  of  the  said  letter,  and 
I  am  commanded  to  signify  to  your  Lordships  his  Majesty's 
pleasure  that  in  case  any  material  objection  should  not  be  likely 


to  arise  from  the  placing  of  such  an  appartment  as  Sir  Joseph  has       1''89 
suggested,  that  you  do  give  orders  that  it  may  be  immediately     s  June, 
erected,  and  that  the  commanding  officer  may  be  instructed  to 
deposit  therein  any  such  trees  or  plants  as  may  be  sent  on  board, 
either  here  or  in   New   South   Wales,   for  the  purposes  before 

Amongst  the  superintendents  of  convicts  who  are  to  be  sent  out  Gardeners 
in  the  Guardian  there  will  be  one  or  two  gardeners,  to  whom  the  ^^^,^^1 
charge  of  the  trees  and  plants  should  be  committed  ;  and  as  these 
people  are  not  to  i^eturn  in  the  ship,  it  will  be  very  desirable  that 
the  commander  should  be  authorized  to  appoint  one  of  the  crew 
to  assist  them  in  that  business,  who  will  thereby  be  the  better 
quaUfied  for  attending  to  the  care  of  the  trees  and  plants  Avhich 
it  is  expected  will  be  sent  home  from  New  South  Wales  in  that  ship. 

I  am,  itc, 
W.  W.  Grenville. 

Sir  George  Yonge  to  Major  Grose. 
Sir,  W.O.,  8th  June,  1789. 

I  have   the   honor   to  acquaint   you    the   King    has   been  n.s.w. 
pleased  to  oi'der  that  a  corps  shall  be  forthwith  raised  iinder  your  Corps, 
command  for  H.M.'s  sei-vice  abroad,  with  the  particular*  view  of 
beins  stationed   in  the   settlement  of    New  South  Wales.     The 
corps  is   to  consist  of  four  companies,  and   each   company   of    1 
captain,  1  lieutenant,  1   ensign,  3  Serjeants,  3  corporals,   2  drum- 
mers, mth  67  private  men.      It  is  to  be  under  your  command  Grose  to 
as    major,    with    the    command    of    a    company,  and    to    have    1  '^°"^'^^''" 
adjutant,  1  qr.-mr.,  1   chaplain,  1  surgeon,  and  1  surgeon's  mate. 
The  pay  of  the   officers  is  to  commence  from  the   dates  of  their 
commissions,  which   will  take   date  from  the  Beating  Order,  but 
are  not  to  be  Lssued  until  the  corps  shall  have  been  reviewed  and 
established,  and   the  pay   of   the   non-commissioned  officers  and 
private  men  from  the  dates  of  their  respective  attestations.      It  is 
to  be    clearly  understood  that   none   of    the    officers    who    shall 
obtain  appointments  in  your  corps  are  to  expect  leave  to  dispose 
of    their   present   commissions,   but   they  will   be   considered   as  Commis- 
purchasers  in  the  new  corps.     In  case  the  corps  shall  be  reduced  ^'°"^' 
after  it  has  been  once  established   the   officers  will  be  entitled  to 
half-pay.     Yourself  and  the  three  captains  now  to-  be  appointed  Half-pay. 
by  H.   M.   will  each   be    required   to  raise  a  complete  company 
(viz.,  3  Serjeants,  3  corporals,  2   druiumers,  and  67  private  men), 
in  aid  of  the  expenses  of  which  you  will  be  allowed  to  name  the 
lieutenant  and  ensign  of  your  respective  companies,  and  to  receive 
from  the  pulilic  three  guineas  for  every  recruit  approved  at  the  Recmiiing- 
head-quarters  of  the  coi-jis  by  a  general  or  field  officer  appointed  "'""'^J- 
for  that  purpose.     The  lieutenants  are  to  be  selected  from  the 
rank  of  ensigns  ;    the  ensigns  not  to  he  under  sixteen  years  of 


1789       age ;  no  recruit  to  be  enlisted   under  five  feet  four  inches  and 

8  June,      a  half  in  height,  nor  under  sixteen  nor  above  thirty  years  of  age. 

staturT        The  names  of  the  captains  shall  be  communicated  to  you  with 

and  age.       as  little  delay  as  possible.     Iia  the  meantime,  I  am  to  acquaint 

you  that  H.M.  is  pleased  to  leave  to  you  the  nomination  of  the 

Officeraand   adjutant    and     quar.-mar.,   as  also    of   the    chaplain,    who    must 

chaplain       positively  engage  to  embark  with  the  corps,  and  to  remain  with  it 

while  abroad,  and  of  whose  character  I  shall  expect  to  be  furnished 

with  proper  certificates  before  I  propose  his  appointment  to  his 

Majesty.       Mr.    Adair,    Surgeon-general  to  the   Army,    will   be 

directed  to  look  out  for  pi-oper  persons  for  the  appointment  of 

surgeon  and  surgeon's  mate.      I  am  to  add  that  it  being  required 

Immediate     that  the  corps  shall  be  instantly  raised  and  approved,  after  being 

ac  ion.  reviewed  by  the   1st  of    October  next,   every  exertion   on  your 

part  and  of  that  of  the  ofticers  of  your  corps  will  be  necessary 

that  H.  M.'s  expectations  on  this  head  may  not  be  disappointed. 

I  am,  &c., 
■ Geo.  Yoxge. 

Proposals  to  Government  by  Major  Grose. 
Grose's  offer.  gnouLD  I  be  promoted  to  the  rank  of  It. -colonel,  I  will,  without 
expence  to  Government,  raise  both  tlie  companies,  reserving  to 
myself  the  nomination  of  the  captain  and  subaltemi  officers, 
should  it  be  thought  expedient  to  add  only  a  major  to  the  corps 
without  permitting  me  to  succeed  to  any  additional  rank,  I  will 
raise  the  companies  on  conditions  of  receiving  the  levy  money, 
nominating  the  captain  and  subaltern  oflicers,  and  receiving  from 
the  captain  appointed  to  a  majority  five  hundred  pounds. 

I  shall  have  no  objection  to  raise  the  recruits  on  Government's 
account,  charging  exactly  whatever  it  costs  to  procure  them,  and 
I  will  exert  my  utmost  to  recruit  them  at  as  little  expence  as 
possible,  and  with  as  much  expedition  as  is  in  my  power. 

Frans.  Grose, 

Annual         Charge  of  an  independent  company  of  foot  for  three  hundred  and 

sixty-five  days:—  ^     .^    ^ 

1  captain  180     9     7 

2  lieutenants  (each,  £79  19s.  4d.)     159  18     8 

1  ensign  62  16     7i 

4  Serjeants  (each,  £18  OS.)      73     0     0 

4  corporals  (each,  £12  3s.  4cl.)  48  13     4 

2  drummers  (each,  £12  3s.  4cl.)         24     6     8 

86  private  men  (each,  £9  2s.  6cl.)       784  15     0 



.    1,333  19  lOi 


.       275  13  lOJ 


23  19     7 

Allowance  to  the  captain   . 

56  10    0 


Total     £1,690     3    4 


Sir  George  Yonge  to  The  Paymaster-General.  1789 

Sir,  W.O.,  June  10th,  1789.         ^^^''^ 

Tlie  Kinc:  liavin<f  thouulit  fit  to  oi'dei-  a  corps  of  foot  to  be  N-  ^-  ^^- 

■— '  c5  o  J.  ^  corps. 

fortliwitli  raised  for  service  in  New  South  Wales,   to  consist  of 

four  companies,  each  of  one  captain,  one  lieutenant,   one  ensign, 

three  sergeants,  three  corporals,  two  drummers,   and  sixty  seven 

private  men,  witli  the  usual  staff  officers,  and  to  be  commanded 

by  Major  Francis  Grose,  having  a  company,  I  have  the  honor  to 

acquaint  you  therewith,  and  to  enclose  a  state  of  the  subsistence 

of  the  said  corps,  and  am  to  signify  to  you  his  Majesty's  pleasure  corps 

that  the  same  shall  commence  and  take  place  on  the  establish-  established. 

ment  from  the  5th  instant  inclusive.  I  have,  &c., 

Geo.  Yonge. 

State  of  subsistence    [per  day]  of   a  corps  of  foot  for